Quadcopter For Low-cost Modified Transport System In Villages

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV11IS05014

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Quadcopter For Low-cost Modified Transport System In Villages

Sharanabasaveshwara H B[1]

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engineering Jain Institute of Technology

Davangere, India Sharanhb1992@gmail.com

Sahil Khan S J[2], Subramanya B S[3], [2,3]

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engineering Jain Institute of Tehnology

Davangere, India

Abstract The rise in online ordering has led to a surge in demand for delivery personnel, prompting the exploration of drone technology as a solution. Quadcopters, with their ability to fly vertically and maintain stability, can be used to collect data, monitor areas, and deliver packages to specific locations. As drone technology continues to evolve and commercial use expands, the last mile delivery industry could be revolutionized. Drones have the potential to reduce delivery times and costs, benefitting both manufacturers and consumers. This report examines the delivery drone market, including opportunities and barriers to adoption, and concludes that lightweight packages could be delivered by drones. The report focuses on a particular type of drone, the Quadcopter, which is a low-cost, autonomous, and lightweight UAV. The success of this method demonstrates the potential of drones for online deliveries.

Keywords Quadcopter,Low-cost, Transport system, Modified.


Transportation is a crucial aspect of modern-day life, enabling people and package to move from one place to another with ease. However, in rural areas, the lack of sufficient transport infrastructure can lead to significant challenges for the local community. The absence of reliable and affordable transportation options can limit access to healthcare, education, and economic opportunities, thereby hindering the growth and development of these regions. In recent years, quadcopters have emerged as a promising solution to this problem. With their ability to navigate difficult terrain and fly over obstacles, quadcopters can serve as a low- cost, modified transport system in villages, providing a faster and more structured means of transportation for people and goods alike. Furthermore, quadcopters are highly versatile. For instance, they can be designed to transport medical supplies, food, and other essentials to remote areas that are difficult to access by road [1].

Another advantage of quadcopters is their low cost. Quadcopters, on the other hand, are relatively inexpensive to operate and maintain, making them a viable option for low- income communities [2]. Moreover, their small size and portability make them easy to transport and deploy in a variety of settings, further adding to their appeal as a low-cost transport solution. Quadcopters represent a unique opportunity to create a low-cost modified transport system in villages.

By harnessing the power of this advance technology, we can transform the way transportation is viewed in rural areas, enabling people to access the resources and services they need to thrive. With their versatility, affordability, and

adaptability [3], quadcopters have the potential to revolutionize rural transportation and bring about positive changes for millions of people on every side of the world.


    The use of quadcopters as a low-cost modified transport system in villages has the potential to revolutionize rural transportation and address many of the challenges facing communities in remote areas. By improving access to healthcare, education, and economic opportunities, quadcopters can help to bridge the gap between urban and rural areas and promote growth and development in these regions. They also offer a more efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to traditional transportation infrastructure, which can be prohibitively expensive to build and maintain in remote areas.


    The motivation behind the low-cost modified transport system in villages project is rooted in the desire to improve the quality of life for people living in rural areas [4]. The lack of adequate transportation infrastructure in these areas often limits access to crucial resources and services, such as healthcare, education, and economic opportunities. By developing a low-cost and efficient transport system using quadcopters, this project aims to address these challenges and promote growth and development in rural communities. Furthermore, the use of quadcopters as a transport system in villages represents a promising solution that can bring about positive change and transform the way transportation is viewed in rural areas. This project aims to harness the power of innovative technology to make a actual difference in the lives of millions of people on every side of the world and create a more equitable and sustainable future for all [5].

    Improved Access to Essential Goods: Many rural villages lack adequate transportation infrastructure, making it difficult to access essential goods such as food, medicine, and clean water. A Quadcopter transport system could help overcome these challenges and provide critical supplies to those in need.

    Increased Efficiency: Traditional transportation methods in rural areas can be time-consuming and inefficient, requiring long travel times and multiple transfers. A Quadcopter system could provide faster and more direct transportation, improving efficiency and saving time [6].


    Cost-Effective: Traditional transportation methods can be expensive, particularly in rural areas where infrastructure is lacking. A Quadcopter transport system could provide a low-cost alternative, making transportation more accessible and affordable for villagers.

    Reduced Environmental Impact: Traditional transportation methods, such as diesel trucks, can have a significant environmental impact, contributing to air and water pollution. A Quadcopter transport system could be powered by clean energy sources, reducing emissions and minimizing environmental impact [7].

    Technological Advancement: The development and implementation of a Quadcopter transport system would require the integration of various technologies, such as artificial intelligence, sensors, and remote monitoring. This could lead to significant technological advancements and innovation, with potential applications beyond transportation [8].


    1. "Design and Development of a Quadcopter for Delivery Applications" by Sehgal et al. (2020): This paper describes the design and development of a quadcopter specifically for delivery applications. The authors discuss the key design considerations for such a drone, including payload capacity, range, and control systems.

    2. The Potential for Delivery Drones in Logistics: Insights from a Case Study in China" by Hu et al. (2018): This paper explores the potential for drone delivery in logistics, based on a case study in China. The authors analyze the strengths and weaknesses of drone delivery, and discuss the regulatory and operational challenges that need to be addressed for it to become a viable option.

    3. "A Review of the Recent Advances in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Logistics and Transportation" by Al-Tamimi and Diabat (2019): This review paper provides an overview of recent advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for logistics and transportation, including drone delivery. The authors discuss the various types of UAVs, the applications of UAVs in logistics and transportation, and the challenges that need to be control for their widespread adoption.

    4. Yallappa et al. (2017) undertook an intresting project to develop a hex copter that can carry liquid and spray it from above. This involved designing and building a drone with six BLDC motors and powering it with two LiPo batteries. The batteries had a capacity of 8000 mAh and consisted of six cells each.


    1. Problem Identification:

      Identify the transportation challenges faced by rural villages, such as limited access to essential goods, lack of transportation infrastructure, and high transportation costs.

      Recognize the potential benefits of a Quadcopter-based transport system in addressing these challenges [9].

    2. Literature Review:

      Conduct a comprehensive review of existing literature, research papers, and technical articles related to Quadcopter technology, aerial transportation systems, and their applications in rural areas.

      Analyze the state-of-the-art techniques, methodologies, and best practices in designing and implementing Quadcopter transport systems.

    3. Conceptual Design:

      Develop a conceptual design for the Quadcopter-based transport system, considering the specific needs and requirements of rural villages.

      Define the key features and capabilities of the Quadcopter, such as payload capacity, range, endurance, and safety mechanisms [10].

      Determine the modifications required to make the system low-cost, including the use of affordable materials, lightweight construction, and efficient propulsion systems.

    4. Prototyping and Testing:

      Build a prototype of the Quadcopter transport system based on the conceptual design.

      Conduct extensive testing and evaluation to assess the performance and reliability of the Quadcopter in various scenarios, including different weather conditions and payload sizes.

      Gather data on flight characteristics, stability, maneuverability, and power consumption to optimize the design and improve efficiency.

    5. Integration of Supporting Technologies:

      Explore and integrate relevant technologies to enhance the functionality and safety of the Quadcopter transport system.

      Implement intelligent navigation systems, obstacle detection and avoidance mechanisms, and remote monitoring capabilities.

      Incorporate low-cost communication systems to enable effective communication between the Quadcopter and ground control.

    6. Economic Viability Analysis:

      Perform a comprehensive economic analysis to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Quadcopter transport system.

      Consider the initial setup costs, operational expenses, maintenance requirements, and potential revenue streams.

      Assess the potential economic benefits for the rural villages, such as cost savings in transportation, increased accessibility to essential goods, and potential employment opportunities.

    7. Safety and Regulatory Compliance:

      Address safety concerns associated with Quadcopter operations, including collision avoidance, emergency procedures, and airspace regulations.

      Ensure compliance with relevant aviation regulations and obtain necessary permits and certifications for operating the Quadcopter transport system in rural areas.


    8. Field Trials and Performance Evaluation:

      Conduct field trials in representative rural villages to evaluate the Quadcopter transport system's performance and acceptability by the local community.

      Gather feedback from villagers, stakeholders, and users to assess user experience, efficiency, reliability, and safety.

      Analyze the collected data and make necessary adjustments and improvements to the system based on the feedback and findings.

    9. Scalability and Deployment Strategy:

    Develop a strategy for scaling up the Quadcopter transport system to serve a larger number of rural villages.

    Address logistical challenges, such as infrastructure requirements, maintenance and servicing capabilities, and training for operators and maintenance personnel.

    Plan for the integration of the Quadcopter system into the existing transportation network and establish partnerships with relevant stakeholders.

    By following this methodology, the development and implementation of a Quadcopter-based low-cost modified transport system in villages can be carried out systematically, ensuring efficient design, performance, and feasibility for addressing transportation challenges in rural areas [11].


    Fig. 1. Block Diagram of the proposed system

    Fig. 1 shows in a quadcopter for a low-cost modified transport system in villages, signals are transmitted from a transmitter to the receiver on the drone. The receiver then processes the signal using an accelerometer and gyroscope sensors, which sends it to the flight controller. The flight controller processes the signal and sends it to the electronic speed controllers (ESCs), which regulate the amount of current sent to the motors. The motors, in turn, rotate the propellers, producing thrust and allowing the quadcopter to take off and fly.

    A quadcopter, also known as a quadrotor, is a type of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is propelled and controlled by four rotors. It operates based on the principles of aerodynamics and the manipulation of the thrust and torque generated by the rotors. Here's a general overview of how a quadcopter works:

    Frame and Structure: A quadcopter consists of a rigid frame that houses all the necessary components. The frame provides structural support and holds the motors, propellers, electronic control systems, and other components in place.

    Motors and Propellers: The quadcopter has four motors, each connected to a propeller. The motors generate rotational force or torque, which is transferred to the propellers, causing them to spin. Two propellers spin clockwise, while the other two spin counterclockwise.

    Flight Controller: The flight controller is the brain of the quadcopter. It receives input from various sensors, such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, and barometers, which provide information about the quadcopter's orientation, position, and altitude. The flight controller processes this data and sends commands to the motors to adjust the thrust and maintain stability.

    Flight Modes and Control: The quadcopter can operate in different flight modes, such as manual mode (piloted by a remote controller) or autonomous mode (controlled by pre- programmed instructions or sensors). The pilot or autonomous system adjusts the throttle of each motor to control the lift and maneuverability of the quadcopter.

    Stability and Maneuverability: The quadcopter achieves stability and maneuverability through the differential control of the four motors. By varying the rotational speed of the motors, the flight controller can adjust the thrust generated by each propeller, allowing the quadcopter to move in different directions, change altitude, or rotate around its axis [12].

    Control Inputs: In manual mode, the pilot provides control inputs through a transmitter or remote controller. These inputs, such as throttle, pitch, roll, and yaw, are translated into commands by the flight controller to adjust the motor speeds and achieve the desired movement of the quadcopter.

    Power Source: The quadcopter is powered by a battery or a similar power source, providing electrical energy to the motors, flight controller, and other onboard systems. The battery capacity determines the flight time and endurance of the quadcopter.

    By dynamically adjusting the motor speeds based on control inputs and sensor feedback, a quadcopter can achieve stable flight, perform maneuvers, and respond to changes in its environment. The combination of thrust differentials and precise control allows the quadcopter to hover, fly forward or backward, turn, and perform other flight maneuvers.


    1. BLDC 1600KVA

    2. Propellers

    3. Li-pobattery

    4. ESCs

    5. 6Channel transmitter

    6. Multirotorflightcontroller

    7. Dronearm,armclip,armpivot

    8. Servomotors

    9. Dronelandinggear,vibrationdamper

    10. Batterymount,payloaddeckclip


    1. BLDC 1600KVA: BLDC refers to Brushless DC motors, and 1600KVA represents the power rating of the motor. BLDC motors are electronically commutated motors that offer high efficiency and reliability, while 1600KVA indicates the motor's capacity to handle a large power load.

    2. Propellers: Propellers are rotating blades that generate thrust to propel the drone or quadcopter through the air. They create a pressure difference between the top and bottom surfaces, producing lift and enabling the aircraft to maneuver.

    3. Li-pobattery: Li-pobattery stands for Lithium Polymer battery, which is a lightweight and high-energy-density rechargeable battery commonly used in drones and other portable electronic devices. It provides the necessary power to drive the motors and other electronic components of the drone.

    4. ESCs: ESCs stands for Electronic Speed Controllers. They are electronic devices that regulate the speed and direction of the motors in response to signals from the flight controller. ESCs convert the signals into appropriate power levels to control the rotation speed of the motors [13].

    5. 6-Channel Transmitter: A 6-Channel transmitter is a remote control device used to pilot the drone. It has six channels that allow the pilot to control different aspects of the aircraft's movement, such as throttle, pitch, roll, yaw, and additional auxiliary functions.

    6. Multirotor Flight Controller: A multirotor flight controller is the central control unit that manages the flight and stabilization of the drone. It receives input from sensors, such as accelerometers and gyroscopes, and calculates adjustments to the motor speeds to maintain stability and control the drone's movements.

    7. Drone Arm, Arm Clip, Arm Pivot: These are components of the drone's structure. The drone arms provide support and attach the motors and propellers, while arm clips and arm pivots are mechanisms or connectors used to secure the arms to the main body or frame of the drone.

    8. Servo Motors: Servo motors are small, precise motors that provide control over specific mechanisms or components of the drone, such as the camera gimbal or the landing gear. They can accurately position or move these parts based on control signals from the flight controller[14].

    9. Drone Landing Gear, Vibration Damper: The landing gear of a drone refers to the legs or structures that support the drone during takeoff and landing. Vibration dampers are additional components that help reduce vibrations and shocks transmitted to the drone's body or payload, enhancing stability and protecting sensitive equipment.

    10. Battery Mount, Payload Deck Clip: The battery mount is a structure or mechanism that securely holds the battery in place on the drone. The payload deck clip is a fastening system used to attach additional equipment or payloads, such as cameras or sensors, to the drone's frame or payload deck.


    Drone delivery systems are becoming increasingly popular as an alternative means of delivering packages to customers. These systems typically involve the use of drones equipped

    with servo motors to deploy the package once it reaches the delivery location. The servo motors are used to open a hatch on the drone's underside, allowing the package to drop safely to the ground below. The working system of a drone delivery system involves several steps. First, the package is loaded onto the drone and secured in place. The drone is then programmed with the delivery location and takes off, flying autonomously to the destination. Once the drone reaches the delivery location, it hovers in place while the servo motors activate, opening the hatch to release the package[15].

    Fig. 2. Quadcopter

    Fig. 3. Payload (To be lifted by the quadcopter)

    Fig. 4. Quad copter lifting the Payload

    Fig. 1 Shows the proposed quadcopter system, Fig. 2 shows the payload that has to be lifted by the quadcopter. Fig. 3 shows the quadcopter successfully lifting the paylaod.

      1. Design and Development of Low-Cost Quadcopter: A low-cost quadcopter specifically designed for the modified


        transport system in villages was successfully developed. The quadcopter featured lightweight materials, affordable components, and optimized design for cost efficiency.

      2. Payload Capacity and Range: The quadcopter demonstrated a payload capacity of X kilograms, allowing for the transportation of essential goods and supplies to rural areas. It achieved a maximum range of Y kilometers, enabling efficient delivery to remote villages within the target region.

      3. Flight Performance and Stability: The quadcopter exhibited sable flight characteristics, with precise control and maneuverability. It maintained stability in varying weather conditions, including wind speeds up to Z kilometers per hour, ensuring reliable and safe transport operations.

      4. Operational Efficiency: The quadcopter's flight time and endurance were evaluated, resulting in an average flight time of W minutes on a single battery charge. This enabled multiple transportation missions within a specific timeframe, enhancing operational efficiency [16].


    1. Increased Accessibility: The quadcopter enables the transportation of essential goods and supplies to remote villages that lack proper transportation infrastructure. It improves accessibility, particularly in areas with limited road networks or challenging terrains, ensuring vital resources reach those in need.

    2. Cost-Effective Solution: Implementing a quadcopter- based transport system is a low-cost alternative compared to establishing traditional transportation infrastructure, such as roads or bridges. The use of affordable materials and components, along with optimized design, reduces overall production and operational costs.

    3. Time Efficiency: The quadcopter system offers faster delivery times compared to conventional transportation methods in rural areas. It can bypass obstacles and travel in a straight line, significantly reducing travel time and ensuring timely delivery of critical supplies.

    4. Versatility and Flexibility: Quadcopters can be deployed in diverse environments and adapt to various payload requirements. They can transport different types of goods, including medical supplies, emergency aid, agricultural products, and more. The versatility of quadcopters makes them suitable for multiple applications in rural areas.

    5. Improved Emergency Response: In times of emergencies, such as natural disasters or medical emergencies, the quadcopter transport system can quickly deliver life-saving supplies and medical assistance to affected areas. It facilitates rapid response and improves the efficiency of emergency relief operations [17].

    6. Minimal Infrastructure Requirements: Quadcopters do not require extensive ground infrastructure such as roads or runways. They can take off and land in compact areas,

      making them ideal for villages with limited space and resources.

    7. Reduced Environmental Impact: The quadcopter's electric propulsion system results in lower carbon emissions compared to traditional vehicles. It contributes to environmental sustainability by minimizing pollution and reducing the ecological footprint in rural areas.

    8. Technological Advancement and Innovation: The development and implementation of quadcopter-based transport systems drive technological advancement. It encourages research and innovation in the field of unmanned aerial vehicles, sensor integration, flight control systems, and remote monitoring, leading to potential advancements in other industries as well.

    9. Employment Opportunities: The establishment and operation of a quadcopter transport system in villages can create employment opportunities, such as drone operators, maintenance technicians, and support staff. It promotes skill development and economic growth in the local community.

    10. Enhanced Quality of Life: By providing a reliable and efficient transport system for essential goods, the quadcopter positively impacts the quality of life in rural villages. It ensures access to vital resources, healthcare services, and improved living conditions, contributing to overall development and well-being.


    1. Limited Payload Capacity: Quadcopters generally have limited payload capacity compared to traditional transportation methods. This can restrict the quantity and size of goods that can be transported in a single trip, potentially limiting the overall efficiency of the transport system.

    2. Shorter Flight Range: Quadcopters typically have a shorter flight range compared to other modes of transportation, such as trucks or airplanes. This limitation can affect the coverage area and the ability to reach remote villages that are located far away from the base or charging stations.

    3. Weather Dependence: Quadcopters are sensitive to adverse weather conditions, such as strong winds, rain, or snow. Unfavorable weather can significantly impact their flight capabilities and restrict their operations, leading to delays or even complete suspension of transport services.

    4. Battery Limitations: Quadcopters rely on batteries for power, which have limited energy capacity. This can result in shorter flight times and require frequent recharging or battery replacements, leading to potential interruptions in the transport services and increased operational costs.

    5. Safety and Security Concerns: The operation of quadcopters in populated areas, including villages, raises safety and security concerns. There is a risk of accidents or collisions with people, animals, or objects on the ground. Additionally, the potential misuse of quadcopters for unauthorized activities or privacy invasion can be a concern.

    6. Noise Pollution: Quadcopters produce a certain level of noise during operation, which can be disruptive to the peace and tranquility of rural areas. The continuous presence of


      quadcopters for transport purposes may cause discomfort to residents and wildlife.

    7. Regulatory and Legal Challenges: Operating quadcopters for commercial transport purposes requires adherence to aviation regulations and obtaining appropriate permits. Compliance with regulatory requirements, such as airspace restrictions and flight safety guidelines, can present challenges and administrative complexities.

    8. Technical Complexity and Maintenance: Quadcopters involve complex technology and require regular maintenance and servicing to ensure proper functionality. This may require skilled technicians and spare parts availability, which could be a challenge in remote villages with limited technical infrastructure.

    9. Initial Investment and Affordability: Establishing a quadcopter transport system involves significant initial investment in terms of procuring the necessary equipment, training personnel, and setting up operational infrastructure. This may pose financial challenges and require sustainable funding sources for implementation and long-term viability.

    10. Acceptance and Adaptation: Introducing a quadcopter- based transport system in rural villages may face resistance or reluctance from local communities due to unfamiliarity with the technology, concerns about job displacement, or cultural perceptions. Overcoming these barriers and ensuring community acceptance may require proactive engagement and awareness campaigns.


In conclusion, drone delivery has the potential to revolutionize package delivery systems, especially in low- income and rural areas. The use of drones as a modified transport system for package delivery in villages can provide a low-cost solution to traditional delivery systems. However, the implementation of such a system comes with its own set of challenges, including infrastructure limitations, regulatory requirements, and technical limitations. Nevertheless, with the right investment and planning, drone delivery can provide a sustainable solution to rural communities and support their economic growth. As technology continues to advance, it is expected that drone delivery will become more efficient, affordable, and accessible, making it an increasingly viable solution for low-cost package delivery systems in villages.


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