Plant Disease Detection and Classification System

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV13IS050170

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Plant Disease Detection and Classification System

Recent Studies and Beyond

Karanbir Singh Pelia Department of Computer Engineering Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Technology

Pune, Maharashtra, India

Vaibhav Vikas Dighe Department of Computer Engineering Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Technology

Pune, Maharashtra, India

Shrivatsasingh Khushal Rathore Department of Computer Engineering Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Technology Pune, Maharashtra, India

Prof. Bhakti Sanket Puranik Department of Computer Engineering Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Technology

Pune, Maharashtra, India

AbstractPlant diseases pose significant threats to global food security and agricultural sustainability, necessitating timely and accurate detection for effective disease management and crop protection. In recent years, deep learning techniques, particularly convolutional neural networks (CNNs), have emerged as powerful tools for automated disease detection and classification in plants. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of recent advancements in deep learning methodologies applied to plant disease detection and classification systems. We have analyzed a range of research studies, highlighting the effectiveness of various CNN architectures, transfer learning strategies, and data augmentation techniques in improving detection accuracy and efficiency. Additionally, we have proposed a highly sophisticated system that combines the methodologies and techniques learned from our research to create a model that can theoretically achieve the highest level of accuracy in plant disease detection and classification based on plant leaf image analysis. We discuss challenges, future research directions, and potential applications of deep learning in agriculture, illuminating promising advancements and the potential impact on disease management practices and agricultural productivity.

KeywordsFeature Extraction, Deep Learning, Convolutional Neural Networks, Image Classification, Transfer Learning, Ensemble Learning, Data Augmentation, Agricultural Sustainability, Plant Disease Detection.


    Plant diseases have posed a persistent obstacle in agriculture, resulting in significant reductions in crop yield and endangering worldwide food provision. Conventional disease identification approaches, such as manual visual assessments conducted by agronomists, are burdensome, requiring substantial time and labor, and are prone to subjectivity. In recent years, sophisticated deep learning techniques, particularly convolutional neural networks (CNNs), have emerged as effective tools for streamlining the process of detecting and categorizing plant diseases. This review paper endeavors to offer a thorough examination of the latest developments in deep learning methodologies for the creation of systems dedicated to the detection and classification of plant diseases.


    Over the years, several studies have explored the application of deep learning architectures for plant disease detection and classification. In this section, we have tabulated the findings of some of these studies.




    Future Scope

    In 2021,

    Manivarsh Adi et al. [1] provided an overview of using Deep Learning techniques like CNN, GAN, and

    ANN for plant disease detection.

    The study involved the use of various Deep Learning algorithms for plant disease detection, including CNN, feature extraction techniques, and image processing methods.

    The research highlighted the importance of using Deep Learning techniques for accurate plant disease detection, showcasing the performance of different algorithms and models.

    Integrating plant detection algorithms with mobile applications and IoT for real-time monitoring, aiming to increase crop production and reduce crop loss.

    In 2021, Anita Sharma et al. [2] reviewed deep learning techniques for early and accurate plant disease detection to improve crop yield and quality.

    A systematic review of existing deep learning methods for plant disease identification, focusing on image processing techniques.

    Highlights the potential of deep learning in agriculture, particularly in enhancing disease detection accuracy and contributing to agricultural advancement.

    Suggests further research in improving dataset collection and addressing challenges in disease detection models to enhance accuracy.

    In 2023, Roopali Dogra et al. [3] develop a deep learning model based on CNN- VGG19, for accurate detection and classification of

    The study utilizes a transfer learning-based method with the VGG19 model to identify rice leaf diseases, employing a dataset for

    The proposed model achieved an accuracy of 93.0%,

    outperforming existing baseline models, which is crucial for improving rice

    Suggests potential enhancements in disease detection accuracy and the application of the model for other crops, contributing to





    Future Scope

    brown spot rice leaf disease.

    training and validation.

    crop health and yield.

    smart agriculture advancements.

    In 2023, Md

    Taimur Ahad et al. [4] compared the performance of different CNN

    architectures for rice disease classification in Bangladesh.

    Evaluated six CNN

    architectures (DenseNet121, Inceptionv3, MobileNetV2, resNext101, Resnet152V, and Seresnext101) using transfer learning and ensemble model DEX.

    Found that the ensemble framework provided the best accuracy of 98%, with Seresnext101 achieving 99.66%

    accuracy. Transfer learning increased accuracy by 17%.

    Future research could aim to expand the dataset to include more types of rice diseases and explore original CNN

    architectures, transfer learning, and ensemble techniques to enhance accuracy in rice disease detection.

    In 2022, Nishant Shelar et al. [5] developed a Disease Recognition Model using CNN for accurate and efficient plant disease detection through leaf image classification.

    Utilization of image processing and CNNs to identify plant diseases. The study includes a literature review, proposed system design, and CNN

    architecture (VGG-19) for

    disease classification.

    The research addresses the critical need for early plant disease detection, aiming to prevent large- scale crop losses and support agricultural productivity through automated tools.

    Enhancing the accuracy and deployment of the CNN model on an Android application for real-time plant disease detection using smartphone cameras.

    In 2023,

    Mbulelo S. P. Ngongoma et al.

    [6] evaluated plant disease detection models and identified opportunities for further research in precision agriculture.

    The study reviewed literature on plant disease detection over the past two decades, focusing on technological advances and their applications in farming.

    Highlights the gap in real-time monitoring and mitigation of plant diseases, emphasizing the need for integrated models to improve farm yield and stabilize economies reliant on agriculture.

    Suggests exploring real- time disease monitoring, actuation operations for mitigation, and post-harvest benefits, aiming to enhance precision agricultures efficiency and accessibility.


    This section delves into the methodologies and techniques utilized in recent studies for the detection and classification of plant diseases through deep learning.

    1. CNN Architectures

      A variety of CNN architectures, such as AlexNet, VGGNet, ResNet, and InceptionNet, have been implemented to extract features and classify plant diseases. These architectures play a pivotal role in the efficacy of disease detection systems by effectively capturing and representing the intricate patterns inherent in plant images.

    2. Data Augmentation

      To enhance the diversity and size of plant disease datasets, data augmentation techniques are commonly employed. Techniques such as image rotation, flipping, and scaling are utilized to create variations of existing images, thereby enriching the dataset. By expanding the dataset in this manner, model generalization and robustness are enhanced, ultimately improving the system's ability to accurately detect and classify plant diseases across varying conditions and scenarios.

    3. Transfer Learning

      The utilization of transfer learning techniques has proven to be highly effective in recent endeavors. By fine-tuning pre-existing CNN models on plant disease datasets, researchers capitalize on the wealth of knowledge encoded in these models, thereby enhancing detection accuracy. This approach enables the adaptation of well-established models to the specific nuances of plant disease identification tasks, leading to improved performance outcomes.

    4. Ensemble Learning

    Ensemble learning techniques are also being explored to boost the performance of plant disease detection systems. By combining the predictions of multiple models, ensemble methods can often achieve better accuracy and robustness than individual models. Techniques such as bagging, boosting, and stacking are used to aggregate the strengths of different models, reducing the likelihood of errors and improving overall system performance.

  4. Challenges and Limitations

    Although there have been significant advancements in the field of Plant Disease Detection, several challenges and limitations continue to plague these deep learning-based systems. We discuss some of these limitations in this section.

    A. Dataset Scarcity

    One of the primary hurdles lies in the scarcity of extensive and meticulously annotated plant disease datasets. This scarcity inhibits the ability of deep learning models to generalize effectively and achieve optimal performance levels, as they rely heavily on ample and diverse data for robust training.

    B. Image Variability

    The inherent variability in plant appearances, coupled with diverse lighting conditions and imaging methodologies, presents a formidable challenge to accurate disease detection and classification. These variations can lead to inconsistencies in model performance across different scenarios and environments.

    C. Labeling Consistency

    Ensuring consistency and accuracy in labeling plant disease datasets is a complex task, prone to human errors and subjectivity. Inconsistencies in labeling can introduce noise and biases into the training data, adversely affecting the performance of deep learning models. Developing robust labeling protocols and quality control measures is essential to mitigate this challenge and improve the reliability of plant disease detection systems.

    D. Model Interpretability

    A significant drawback of deep learning models is their limited interpretability, hindering researchers and practitioners from understanding their decision-making processes effectively.

    Addressing this challenge is crucial for improving the reliability of deep learning-based plant disease detection systems.

    B. Exploration of Novel Architectures

    Fig. 1. Flowchart for the Proposed Model

    Another area of focus entails exploring novel CNN architectures and optimization methodologies specifically


    The proposed model for plant disease detection (see Fig. 1) seamlessly integrates multiple potent techniques from machine learning to enhance accuracy and efficiency. Beginning with data augmentation to expand and diversify the dataset, we then feed these augmented images into CNNs for feature extraction. Subsequently, transfer learning refines pre- trained CNN models (CNN 1, CNN 2, and so on) to specialize in identifying plant diseases, effectively mitigating overfitting and maximizing performance. Finally, ensemble learning aggregates predictions from the refined CNN models, synthesizing diverse insights to further improve accuracy. This integrated approach ensures a cohesive and robust system for precise plant disease detection.


    In this section, we discuss the future research directions in deep learning based plant disease detection and classification systems.

    A. Development of Comprehensive Datasets

    One promising avenue involves the development of expansive and varied plant disease datasets. These datasets should encompass a broad spectrum of crop species and diseases, facilitating the training of more robust and adaptable deep learning models capable of effectively recognizing diverse manifestations of plant diseases.

    tailored to the intricacies of plant disease detection. By devising architectures optimized for handling the complexities inherent in plant imagery, researchers can potentially enhance the performance and efficiency of disease detection systems.

    C. Integration of Advanced Technologies

    There is potential for integrating advanced technologies like remote sensing, drones, and IoT devices into plant disease monitoring and detection frameworks. Leveraging these technologies enables real-time monitoring and early identification of disease outbreaks, thereby enabling proactive intervention measures to mitigate crop losses and safeguard agricultural productivity. Embracing these advancements promises to revolutionize the landscape of plant disease management, fostering more resilient and sustainable agricultural practices.


In summary, deep learning methodologies have exhibited immense promise in transforming the landscape of plant disease detection and classification systems. Through the utilization of CNN architectures, transfer learning methodologies, ensemble learning, and data augmentation techniques, researchers have achieved notable strides in enhancing the accuracy and effectiveness of disease detection processes. Nevertheless, obstacles such as the scarcity of comprehensive datasets, variations in image quality, labeling consistency, and the interpretability of models persist as significant concerns. To propel the field forward, future research endeavors should

prioritize tackling these challenges while also delving into innovative methodologies to expand the potential of deep learning applications in agricultural contexts. This concerted effort holds the key to realizing further advancements in disease management and crop protection within the realm of agriculture.


  1. Manivarsh Adi, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Harinath Reddy A, Yeshwanth Kumar, V. R. Challa, Pooja Rana, Usha Mittal. An Overview on Plant Disease Detection Algorithm Using Deep Learning. ICIEM, 2021.

  2. Anita Sharma, Kamlesh Lakhwani, Harmeet Singh Janeja. Plant Disease Identification Using Deep Learning: A Systematic Review. ICIEM, 2021.

  3. Roopali Dogra, Shalli Rani, Aman Singh, Marwan Ali Albahar, Alina E. Barrera, Ahmed Alkhayyat. Deep learning model for detection of brown spot rice leaf disease with smart agriculture. Computers and Electrical Engineering, 2023.

  4. Md Taimur Ahad, Yan Li, Bo Song, Touhid Bhuiyan. Comparison of CNN-based deep learning architectures for rice diseases classification. Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture, 2023.

  5. Nishant Shelar, Suraj Shinde, Shubham Sawant, Shreyash Dhumal,

    Kausar Fakir. Plant Disease Detection Using CNN. ICACC, 2022.

  6. Mbulelo S.P. Ngongoma, Musasa Kabeya, Katleho Moloi. A Review of Plant Disease Detection Systems for Farming Applications. Applied Sciences, 2023.