Planning for Disaster Management in India using IOT

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Planning for Disaster Management in India using IOT

Mr. Anil Hingmire

Dept. of Computer Engineering Vidyavardhinis College of Engineering and Technology Mumbai, India

Abstract This paper, focuses on challenges of natural disasters in India as well as the tools-technologies for cope up with those challenges.. Disaster Management consists the management functionalities such as planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. Analysis based on past events, ICT technologies for disaster management is used. In this we also provided comparisons of existing various systems which is based on IoT. The purpose of this study is to How we can use latest technology for the prevention, mitigation and preparation. Changing technologies such as IOT and Artificial Intelligence can help in early alert and control in disaster management.

Keywords Disasters, Floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides, earthquakes, ICT, IOT, Artificial Intelligence etc.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Disastrous events are have been showing off own mastery. From last few decades millions of peoples have lost their lives in natural disasters like flood, tsunami, earthquakes, cyclones etc. According to International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 3,751 natural hazards events recorded over last 10 year and approximately two billions peoples affected by natural hazards. Estimated cost of damage was US$ 1658 billion in 141 countries. The rapid growth of worlds population, pollution and manmade environmental threats that also leads to severe natural disaster in future.

    According to International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies 84% are weather related hazard and 95

    % peoples are affected due to weather related hazards in last ten years.

    India is most vulnerable to large number of disasters. According to statistics of Natural Disaster Management Authority [NDMA] of India, more than 58.6 percent of landmass of India is earthquake prone, 12 percent land prone to flood and river erosion, and 7,516 Kms long coastline is prone to cyclones and tsunamis. India is also vulnerable to Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) emergencies and other man-made disasters. In current scenario, floods in various states of India such as Assam, Maharashtra and Bihar (2019).

    Due to natural disasters, that kills thousands of peoples and also destroys billions of dollars of habitat

    .

    and property each year. So that the need arises for prediction and management of disaster events in uncertain weather environment.

  2. INDIA AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT

    In India, Government formed different agencies to coordinate response to natural or man-made disasters and for capacity-building in disaster resiliency and crisis response.

    Some of these are listed below:

    1. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)

    2. State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA)

    3. District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA)

    4. National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)

    India is at high risk of extinction to various natural disasters because of the geographical as well as climatic condition. According to statistics more than 11 million peoples have directly or indirectly got affected during last decade.

    Table 1 shows number of deaths occurred in natural disaster from 1999 to August 2019.

    Table I: Natural disasters in India

    Disaster Type

    Year

    Origin (India)

    Death Tolls

    Landslide

    2014

    Pune

    28

    1998

    Mansarovar

    380

    Earthquakes

    2001

    Gujarat

    20,000

    1999

    Chamoli

    150

    Floods

    2019

    Maharashtra (August, 2019)

    50

    2019

    Karnataka (August, 2019)

    48

    2019

    Bihar (July, 2019)

    127

    2019

    Orissa (August, 2019)

    225

    2019

    Kerala (August, 2019)

    60

    2007

    Bihar

    41

    2005

    Mumbai

    910

    Cyclones

    2019

    Orissa ( Fani Cyclone)

    64

    2012

    Tamil Nadu

    20

    2011

    Tamil Nadu

    41

    2010

    Andhra-Pradesh

    32

    2009

    West-Bengal

    100

    1999

    Orissa

    15000

    Tsunami

    2004

    Indian Ocean

    2,30,000

    Cloud Burst

    2014

    Jammu & Kashmir

    4,5000

    2013

    Uttarakhand

    5,700

    Cyclones

    2019

    Orissa ( Fani Cyclone)

    64

    2012

    Tamil Nadu

    20

    2011

    Tamil Nadu

    41

    2010

    Andhra-Pradesh

    32

    2009

    West-Bengal

    100

    1999

    Orissa

    15000

    Tsunami

    2004

    Indian Ocean

    2,30,000

    Cloud Burst

    2014

    Jammu & Kashmir

    4,5000

    2013

    Uttarakhand

    5,700

    IV. MODERN TECHNOLOGIES FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT

    Fig 1: India Natural Disaster 1999-2019

  3. GLOBAL NATURAL DISASTER The graph shown below shows the global reported

disasters by its types such as dry, volcanic activity, wildfire, landslide, earthquake, extreme temperature, drought, extreme weather and flood from 1970 to 2018.

GRAPH 1: Annual Reported Number of Natural Disasters categorized by type

In the recent days, progress of India towards modern development in tools and technologies lead India towards smart cities and digitalization. Use of Social media could be useful as new information sources for disaster relief agencies. The agencies can use this media for informing or creating situational awareness in peoples and also get meaningful inputs from this media. In short Social media can be effectively used for communication between social users and the government agencies.

ICT: Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can play very important role in minimization and prevention of risk by planning, preparing by using E-learning tools, emergency communication and response system. The use of ICT tools and historical data, we can manage disasters in some extent.

Artificial Intelligence: Artificial intelligence is one viable option that can potentially prevent massive loss of lives while at the same time make rescue efforts easy and efficient. AI enabled technologies and systems such as Drones, Sensors andRobots can provide accurate information about damaged buildings, and landscapes which can help to rescue team to save lives of peoples. Machine Learning tools can be used for prediction of disasters by considering historical data, and present data.

IoT: Internet of Things is simply the network of interconnected things/devices which are embedded with sensors, software, network connectivity and necessary electronics that enables them to collect and exchange data making them responsive. Due to increasing use of IoT smart devices in home automation, agriculture, industries, health care, robotics etc., researchers get attention to use of this emerging technology for disaster management. IoT could be useful in disaster prediction and control in various ways such as sensor-based network system can deploy to detect water- level rise in a river and inform to a local authority to improve prediction of river flooding and real-time situational analysis. IoT can be also used for detection of earthquake and act as emergency alert system. Recorded information would be useful when integrating hazard assessments into disaster planning.

  1. BUILDING IOT SOLUTION

    Figure 2 shows different components of IOT solution such as edge, network and core with protocols. This core IOT infrastructure can be used to develop solutions to different business or research problems.

    Fig 1: Components of IoT Solution

    The Edge device may be remotely placed physical sensor based device connected to Fog or Cloud, which transmits real- time information to cloud.

    The Network: Internet connectivity is ubiquitous and provides facility of wired or wireless communication between edge and the cloud server.

    The Core: Core infrastructure includes operational and information system or servers. Both systems can be isolated or on same server. The core is responsible for making decision

    Developing an IOT solution for Disaster Management involves three major steps or phases as given below:

    Data integration: It integrates a variety of data from the edge to the core into a more logical and rational form. Data management: This step includes storing large volumes of data and the system to operational system

    to manage stored data.

    Business innovation: Data integration and management is the foundation for many type of innovations, predictions and research for any organization.

    • Using NFC for geo fencing and parameter fencing

      • Situational awareness and incident management through streaming data, unstructured data handling, predictive analysis, big data, complex event processing and social medial analytics.

    Fig 2: Classification of IoT based Disaster Management System

  2. EXISTING DISASTER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

In this section, a few examples of IoT-based existing Disaster Management systems for earthquakes, flood, lighting, tsunami etc. In Table 3, it shows comparisons of these systems.

DM

System

Clou d- Enab led

App

bas ed

Key Senso rs

Communi

-cation

Applic ati on

Brinco

Yes

Yes

Acceler o meter

WiFi and BLE

Earthqu a ke and tsunami

Brek

Yes

No

various

WiFi and GSM,

Ethernet

Various

Grillo

yes

yes

Acceler o meter

WiFi and BLE

Earthqu a ke and tsunami

Flood Netw ork

Yes

No

Ultrasoni c range finder

GSM

Flood

Floo d Bea con

Yes

No

Ultrasoni c range finder

GSM and BLE

Flood and tsunami

Floati ng Senso r Netw ork

Yes

Yes

Accelero meter and Ultrasoni c range finder

GSM and BLE

Flood and tsunami

Lighti ng Detec tio

n

Yes

No

Lightni ng sensor

Radio

Lighting

ALAR MS

Yes

Yes

Accelero meter

Radio and BLE

Landslide

MyShak e

Yes

Yes

Acceler o meter

CDMA,

WiFi and BLE

Earthqu a ke

DM

System

Clou d- Enab led

App

bas ed

Key Senso rs

Communi

-cation

Applic ati on

Brinco

Yes

Yes

Acceler o meter

WiFi and BLE

Earthqu a ke and tsunami

Brek

Yes

No

various

WiFi and GSM,

Ethernet

Various

Grillo

yes

yes

Acceler o meter

WiFi and BLE

Earthqu a ke and tsunami

Flood Netw ork

Yes

No

Ultrasoni c range finder

GSM

Flood

Floo d Bea con

Yes

No

Ultrasoni c range finder

GSM and BLE

Flood and tsunami

Floati ng Senso r Netw ork

Yes

Yes

Accelero meter and Ultrasoni c range finder

GSM and BLE

Flood and tsunami

Lighti ng Detec tio

n

Yes

No

Lightni ng sensor

Radio

Lighting

ALAR MS

Yes

Yes

Accelero meter

Radio and BLE

Landslide

MyShak e

Yes

Yes

Acceler o meter

CDMA,

WiFi and BLE

Earthqu a ke

Table II: Comparative Analysis of Existing IoT enabled DM Systems

VI. CONCLUSION

In this paper, I briefly reviewed the importance and effective use of ICT as well as IoT in disaster management. It also refers to various IoT enabled disaster management system with its comparisons. The use of latest technologies such as IoT, AI, machine learning, data mining and analytics are capable to find solutions for natural disasters and can save numerous lives and significant damage to the properties. This paper is to help in planning for the IoT-based disaster management systems in India. With reference to ICT and IoT used worldwide, we recommend a hybrid system for India which will be the combination of both ICT and IoT.

REFERENCES

  1. Partha Pratim Ray(Member, IEEE), Mithun Mukherjee, (Senior Member, IEEE), Lei Shu (Senior Member, IEEE), Internet of Things for Disaster Management: State-of-the-Art and Prospects IEEE open access journal, accepted August 24, 2017, date of publication September 14, 2017, date of current version October 12, 2017. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2752174

  2. Dhafer Ben Arbia , Muhammad Mahtab Alam , Abdullah Kadri , Elyes Ben Hamida and Rabah Attia , Enhanced IoT-Based End- To-End Emergency and Disaster Relief System Journal of Sensors and Actuators , J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6, 19; doi:10.3390/jsan6030019 www.mdpi.com/journal/jsan

  3. Internet of Things for Effective Disaster Management Digital India Action group (DIAG)- White paper Report dated 29/06/2016

  4. http://ww.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/Mumbai-

  5. Marooned.pdf

  6. Mihoko Sakurai a, Yuko Murayama, Information technologies and disaster management Benefits and issues ,www.elsevier.com/locate/pdisas, Progress in Disaster Science 2 (2019) 100012

  7. Tim Y, et al. Digitally enabled disaster response: the emergence of social media as boundary objects in a flooding disaster. Inf Syst J 2017;27(2):197232.

  8. British Geological Survey: Assessment of Landslides Using Acoustic Real- Time Monitoring Systems (ALARMS). [Online].Available:http://www.bgs.ac.uk/research/tomography/ala rms. html

  9. MyShake. Accessed: Apr. 12, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://myshake.berkeley.edu

  10. https://ourworldindata.org/natural-disasters

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *