 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 395
 Authors : Gurpinder Kaur, Abhishek Tyagi
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS120022
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 12 (December 2014)
 Published (First Online): 02122014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Proposed Enhancement in the Performance of the Spectral Clustering
Gurpinder Kaur
Department of computer science and engineering Lovely Professional University, Phagwara Punjab, India
Mr. Abhishek Tyagi
Department of Computer Science and engineering Lovely Professional University, Phagwara Punjab, India
Abstract Spectral clustering has become one of the most hotspots in clustering over the past few years. It has been proved to be effective by the many researchers and its performance outperforms many other clustering techniques. Much work has been done to enhance the performance of the spectral clustering but still many of them are quite computationally expensive. In this work, focus will be on reducing the computation time and also on the accuracy in order to improve the quality of clusters. The base paper used the Gaussian kernel functions to construct the similarity matrix and in this work some other light weight functions will be used instead of the Gaussian kernel functions and it is expected to be effective in achieving the expected goals.
Keywords Spectral clustering, computation time, quality of clusters.

INTRODUCTION
Data mining (also known as data or knowledge discovery process) is a process of evaluating useful data from a large amount of data by analyzing the data from different perspectives [5].
It is a process of extracting useful, meaningful and relevant data from a huge amount of data. Clustering is one of the most widely used techniques for analysing the data which attempts to keep similar kind of data together and dissimilar data apart from each other. Data clustering is a method in which the whole data under consideration is divided into clusters and this division process depends upon the characteristics of the data. The data with similar characteristics is kept in one cluster and those with different are kept in different clusters. Hence the main motive of the clustering is to maximize the intracluster similarity and minimize the intercluster similarity. The major application areas of cluster analysis include market research, pattern recognition, data analysis, image processing and outlier detection applications such as detection of credit card fraud. There exists many different types of clustering methods including hierarchical, partitioning, densitybased, model based and gridbased methods.
Hierarchical methods (also known as connectivitybased methods) use the approach of recursively partitioning the instances in either a topdown fashion or bottomup fashion in order to form the clusters. Depending on this topdown and bottomup fashion, this method can be further divided into two types agglomerative hierarchical and divisive hierarchical.
Agglomerative is a bottomup approach in which each object initially represents a cluster of its own and then they are successively merged until the desired cluster structure is obtained. Divisivehierarchical clustering uses topdown approach where initially all the instances are in one single cluster which is then divided into subclusters and then these subclusters are successively divided into subclusters until the desired cluster structures are obtained [2]. The major disadvantage of hierarchical methods is that any action (split or merging) once performed can never be undone [8].
Partitioning methods (also known as centroidbased methods) relocate instances by moving them from one cluster to another. Such methods typically demand the number of required clusters to be determined in advance.[2] The most common example of this clustering method is kmeans clustering which requires the number of clusters to be determined in advance and the same number of data points are selected to act as centroids.
In Densitybased clustering, the density of the neighbourhood instances is checked to form the clusters. The areas of higher density are defined as clusters. The most popular density based clustering method is DBSCAN. It is based on connecting points with certain threshold distance [6].
Modelbased clustering is also known as distribution based clustering. This method assumes that the data were generated by model and tries to recover the original model from the data. The model that is recovered from the data then defines clusters and assignment of documents to clusters [7].
In the gridbased method, the objects together form a grid. The object space is quantized into finite number of cells that form a grid structure. The major advantage of this method is its fast processing time [8].
Spectral clustering is a form of densitybased based clustering method in which all the data points of the data set are represented in the form of nodes and the relationships between them are represented with the help of edges which carry some weight.
HW
LW
Cluster 1
Cluster 2
HW: High Weight LW: Low Weight
Figure 1: Basic Overview of Spectral Clustering
High weight indicates high similarity between the two nodes and the low weight is an indication of the dissimilarity between the two nodes. These weights between the nodes are recorded in the form of a matrix and the matrix so produced is known as distance or weight matrix. This distance matrix is then converted into similarity matrix using some conversion method. After this, laplacian matrix is constructed which is usually the difference between the distance matrix and the similarity matrix, the next step is to calculate the eigenvalues and construct a matrix that consists of these eigenvlaues as the columns. Then cluster the data points using some clustering algorithm.

LITERATURE REVIEW
Hao Huang et al. (2014) described that it is an open challenge to mine the arbitrary shaped clusters in large data sets. Various approaches to this problem have been proposed but they all have very high time complexity. In order to save the computational cost, some algorithms have made attempts to shrink/collapse the size of the data set to a smaller amount of representative data examples. However, this kind of user defined shrinking ratios may significantly affect the performance of the clustering. In this paper, they present CLASP, by adopting three phase strategy that has been proved to be an effective and efficient algorithm for mining the clusters having an arbitrary shape. The first phase of their approach attempts to shrink the size of a data set automatically while effectively retaining the information about the shape of clusters in the data set with representative data examples. Then in the second phase, it attempts to adjust the positions of these representative data examples to increase their intrinsic relationship and make the structures of the clusters more clear and distinct for clustering. Finally in the third and last phase, it performs agglomerative clustering to identify the structure of the cluster with the help of a mutual knearest neighborsbased similarity metric called Pk for completing the mining of arbitrary shaped clusters [11].
Sumuya Borjigin and Chonghui Guo (2013) proposed non unique cluster number determination methods based on stability. They used Gaussian kernel parameters (global scale and local scale) to convert the distance matrix into the similarity matrix and then used the multiway normalized cut algorithm to cluster the data points. In their work they also focused on determining whether the chosen cluster numbers
are stable and reasonable which is helpful in improving the performance of the clustering procedure. Also the coherence is measured based on the gap to measure clustering quality.
Xianchao Zhang and Quanzeng You (2010) proposed a random walk based approach to process the Gaussian kernel similarity matrix. In order to make the similarity matrix close to the ideal matrix, the pairwise similaity between two data points they consider was not only related to two data points, but also related to their neighbours. To deal with the noisy items, initially the noisy items were ignored and only the other items were taken into account to perform the clustering. After clustering the nonnoisy items, the correct cluster for each noisy item is determined.
Cuimei Guo et al. (2010) discussed the basic framework of spectral clustering. They introduced the basic theories relative to spectral clustering and some algorithms also. Some of the partition criterions they included in their paper include minimum cut, normalized cut and multiway normalized cut. Besides this, they also focussed on the problems related to the spectral clustering which includes (a) constructing the efficient similarity matrix and the graph laplacian, (b) to decide the parameters of spectral clustering such as number of clusters and sigma and (c) extending spectral clustering to large data sets.
XuDegang et al. (2009) focused on building the affinity matrix, which is the most important part of spectral clustering and affects the process and quality of spectral clustering to a great extent. They proposed four different methods to build the affinity matrix. These matrices include Gaussian kernel function, the minkowski function, the nearest corelation function and the local scale function. Then, they developed four new algorithms to contrast the clustering results and concluded that building appropriate local scale function is the most available method to make the affinity matrix.

PROBLEM FORMULATION
Sumuya Borjigin and Chonghui Guo utilized three stages to determine nonunique cluster numbers of a data set. First of all, they utilized the multiway normalized cut spectral clustering algorithm to make the clusters of the data points of the data set for some cluster number k. Then they used the ratio value of the multiway normalized cut criterion of the obtained clusters and the sum of the leading eigenvalues of stochastic transition matrix as a standard to decide whether the k is a reasonable cluster number. In the third stage, they varied the scaling parameter in the Gaussian function to judge whether the cluster number k is also stable or not.
The algorithms they used in their work are described below: Algorithm 1: MeilaShi multiway normalized cut spectral clustering algorithm:

Input: Data set P = {p1, p2, . . . , pn}, cluster number k.

Step 1 Compute the distance matrix W, construct similarity matrix S according to W,
where W(i, j ) is the distance between pi and pj , i = 1, 2, . . . , n;

Step 2 Compute the Laplacian matrix L = D S;

Step 3 Compute the first k eigenvectors {v1, . . . , vk} of the
generalized eigenproblem
Lv = Dv;

Step 4 Let V RnÃ—k be a matrix composed of the vectors
{v1, . . . , vk} as columns;

Step 5 For i = 1, . . . , n, let yi R1Ã—k be the vector corresponding to the ith row of V;

Step 6 Cluster the points {yi R1Ã—k  i = 1, 2, . . . , n} with the kmeans algorithm into
clusters C1, . . . ,Ck, if yi Cj then pi Pj , 1 i n, 1 j
k.
Output: k clusters P1, . . . , Pk .
The similarity matrix used in this algorithm is calculated using Gaussian kernel functions. The Gaussian kernel functions can be divided into global scale Gaussian kernel parameter and the local scale Gaussian kernel parameter.
Global scale Gaussian kernel parameter method is defined as
where d(pi,pj) is the distance between point pi and pj and
sigma is Gaussian kernel parameter.
Local scale Gaussian kernel parameter is defined as S(i,j)=exp
Algorithm 2: NonUnique Cluster Number determination method based on stability under global scale Gaussian kernel parameter:

Input: Data set P = {p1, p2, . . . , pn}, > 0, > 0, user specified upper threshold
Cmax 2 for cluster number to be testified, number of Gaussian kernel parameter .

Step 1 Calculate the distance matrix W;

Step 2 Let min min{Wi j Wi j 0, i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n}, max max{Wi j i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n}, t min + (t 1), for every t run step 34;

Step 3 Calculate the similarity matrix S, where S(i, j ) = ;

Step 4 For every k = 2, . . . ,Cmax, make use of the Meila
Shi spectral clustering algorithm
to cluster the data set P into k clusters and calculate the value of index Ratio(k)
for obtained clusters;

Step 5 To determine whether the candidate cluster number 2 k Cmax is an reasonable and stable cluster number according to the results of step 3 and step 4;

Output: The set of reasonable and stable cluster numbers.
Algorithm 3: NonUnique Cluster Number determination method based on stability under local scale Gaussian kernel parameter:

Input: Data set P = {p1, p2, . . . , pn}, > 0, > 0, user specified upper threshold
Cmax 2 for cluster number to be testified, userspecified maximum number of neighbors
Kmax 2.

Step 1 Calculate the distance matrix W;

Step 2 For i = 1, 2, . . . , n, sort the ith row of W, then calculate pi K , which is the Kth
neighbor of pi , K = 2, . . . , Kmax;

Step 3 For K = 2, . . . , Kmax run step 45;

Step 4 Calculate the similarity matrix S, where S(i, j ) = ;

Step 5 For every k = 2, . . . ,Cmax, make use of the Meila
Shi spectral clustering algorithm
to cluster the data set P into k clusters and calculate the value of index Ratio(k)
for obtained clusters;

Step 6 To determine whether the candidate cluster number 2 k Cmax is an –
reasonable and stable cluster number according to the results of step 4 and step 5;

Output: The set of reasonable and stable cluster numbers.
The problem that exists in the defined algorithm is of computation cost. The proposed work will be focused to reduce the computation cost and to improve the quality of the clusters.


PROPOSED WORK
In the proposed methodology, the database will be read and segmentation process will be applied and after segmenting the database geometry transformation technique will be applied for asymmetric analysis. When the asymmetric analysis will be done, the relevant and irrelevant data can be clustered and noisy data can be removed and on the basis of data the features will be extracted.
Read data from database
Segmentation
Geometry Transformations
Asymmetry Analysis
Abnormality Identification
Noise Data
W.N.D
Features Extraction
Figure 2: Flowchart of the Proposed Technique

CONCLUSION
Although the Gaussian kernel functions used for constructing the affinity matrix proved to be a good choice but the computation cost involved using them is quite expensive. The proposed work will be focused on minimising this computation cost for spectral clustering to make this kind of clustering more attractive. Apart from the computation cost, this work will also focus on improving the accuracy and quality of clusters.
REFERENCES

Sumuya Borjigin and Chonghui Guo (2012) NonUnique cluster number determination method based on stability in spectral clustering. Knowl Info System(2013) 36:439 458.

http://www.ise.bgu.ac.il/faculty/liorr/hbchap15.pdf

XuDegang, Zhao Panlei, Gui Weihua, Yang Chunhua, Xie Yongfang (2013) Research on spectral clustering algorithm based on building different affinity matrix.

Xianchao Zhang, Quanzeng You (2010), An improved pectral clustering algorithm based on random walk. 5(3):268278.

http://www.anderson.ucla.edu/faculty/jason.frand/teacher
/technologies/palace/datamining.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cluster_analysis

http://nlp.stanford.edu/IRbook/html/htmledition/model basedclustering1.html

http://www.tutorialspoint.com/data_mining/dm_cluster_a nalysis.htm

Cuimei Guo, Sheng Zheng, Yaocheng Xei and Wei Hao(2010). A Survey on Spectral Clustering.

Luxburg U(2007) A tutorial on spectral clustering. Stat Comput 17(4):395416

Hao Huang YunjunGao, Kevin Chiew Lei Chen Qinming He, Towards Effective and Efficient Mining of Arbitrary Shaped Clusters, ICDE Conference, IEEE 2014