Policy Implication of Battery Swapping Systems for Three-Wheelers in Tier II Cities in India

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV13IS030248
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Policy Implication of Battery Swapping Systems for Three-Wheelers in Tier II Cities in India

Hemant Kumar

Research Scholar,

Dept. of Architecture & Regional Planning, IIT Kharagpur,

Kharagpur, India

Dr. Shreyas P. Bharule

Assistant Professor,

Dept. of Architecture & Regional Planning, IIT Kharagpur,

Kharagpur, India

Makarand Kuntewar

Chief Minister Fellow (Maharashtra) MMRDA

Mumbai, India

AbstractThe adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) presents a promising solution to mitigate environmental pollution and reduce reliance on fossil fuels in urban transportation systems. Implementing battery exchange systems for three-wheelers in Tier II cities in India presents a practical solution to overcome challenges like high initial expenses and limited charging infrastructure. However, the successful deployment of such systems hinges on robust policy frameworks that address regulatory, financial, and stakeholder engagement aspects. This paper examines the policy implications of implementing battery swapping systems for three-wheelers in Tier II cities in India. The examination of the regulatory framework controlling the development of electric vehicle (EV) infrastructure, assessment of current financial incentives and subsidies to encourage adoption, and investigation of methods for engaging stakeholders effectively are the focal points of this paper. It delves into various policies and case studies related to battery swapping systems with the aim of elucidating the necessary policy alterations and new initiatives required to enable broader utilization of these systems in India’s Tier II cities, thereby contributing to environmental protection.

KeywordsBattery Swapping System, Electric Mobility, Policies for EVs, Sustainable Urban Transportation, Electric Vehicle


BSS – Battery Swapping System(s) EV – Electric Vehicle

FAME – Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

NEMMP – National Electric Mobility Mission Plan PLI – Production Linked Incentives

SIAM – Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers TCO – Total Cost of Ownership

  1. INTRODUCTIONTier II cities, namely Surat, Bhopal, Kochi, Lucknow, and Vadodara, persistently exhibit inadequate public transport infrastructure and grapple with concerning levels of air pollution. Several of these cities are reportedly some of the fastest-growing urban areas on a global scale [1].

    The transportation industry in India has been facing increasing pressure in recent years to address environmental concerns such as air pollution and carbon emissions. Tier II cities in

    India, which serve as vital economic hubs and cultural centers, often struggle with inadequate infrastructure and limited resources, exacerbating their challenges. The prevalence of three-wheelers as a common mode of transportation in urban areas significantly contributes to air pollution and noise levels due to their reliance on fossil fuels. However, the shift towards electric three-wheelers presents a promising solution to mitigate these environmental impacts.

    The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) in India’s urban transportation sector can be accelerated by incorporating battery swapping systems (BSS), which have become a viable technology. The practice of battery swapping is commonly seen with vehicles like 2 and 3 wheelers that come equipped with smaller batteries. Swapping batteries is especially attractive for fleet vehicles and commercial applications. Battery swapping offers a new answer to various challenges in EV charging [2].

    Swapping batteries is a substitute for charging EVs, and it includes trading out drained batteries for fully charged ones. Swapping systems improve the operational efficiency of three- wheelers and help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance air quality in cities by enabling easy battery exchanges. Therefore, it is essential for policymakers, stakeholders, and researchers aiming to promote sustainable mobility solutions in Tier II cities of India to grasp the context and importance of BSS for three-wheelers [3].

    The significance of policy frameworks in enabling the deployment of BSS for three-wheelers in Tier II cities of India is clear when examining the current situation of electric mobility growth and infrastructure advancement. EV sales in India experienced a notable increase of more than 20% in the fiscal year 2020-2021, as reported by the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM), showing a rising trend towards sustainable transportation options. Nevertheless, obstacles remain in Tier II cities due to infrastructure gaps and limited resources, hindering widespread adoption despite advancements. During the fiscal year 2022-23, the sales of three-wheelers grew substantially to 4,88,768 from 2,61,385 units the year before, showcasing a noticeable rise in the demand for these vehicles. This increase highlights the growing importance of three-wheelers as a popular

    transportation choice in different industries throughout India. SIAM, in collaboration with car makers, aims for a completely EV industry in India by 2047, which marks the country’s 100th independence anniversary. Important goals include ensuring that all new public transport vehicles within cities are electric by 2030, with 40% of new vehicle sales also being electric by that same year, as well as the gradual implementation of more environmentally-friendly technologies. The plan highlights the need to transition seamlessly, while continuously enhancing internal combustion engine cars, with the end goal of fully transitioning to EVs by 2047 [4], [5].

    According to the most recent data from the Ministry of Power, India currently has a large number of public EV charging stations, with a total of 12,146 stations in operation across the country as of February 2nd, 2024. Electric three-wheelers were the major player in India’s EV market by 2022, representing a significant 83% of the market share. Nevertheless, fulfilling the energy requirements of this growing group of vehicles requires the establishment of a large-scale charging system [6]. The urgent need for accelerated initiatives in establishing EV infrastructure is highlighted to promote the widespread adoption of electric three-wheelers in urban areas.

    1. Significance of the researchThe transition to EVs, especially with innovative solutions such as BSS for three-wheelers, has the potential to revolutionize urban transportation in Tier II cities of India. The importance of this research is in its concentration on a crucial sector for daily travel, often disregarded in the overall discussion of EVs, which typically centers on personal and bigger commercial automobiles. Three-wheeled vehicles, such as auto-rickshaws, are vital in urban transportation by providing inexpensive and connecting services to urban users [7]. The research examines how implementing BSS for these vehicles can impact policy, filling a gap in current literature and promoting a more sustainable, efficient, and inclusive urban mobility framework. Moreover, Tier II cities are facing a critical moment where fast urban growth and environmental issues require creative transportation solutions. These urban areas, currently seeing increases in both residents and economic development, are also encountering notable obstacles when it comes to transportation, such as traffic, pollution, and insufficient public transit. The focus of the research on Tier II cities showcases the distinct chances and obstacles these metropoitan areas offer for sustainable transportation solutions. The study seeks to offer practical recommendations for policymakers, urban planners, and stakeholders to use battery swapping technology in order to speed up the adoption of EVs, improve urban mobility, and benefit the environment.
    2. Objectives of the research

    The research objectives are multifaceted, aiming to comprehensively analyze and address the current landscape of EV adoption in Tier II cities. The primary objective of this study is to assess the current level of EV adoption in Tier II cities, with a specific emphasis on three-wheelers, to understand the underlying drivers and barriers. Furthermore, it seeks to examine the capacity of battery swapping technology to address the distinct requirements of three-wheelers, with a particular focus on operating efficiency and scalability.

  2. LITERATURE REVIEWThe literature review in this paper takes a methodical approach to comprehensively understand the landscape of the BSS scenario for EVs in Tier II cities in India. Starting from a macro viewpoint, the analysis looks at the larger picture of EV production and acceptance on a national scale, highlighting government regulations, industry patterns, and technological progress influencing the EV industry. In conclusion, the evaluation focuses on the smaller Tier II cities, examining the specific obstacles and advantages related to implementing BSS in these city settings. By analyzing existing literature, this review informs the research design and methodology, offering valuable insights to situate the study’s findings within the larger body of knowledge on BSS, thereby enhancing comprehension of the topic
    1. Current state of electric vehicles in IndiaThe EV market in India is still young but quickly progressing, with an increasing focus on environmental concerns and the urgency to lessen reliance on fossil fuels [8]. India’s Government has implemented various policies like the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020 and Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (FAME) schemes to harness the benefits of EVs in cutting carbon emissions and enhancing city air quality [9], [10].

      In spite of these initiatives, the adoption of EVs in Tier II cities is still restricted by infrastructure, range anxiety, and high initial expenses. On the other hand, auto-rickshaws, which belong to the three-wheeler category, have been more swiftly accepted due to their cost-effectiveness and importance in local urban transportation. The FAME program offers monetary rewards for buying EVs such as three-wheelers, and helps in the construction of charging stations. Nevertheless, the emphasis on charging facilities within the FAME initiative showcases the necessity for policymakers to expand their strategy and integrate BSS into the policy framework to provide extensive backing for electric mobility solutions in Tier II cities. India’s target is to electrify 30 percent of the country’s vehicle fleet by 2030, supported by incentives and policies to promote the growth of the EV industry [11].

      Between October 2022 and September 2023, EVs made up about 5% of all vehicle sales as stated in the India Electric Vehicle Report 2023 by Bain and Company. The report predicts a substantial increase in the adoption of EVs, estimating it will surpass 40% by 2030 [4].

      Anticipated growth in India’s automotive market by 2030 is driven by widespread adoption, with 2W and 3W segments seeing high growth rates exceeding 45%. EVs are expected to represent over 40% of the market, potentially generating revenue exceeding $100 billion. EV sales in India are currently driven by metro and Tier 1 cities. These cities are responsible for 80%90% of three-wheeler (3W) EV sales, while only accounting for 55%65% of traditional 3W internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle sales [12].

      By 2030, the Indian government aims to have 30 percent of the country’s vehicle fleet running on electricity, with the help of incentives and policies to boost the EV industry. In the 2023-

      24 Union Budget, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman revealed a substantial INR 35,000 crore budget allocation for

      capital investments to support the energy transition and meet the net-zero goals by 2070. Also, the government intends to provide financial assistance through viability gap funding for Battery Energy Storage Systems with a capacity of 4,000 MWH. Schemes like FAME-II and Production Linked Incentives (PLI) have been introduced to encourage the use of EVs, and there has been a significant rise in funding for the FAME-II scheme [13]. This proactive approach has attracted both domestic and international players, with prominent Indian manufacturers like Tata Motors and Mahindra & Mahindra venturing into EV production, alongside international companies such as Volvo Cars exploring opportunities for establishing EV manufacturing facilities in India [14].

    2. Overview of Battery Swapping TechnologyStudies on battery exchange systems have mainly concentrated on their financial feasibility, environmental consequences, and operational effectiveness. Research has emphasized that battery swapping can decrease the initial expense of EV ownership by reducing the upfront cost, as batteries often make up a large part of the total cost. Studies on the environment indicate that when paired with renewable energy sources, battery swapping has the potential to significantly decrease carbon emissions in comparison to traditional fossil fuel vehicles. Although, literature also highlights the crucial importance of policy support, public-private partnerships, and technological advances in addressing the obstacles of battery standardization and interoperability.

      The paper A Comprehensive Review on Electric Vehicle Battery Swapping Stations extensively examines EV battery swapping stations, analyzing their technical, economic, and environmental aspects to determine their viability for widespread usage. It includes BSS design, function, infrastructure requirements, financial sustainability, environmental effects, industry patterns, and regulatory structures. Although BSS shows potential as a sustainable and convenient EV charging option, obstacles such as standardization and consumer approval remain. This review offers important insights for policymakers, industry stakeholders, and researchers engaged in EV BSS development [8].

      Aleksander Chudy’s study, “Battery Swapping Stations for Electric Vehicles,” delves into the techniques of swapping batteries and the functioning of BSS. The article details important aspects of BSS, such as control rooms for overseeing operations, charging stations, swapping areas, robots for switching, and service rooms for maintenance. Chudy’s thorough examination provides valuable perspectives on the development and operation of battery exchange infrastructure to enhance the charging of EVs [3].

      Praveen Kumar’s study on “Battery Swapping Potential in India’s Electric Two-Wheeler Market” delves into how battery swapping can help overcome e-2W adoption hurdles in India. The article examines the status of e-2W adoption, the total cost of ownership (TCO), and growth forecasts based on various sales scenarios [15].

      The NITI Aayog report “Battery Swapping for Electric Two- Wheelers in India Strategy Hinterlands” explores options for introducing battery swapping technology during India’s shift to EV. The battery swapping model is viewed as a hopeful

      strategy to cut battery expenses, thus helping to increase the prevalence of EVs in the nation. Battery swapping has the potential to speed up India’s EV transition and encourage sustainable mobility by addressing issues like range anxiety and reducing the initial cost of EVs [16].

      The research paper authored by K. Jeykishan Kumar and Kuldeep Sigh Rana examines the potential of Battery Swapping Stations to speed up the adoption of EVs in India. BSS come with standard charging stations and automated battery swapping robots, providing quicker and more convenient battery recharging. The article explores the difficulties and advantages of introducing BSS in India, emphasizing how they can help address obstacles to EV usage and boost sustainable transport [17].

    3. Transportation Challenges in Tier II Cities

    Characterized by quick urbanization and growth, Tier II cities in India encounter specific transportation challenges. Tier II cities in India are showing a growing acceptance of EVs, with the popularity of EVs being a key factor in promoting the country’s clean energy revolution. The growth of EV infrastructure is demonstrated by the existence of battery swapping stations in significant cities such as Delhi, Jaipur, and Chandigarh, highlighting a trend in supporting EV usage. Nevertheless, Tier II cities continue to struggle with inadequate infrastructure, requiring a customized strategy that takes into account their distinct population densities and socio-economic circumstances [18]. Despite challenges, the Indian government’s initiatives, such as the FAME India scheme aims to incentivize EV adoption and bolster related infrastructure development [19]. Furthermore, the integration of EVs into public transport, particularly through e-rickshaws, is filling crucial gaps in last-mile connectivity, thereby contributing to the sustainable mobility landscape in these cities [20]. Jaipur, Kanpur, Coimbatore, Lucknow, and Surat are adopting EVs to tackle pollution and achieve clean energy goals. Through collaborative actions and favorable regulations, Tier II cities can greatly contribute to advancing India’s shift towards a greener and more sustainable transportation system.

  3. CASE STUDIES AND BEST PRACTICESIn this study, we thoroughly investigated the perspectives of leading companies, researchers, and policymakers in the field of BSS. Through implementing analysis of best practices, we have identified important insights that can help in the development and implementation of BSS initiatives on a national and global level. The insights collected acts as a roadmap for environmentally friendly transportation options, assisting in addressing climate change and promoting sustainable urban mobility.
    1. National levelIndia has seen a growing interest in BSS as a viable solution for accelerating the adoption of EVs, particularly two-wheelers and three-wheelers. Swapping batteries in EVs provides benefits such as cutting the initial expense and easing worries about range by enabling drivers to exchange drained batteries for fully charged ones swiftly. This method is especially attractive in city areas with limited space, where installing extensive charging facilities may not be possible [21]. Yulu manages over 75 exchange points in Bengaluru, Delhi, and

      Mumbai, collaborating with the Government of Karnataka to introduce 100,000 EVs and enhance charging infrastructure. Sun Mobility provides intelligent batteries and exchange stations, while VoltUp collaborates with HPCL to establish 50 nationwide battery swapping centers, incorporating solar power. Esmito offers EV infrastructure management on the cloud, ChargeUp runs swapping stations in Delhi NCR, and RACEnergy focuses on converting ICE 3 Wheelers to electric through swapping solutions. Several startups and companies have been at the forefront of battery swapping initiatives in India.

      TABLE I Indian companies at forefront

      Company Key learnings Challenges faced
      Yulu Strategic partnerships are crucial for expansion.

      Investing in infrastructure and technology can significantly enhance

      operational efficiency.

      Capital intensive to set up a large network of swapping stations.

      Requires cooperation with government and private sectors for infrastructural


      Sun Mobility Smart battery technology can streamline operations.

      Collaboration with vehicle manufacturers enhances system compatibility.

      Building a sufficient network of swap stations is capital intensive.

      Interoperability issues with different vehicle types and brands.

      VoltUp Integration of renewable energy can reduce operational costs.

      Partnerships with oil companies can facilitate rapid scaling.

      Initial high investment in technology and infrastructure.

      Expansion across diverse geographic locations poses logistical challenges.

      Esmito Cloud-based platforms for EV infrastructure management can improve efficiency.

      Data analytics enhance

      battery performance and management.

      Interoperability challenges with third-party systems. Ensuring consistent quality and performance across all batteries.
      ChargeUp ‘Battery as a service’ model can make EVs more accessible to drivers.

      Local dealer networks are vital for service delivery.

      High operational costs for maintaining swapping stations.

      Regulatory challenges in

      deploying and expanding service networks.

      RACEnergy Retrofitting ICE vehicles to electric can create demand for swapping.

      Simultaneous focus on demand and supply can accelerate market


      Technical challenges in developing conversion kits and compatible battery packs

      Building a comprehensive and efficient swapping


    2. Global levelOne of the best practices in the global implementation of BSS for three-wheelers can be drawn from Gogoro’s approach in Taiwan. Gogoro, a technology leader in mobile energy, has established a comprehensive and highly efficient battery swapping network. Heres an overview of their best practice and key learning.

      Implementation: Gogoro established an extensive network of battery exchange stations in both city and countryside locations, guaranteeing that users always have a station nearby. This network relies on a clever battery management system

      that oversees battery condition, maximizes energy usage, and guarantees a smooth user experience [22].

      Key elements:

      • Dense Network: Gogoro’s network density ensures that users can easily access battery swapping stations, effectively eliminating range anxiety.
      • Smart Batteries: Each battery is equipped with advanced technology to monitor its condition, optimize its performance, and provide users and the company with real-time data.
      • User-Friendly Experience: The swapping process is quick, easy, and integrated with a mobile app that guides users to the nearest station and provides information on battery availability.

    Gogoro’s BSS combines advanced technology integration with user-focused design, revolutionizing urban transportation. Gogoro focuses on making sure that their batteries, swapping stations, vehicles, and user interfaces are all convenient and easy to use for a seamless experience. Its flexible and expandable design, as shown in Taiwan, highlights its effectiveness in various urban environments. In addition, Gogoro’s focus on sustainability by utilizing batteries efficiently and promoting recycling drives long-lasting environmental impacts. This unique method serves as a powerful model for sustainable transportation worldwide, highlighting the significance of interconnected systems, intelligent technology, and customer-oriented design [23].

  4. CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONSInroducing BSS in Tier II cities is difficult because of insufficient infrastructure, lack of awareness, and regulatory obstacles. Innovative strategies and collaborations are necessary to overcome logistical and financial limitations. It is essential to educate stakeholders on EVs and battery swapping for acceptance, and it is crucial to ensure accessibility and affordability through strategic station placement and competitive pricing models. Additional hurdles include managing regulatory environments and guaranteeing a steady electricity supply. Collaboration between government agencies, private sector stakeholders, and local communities is essential to overcome these obstacles and promote clean and efficient transportation solutions, contributing to sustainable urban development. [24]

    Advancements in technology and upcoming trends will influence the development of BSS, improving efficiency, reliability, and accessibility. Progress in battery technology, such as better energy storage and faster charging, will make swapping operations quicker and more effective. Incorporating smart grid technologies will allow for dynamic energy management, optimizing charging schedules according to demand and the availability of renewable energy, ultimately resulting in reduced environmental impact. Moreover, BSS will support the growth of shared transportation services by linking with Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) platforms, providing adaptable and timely charging options for shared vehicles and effective fleet management.

  5. PROPOSED INITIATIVES AND FRAMEWORKSPolicy changes and new initiatives are essential in enabling the adoption of BSS for three-wheelers in Tier II cities. These changes are necessary in order to establish helpful regulatory structures, offer incentives for building infrastructure, and guarantee adherence to safety and environmental regulations. Policymakers must focus on initiatives that support the development of battery swapping infrastructure and boost the use of EVs to advance the shift towards greener and more sustainable transportation options.
    1. InitiativesInitiatives like incentive programs, collaborations between the public and private sectors, awareness drives, and financial incentives are crucial in the adoption of battery swapping systems in Tier II cities. These approaches promote the growth of sustainable transportation solutions at the local level through infrastructure development, pilot projects, consumer education, awareness, and electric vehicle adoption.
      1. Incentive programs for infrastructure development Implementing incentive programs to promote the development of battery swapping infrastructure and encourage private investment in infrastructure development. Offering financial incentives like tax breaks, subsidies, and grants to cover the initial capital expenses linked to constructing swap stations and support facilities in Tier II cities. These benefits can entice private investors and speed up the growth of battery swapping networks.
      2. Regulatory framework for standardizationEstablishing a regulatory framework to standardize battery specifications, protocols, and safety standards for BSS. This framework should ensure interoperability and compatibility across different vehicle models and swapping stations, facilitating seamless operations and enhancing user experience. Collaboration with industry stakeholders and regulatory bodies to develop and enforce these standards effectively.
      3. Public-private partnerships for pilot projectsFostering public-private partnerships to launch pilot projects and demonstration programs for BSS in Tier II cities. Partnering with local governments, utilities, EV manufacturers, and technology providers to deploy pilot stations, gather data on system performance and user feedback, and assess the feasibility and scalability of battery swapping solutions. These partnerships can leverage resources, expertise, and networks to drive innovation and accelerate the adoption of battery swapping technology.
      4. Financial incentives for electric vehicle adoption Introducing financial incentives to promote the adoption of electric three-wheelers equipped with battery swapping technology. Offering subsidies or tax incentives for purchasing EVs and providing additional incentives for vehicles that utilize BSS. These incentives can help reduce the upfront costs of EV ownership and incentivize auto-rickshaw drivers and fleet operators to transition to cleaner and more sustainable transportation options.
      5. Awareness campaigns and consumer education Launching awareness campaigns and educational initiatives to raise awareness about the benefits of BSS and promote EV adoption in Tier II cities. Partnering with local communityorganizations, schools, and media outlets to disseminate information about the advantages of EVs, battery swapping technology, and the environmental benefits of clean transportation. Providing training programs and workshops for auto-rickshaw drivers and fleet operators to familiarize them with the operation and benefits of BSS, addressing any misconceptions or concerns they may have.
    2. Regulatory frameworks

    Regulations for Tier II cities support the effective implementation of BSS, promoting cleaner, more efficient, and sustainable urban transportation. Regulations for establishing BSS in Tier II cities for three-wheelers are:

    • Licensing and permitting regulations
    • Technical standards and certification
    • Zoning and land use regulations
    • Tariff structures and pricing regulations
    • Environmental and sustainability standards
    • Collaboration and stakeholder engagement

    Regulatory frameworks for BSS for three-wheelers are crucial for ensuring operational efficiency, safety, economic viability, and stakeholder coordination. By establishing standards, guidelines, and operational protocols, these frameworks play a vital role in shaping the successful implementation of policies related to BSS.

  6. DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONSThe in-depth examination of BSS for three-wheelers in Tier II cities of India highlights the significant impact these systems can have on promoting sustainable urban mobility. It shows how exchanging batteries can help to address obstacles like range anxiety, lengthy charging times, and infrastructure limitations, making it easier to switch to EVs. The research emphasizes the advancements made in infrastructure development, technology integration, and battery and swapping station design, setting the stage for increased acceptance. Important policy implications include the need for distinct regulatory frameworks, financial rewards, and partnerships between the public and private sectors to address obstacles to implementing and encouraging investment in clean transportation options. Furthermore, it is essential to involve communities and educate them about the advantages of battery swapping technology in order to establish trust and gain acceptance from consumers. According to the results, policymakers should prioritize implementing supportive regulations and incentives to promote the growth of battery swapping infrastructure. Industry stakeholders, on the other hand, should concentrate on promoting innovation and collaboration to improve battery technology and infrastructure solutions [25]. By joining forces and implementing targeted policy measures to tackle infrastructure deficiencies, streamline industry standards, and encourage environmentally friendly transportation, Tier II cities can greatly improve their urban transportation systems. This will help decrease emissios, enhance air quality, and promote a more sustainable, effective, and equitable transportation environment. [26]

By conducting a thorough examination of battery exchange systems for three-wheeled vehicles in Tier II Indian cities, significant discoveries have been made that reveal the impact on environmentally-friendly city transportation. To begin with, the study highlights the ability of battery swapping technology to tackle the specific difficulties encountered by Tier II cities when shifting to EVs. Battery swapping addresses range anxiety, lengthy charging durations, and lack of infrastructure, offering a convenient and accessible charging alternative for three-wheeler operators and drivers. Additionally, the research emphasizes the substantial advancements in infrastructure development and technology integration, particularly in battery technology, swapping station design, and operational efficiency. These advancements have established the foundation for the extensive implementation of BSS in Tier II cities, positioning them as a promising solution for clean and efficient urban transportation.

Based on these results, the consequences for sustainable urban transportation are substantial. Battery exchange systems could make a significant impact in Tier II cities by cutting emissions, boosting air quality, and increasing energy efficiency. Battery swapping technology offers a clean and convenient alternative to traditional fossil fuel vehicles, which can help create greener and more livable urban areas. Policymakers, industry stakeholders, and communities need to work together to tackle the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities provided by BSS. Well-defined regulatory structures, financial motivation, and collaborations between public and private sectors are crucial in surpassing obstacles and hastening implementation. Moreover, proactive engagement with consumers and communities is crucial for building trust and acceptance of EVs and battery swapping technology.

Policy interventions are essential in encouraging sustainable urban transportation and easing the implementation of BSS in Tier II cities. Established regulatory frameworks, financial incentives, and partnerships between the private and public sectors are crucial for surmounting obstacles and fostering a conducive environment for implementation. Furthermore, proactive policy actions can aid in filling infrastructure gaps, establishing industry standards, and encouraging investment in eco-friendly transportation options. Policymakers can encourage positive transformation and support the transition to cleaner and more effective urban transportation systems by coordinating policy goals with sustainability targets and prioritizing the establishment of battery swapping infrastructure.

In the future of urban transportation, collaboration among policymakers, industry stakeholders, and communities is vital for a cleaner and more efficient transportation ecosystem. Policymakers must give importance to creating supportive regulations and incentives for battery swapping infrastructure. Industry players need to come up with new ideas and work together in order to make progress in battery technology and infrastructure. Communities need to proactively embrace sustainable transportation options and back efforts to improve air quality and decrease emissions. By working together in a coordinated effort, BSS have the potential to be a key factor in encouraging environmentally friendly urban transportation and building a greener transportation ecosystem.

In conclusion, BSS hold transformative potential for sustainable urban mobility in Tier II cities of India. By addressing challenges, leveraging opportunities, and fostering collaboration, stakeholders can create a future where clean and efficient transportation is accessible to all.


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