Production of Biodiesel From Hybrid Oil (Dairy Waste Scum and Karanja) and Characterization and Study of Its Performance on Diesel Engine

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV3IS070674

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Production of Biodiesel From Hybrid Oil (Dairy Waste Scum and Karanja) and Characterization and Study of Its Performance on Diesel Engine

Sushma. S¹

M.Tech (TPE), Mechanical Department, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumkur, Karnataka, India.

Dr. R. Suresh²

Associate Professor, Mechanical Department, Coordinator Bio fuel I& D Centre, Siddaganga Institute of Technology,

Tumkur, Karnataka, India.

Yathish K V³

Scientific Assistant, Bio fuel I& D Centre Siddaganga Institute of Technology,

Tumkur, Karnataka, India.

Abstract Depletion of petroleum derived fuel and environmental concern has promoted to look over the bio fuel as an alternative fuel source. But a complete substitution of petro diesel by bio fuel is impossible with the use of edible and non edible oil; hence, in the present study dairy waste scum oil and karanja oil (in equal quantities) is used to produce hybrid oil biodiesel by transesterification process using sodium hydroxide as catalyst. This way of using dairy waste scum reduces the cost of production of bio-diesel and the problem related to the disposal of dairy scum. Karanja seeds are the other raw material used which is economical and easily available around. The physiochemical properties of hybrid oil biodiesel (HOBD) is studied and compared with scum oil biodiesel (SOBD) and karanja oil biodiesel (KOBD). Tests have been conducted at different blends of biodiesel with standard diesel on a four stroke diesel vertical single cylinder engine, modelTAF1 produced by kirloskar oil engines. This engine has a compression ratio of 17.5:1, and its performance is studied.

Keywords Biodiesel, diesel engine, hybrid oil, transesterification, performance


Fuels derived from renewable biological resources for use in diesel engines are known as biodiesel [10]. Biodiesel is environmentally friendly liquid fuel similar to petrol-diesel in combustion properties. Due to few strategies like, the rising population, and the growing energy demand from the transport sector, bio fuels can be assured of a significant market in India [22]. Since no food producing farmland is required for producing the non edible bio fuel, it is considered the most politically and morally acceptable choice

among India's current bio fuel options. Biodiesel is rapidly replacing both kerosene (which was used illegally and inefficiently) and diesel as a more efficient, cheap, and clean alternative for large engines.

Biodiesel is a biodegradable and nontoxic diesel fuel consisting of long polymeric chains of alkyl esters [14, 16]. Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at any proportion diesel fuel to be used in diesel engines with little or no modification [23, 25]. Fuel grade biodiesels are produced through the transesterification process conforming to strict specifications such as ASTM D6751 in order to ensure proper performance and quality [17].

The 'National Bio fuel Policy' aims to meet 20% of Indias diesel demand. Biodiesel-blends are being used to run state transport corporation buses in Karnataka. The Karnataka government has distributed several million saplings of Pongamia to farmers for planting along borders of farmland and in waste lands.

Annual production of milk in India is 150 million tons per year. Thousands of large dairies are engaged in handling this milk across the country. In large dairies while cleaning the equipments, the residual butter and related fats which are washed and get collected in effluent treatment plant as a scum [15, 19]. A large dairy, which processes 5 lakh liters of milk per day, will produce approximately 200350 kgs of effluent scum per day, which makes it difficult to dispose [26].

Pongamia pinnata is a non-edible species capable of growing in almost all types of land. In India the estimated oil from seeds is about 50,000 tones. The yield from a single

tree would be around 25 to 100 kg of seed containing around 30 to 40% of oil [10]. This karanja seeds is found abundantly in tropical and subtropical areas and also at a cheaper rate.


    A. Materials: Scum:

    The Milk Scum is a waste product (effluent) obtained from the wash water of the milk dairy. The Milk scum is produced by the sequential order of processes involving dairy wash water collection and its treatment in Effluent treatment plant (ETP). The Milk scum was collected from the Karnataka Milk Federation, Mallasandra, Karnataka. The milk scum was heated and filtered to remove waste particle like sand, packing materials, insects and other impurities present in the scum. Thus the scum oil is made ready [23].


    Pongamia pinnata is a non-edible species capable of growing in almost all types of land. Pongamia pinnata is a species of family Leguminasae, native in tropical and temperate Asia including part of India, China, Japan, Malaysia and Australia. Commonly it is called as Indian Beech, karanja (in Hindi), pongam (in Gujarat), Honge (Kannada), Pungai (Tamil), Knuga (Telugu), Naktamla (Sanskrit). Pongamia pinnata is one of the promising feedstock suitable for providing oil for biodiesel production, which conforms to international standards. This tree species is found to be well spread through out India, excluding temperate regions. Pongamia seeds are known to contain 30%-35% oil. The seed cake available after oil extraction is used as organic fertilizer. The good seeds are selected and are taken for oil extraction. The oil can be extracted by mechanical expeller and by soxhlet extraction method.

    Mixture of Karanja and Milk Scum Methyl Ester was made by mixing of produced karanja oil and Milk Scum oil in equal proportion on weight basis.

      1. reparation of blended biodiesel:

        The Karanja oil and the milk scum oil has been blended using stirrer at a high temperature of about 120°C for about an hour. Then the oil is tested for free fatty Acids (FFA). Since the FFA is found slightly higher a two step transesterification process is chosen to convert the non-edible blended oil to its methyl ester. The first step acid catalyzed esterification reduces the FFA value of the oil to about 2%. The second step, alkaline catalyzed transesterfication process converts the products of the first step to its mono-esters and glycerol.

        In acid esterification, 1liter blended oil is heated to about 50 °C, to this oil 150 ml methanol and 2% H2SO4 is also added and stirred at a constant rate with 65 °C for about one and half hour. After the reaction is over, the solution is allowed to settle for 24 hours in a separating funnel.

        The formation of layers takes place. The top layer formed is excess alcohol along with sulphuric acid and impurities which is removed. The lower layer is taken for the second

        step (alkaline esterification). In alkaline catalyzed esterification, the lower layer product of first step is again heated to about 65 to 70 °C. To this mixture, 6.5 g NaOH dissolved in 150 ml methanol is added and stirred for one and half hour. After the completion of reaction, the solution is again allowed to settle for 24 hours. The glycerin settles at the bottom and esterified blended oil rises to the top. This esterified blended oil is separated and washed with warm water. After purification the final product is heated up to 120

        °C for 30 minutes and then cooled to the room temperature. Thus the blended (karanja+ Scum) biodiesel is obtained.


        1. Comparison of Hybrid oil biodiesel (HOBD) properties with karanja oil bioiesel (KOBD) and scum oil biodiesel (SOBD).

          Table 1. Comparison of fuel properties with ASTM standards




          Table Properties

          HOB D

          SOB D

          KOB D



          Viscosity at 40°C(Cst)




          ASTM D445


          Specific gravity




          ASTM675 1


          Calorific Value(kj/k g)










          Flash Point(°C)






          Pour point




          IS:1448(P1 0)


          Cloud Point(°C)




          IS:1448(P1 0)


          Carbon residue(Ra ms bottom)








          Ash, %w/w






        2. Engine Performance:

          Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC):

        3. Exhaust Emissions:

    Emissions are major criteria in selecting engine fuel. This section will focus on characterizing the emission behaviour of the engine under the different brake powers.

    Hydrocarbon (HC) Emission


    Fig.1Variation of BSFC with BP

    Brake thermal efficiency (BTE)

    Fig.2 Variation of BTE with BP

    Exhaust gas temperature (EGT)

    Fi g.3 Variation of EGT with BP

    Fig.4 Variation of HC(ppm) with BP(KW)

    Carbon Monoxide (CO)

    Fig.5 Variation of CO(%) with BP (KW)

    Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)

    Fig.6 Variation of NOX (PPM) with BP (KW)

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

    Fig.7 Variation of CO2 (%) with BP (KW)


    The following are the conclusions drawn from the above work.

    • Biodiesel is produced from hybrid oil (dairy waste milk scum and karanja). Some important properties like flash point, fire point, density, calorific value, kinematic viscosity, are determined as per the Indian standards and were found to be within the limits of biodiesel standards.

    • The Brake thermal efficiency of diesel fuel is increased about 1.44% when compared to that of neat biodiesel at 100% load[Fig.2]. The Brake thermal efficiency of B10 is very close to that of diesel fuel at full load condition. By increasing the load of the engine, the brake thermal efficiency also increases for all the tested fuel types.

    • The specific fuel consumption of biodiesel and its blends at all loads is higher than diesel fuel [Fig.1]. As the load increases, BSFC decreases for all fuel blends. The BSFC of B10 is very close to that of diesel fuel at full load condition. A little increase in fuel consumption is often encountered due to the lower calorific value of the biodiesel.

    • The EGT of B30 is very close to that of diesel fuel at full load condition [Fig.3].

    • Engine performance with biodiesel and its blends does not differ greatly from that of diesel fuel.

    • Most of the major exhaust pollutants such as HC, CO and CO2 are reduced with the use of biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel compared to that of neat diesel fuel at full load except NOX.

    • Cost of biodiesel can be reduced by using low cost raw material like dairy waste scum oil, karanja and can be further reduced by adopting mass production.

    • In terms of fuel properties and exhaust emission characteristics, HOBD is regarded as an alternative fuel. Bio-diesel has become more alternative recently because of its environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable resources.

    • Dairy industries can use these kinds of projects to solve their ecological problems in scum disposal and to improve their economy.


  1. Santhosh N, Dr.U.N.Kempaiah, Dr.Aswatha, Production of biodiesel from milk dairy wash water scum & study of its characteristics , www.Scribd .com,14 Dec 2013.

  2. Fengxian Qiu , Yihuai Li, Dongya Yang , Xiaohua Li , Ping Sun Biodiesel production from mixed soybean oil and rapeseed oil Applied Energy 88 (2011) 20502055

  3. Mario l. Randazzo, Jose r. Sodre, exhaust emissions from a diesel powered vehicle fuelled by soybean biodiesel blends (B3 B20) with ethanol as an additive (B20E2-B20E5) Fuel 90 (2011) 98103

  4. P.Selva Havarasi, G.Lakshmi Narayana Rao, G.Devasagayam, T.V.Balasubramaniam, P.V.R.Iyer Production and testing of methyl esters of used cocking oil, Iconice 2007.

  5. N.R.Banapurmath, P.G.Tewari, V.S.Yaliwal, Satish Kambalimath, Y.H Basavarajappa. Combustion characteristics of a four stroke C I engine operated on honge oil, Neem and Rice bran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction, Renewable energy 34(2009)1877-1884.

  6. Deepak Agarwal, Shailendra Sinha, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Experimentalinvestigation of control of NOx emissions in biodiesel fuelled compression ignition engine, Renewable energy 31(2006)2356-2369.

  7. Gvnsr Ratnakara Rao, V.Ramachanra Raju And M.Muralidara Rao, Optimizing the compression ratio for a Mahua fuelled C I.engine, Arpn journal of engineering and applied sciences, Volume4, no: 3 May 2009.

  8. Sukumar Puhan, N.Vedaraman, Boppana V.B. Ram, G.Sankaranarayanan, Kjayachanderan, Mahua oil methyl ester as biodiesel preparation and emission characteristics, Biomass & Bioenergy 28(2005) 87-93.

  9. Sharanappa Godiganur, C.H. Suryanarayana Murthy, Rana Prathap Reddy,"6BTA 5.9 G2-1 Cummins engine performance and emission tests using methyl ester mahua (Madhuca indica) oil/diesel blends, Renewable energy 34(2009)2172-2177.

  10. T. Venkateswara Rao, G. Prabhakar Rao and K. Hema Chandra Reddy, Experimental Investigation of Pongamia, Jatropha and Neem Methyl Esters as Biodiesel on C.I. engine,JJMIE, volume 2, number 2, Jun 2008,ISSN1995-6665.

  11. Eman N.Ali, Cadence Isis Taya, Characterization of Biodiesel produced from palm oil via by Base catalyzed transesterification of oils Journal of Sciverse science direct, Procedia Engineering 53 ( 2013 ) 7 12.

  12. M. Pugazhvadivu,, K. Jeyachandran, Investigations on the performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using waste frying oil as a fuel, Renewable Energy 30 (2005) 21892202.

  13. Lohith.N, Dr.R.Suresh , Yathish .K.v, Experimental Investigation of compressed Ignition Engine Using Karanja Methyl Ester(Kome) As Alternative Fuel, ISSN 2248- 9622,vol.2, Issue4, July-August 2012,pp.1172-1180.

  14. Purnananda Vishwanatha Rao Bhale, Nishikant V. Deshpande, Shasikant B. Thombre, Improving the low temperature properties of biodiesel fuel, Renewable energy 34(2009)794-800

  15. Benson Babu, Dr. R.Suresh , Yathish.K.V, Effect of dairy Scum methyl ester on DI engine performance and emission, ISSN:2319-3182, Volume-1,Issue-1,2012

  16. Su Han park, In mo Youn, Chang Sik Lee, Iinfluence of ethanol blends on the combustion performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a four-cylinder diesel engine at various engine loads and injection timings Fuel 90 (2011) 748755.

  17. C.V. Sudheer, N.Y. Sharma, P. Mohanan, Potential of waste cooking oils as bio diesel feed stock, Emirates journal for engineering research, 12(3),69-75(2007).

  18. Jagadeesh Alku, Prakash S Patil, Omprakash hebbal

    ,Experimental investigation of performance and ANDcombustion characteristics of pongamia biodiesel and its blends on diesel engine and LHR engine,IJRET, eISSN: 2319- 1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

  19. P.Sivakumar , K. Anbarasu , S. Renganathan Bio-diesel production by alkali catalyzed transesterification of dairy waste scumFuel 90 (2011) 147151.

  20. I. M. Atadashi, M.K. Aroua, A. Abdul Aziz, The effects of catalysts in biodiesel production: A review. Suleiman Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 19 (2013) 1426.

  21. L. Simasatitkula, R. Gani , A. Arpornwichanop Optimal design of biodiesel production process from waste cooking palm oil Procedia Engineering 42 ( 2012 ) 1292 1301.

  22. K. Sureshkumar, R. Velra, Performance and Characteristics Study of the Use of Environment Friendly Pongamia Pinnata Methyl Ester in C. I. Engines, K. Sureshkumar et al./Journal of Energy & Environment, Vol. 5, May 2007.

  23. Ranganatha B , Manjunath H, Expermental Investigations on four stroke single cylinder diesel engine using mixture of Mahua- Milk scum methyl ester as alternative fuel,IJMERR, ISSN 2278

    0149, Vol. 2, No. 3, July 2013.

  24. Dongsheng Wen, H. Jiang, Kai Zhang, Supercritical fluids technology for clean biofuel production, Progress in Natural Science 19 (2009) 273284, 18 September 2008.

  25. T. Pushparaj, S. Ramabalan, Green fuel design for diesel engine, combustion, performance and emission analysis, IConDM 2013, Procedia Engineering 64 (2013 ) 701 709.

Leave a Reply