Phytorid Bed Technology: A Sustainable Approach for Wastewater Treatment

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV12IS040191

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Phytorid Bed Technology: A Sustainable Approach for Wastewater Treatment

Mr. Pawar N.B, Mr. Joshi A.A, Mr. Bedarakar O. S, Mr. Kanna M.S, Mr. Rathod V.V , Mr. Rathod A.V

Civil Engineering Department,

A.G Patil Polytechnic Institute

Opp. SRP Camp, Vijapur Road, Solapur 413003.

Abstract Phytorid Bed Technology is an environmentally friendly and sustainable method for treating wastewater using plants, soil, and microorganisms. It is a low-cost and low-energy alternative to traditional wastewater treatment technologies, making it particularly effective in regions with limited space, a lack of infrastructure, or high running expenses. The technology comprises a bed of gravel or sand with wetland plants that remove pollutants and nutrients from the water through physical, chemical, and biological methods. The treated wastewater is typically of high quality, with low levels of pollutants, and can be discharged into the environment or reused for non-potable purposes. Phytorid Bed Technology offers numerous advantages over traditional treatment methods, such as low cost, environmental friendliness, versatility, high-quality effluent, and aesthetic benefits. However, site-specific considerations and maintenance requirements must be considered when building and executing a system. Overall, Phytorid Bed Technology is a promising technology for sustainable wastewater treatment, with successful implementations worldwide.


    The cutting-edge method of wastewater treatment known as "Phytorid Bed Technology" removes contaminants and nutrients from water using a sustainable, natural process. The system comprises of numerous wetland plants growing in a bed of sand or gravel that is covered in topsoil. The bed is set up so that wastewater may pass through it at a controlled rate using either gravity or a pump system Multiple physical, chemical, and biological techniques are used in the treatment of water in a Phytorid Bed. Filtering bigger particles and suspended materials, the sand or gravel in the bed acts as a conduit for the wastewater when it enters the system. The organic content in the water is subsequently broken down and digested by microorganisms and bacteria on the roots and soil as the water enters the root zone of the wetland plants. Bioremediation is the term for this procedure.


    Phytorid Bed Technology is a novel and environmentally friendly way to wastewater treatment. To remove contaminants and nutrients from the water, the system employs a mix of plants, soil, and microbes. When wastewater reaches the bed, which is commonly a bed of gravel or sand covered with a layer of topsoil and contains diverse wetland plants, the process begins. The bed is built to allow wastewater to flow through it at a regulated rate, either by gravity or by a pump system.

    The gravel or sand functions as a filter, capturing bigger particles and suspended solids, as the wastewater enters the bed. The organic content in the water is subsequently broken down and digested by bacteria and microorganisms on the roots and soil of the wetland plants as the water enters their root zone. Bioremediation is the term for this procedure. The Phytorid Bed Technology uses carefully chosen wetland plants that can flourish in the special conditions of the bed. They are often plants that can survive varying water levels and are accustomed to moist environments.

    The creation of biofilm and bacterial growth can occur on the surface of the plant roots, accelerating the bioremediation process. In addition, the plants take up nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus, converting them into plant biomass that may be collected and applied in a variety of ways. The effluent produced by Phytorid Bed Technology is typically of excellent quality, with low levels of pathogens, nutrients, and other contaminants. As the water flows through the bed, it becomes progressively cleaner.

    Following treatment, the wastewater leaves the bed through an outflow pipe and can either be released into the environment or recycled for non-potable uses. Phytorid Bed Technology is superior to conventional wastewater treatment techniques in a few ways.

    The Phytorid Bed Technology also offers a lot of aesthetic and recreational advantages. The diversity and aesthetic appeal of an ecosystem can be produced by wetland plants and other species, adding to the general attractiveness of the surroundings. Overall, Phytorid Bed Technology is a natural, efficient, and sustainable technique of wastewater treatment that has many advantages for the environment and the people who use it.


  1. Low-cost installation and operation: Phytorid Bed Technology is less expensive to install and run than standard wastewater treatment technologies such as activated sludge or trickling filters. It uses less energy and fewer chemicals, and it is frequently run by natural processes.

  2. Environmentally friendly: Since Phytorid Bed Technology is a natural and sustainable wastewater treatment process, it has a lesser environmental effect than traditional treatment methods. It employs natural processes to remove contaminants from the water and can give extra ecological advantages such as animal habitat creation.

  3. High-quality effluent: Phytorid Bed Technology normally provides high-quality effluent with minimal levels of nutrients, pathogens, and other contaminants. As a result, it may be used for a variety of purposes, including irrigation and discharge into the environment.

  4. Versatile: From small-scale residential systems to large-scale industrial facilities, Phytorid Bed Technology may be employed for a wide range of wastewater treatment applications. It may also be configured to treat a variety of wastewater types, including home, agricultural, and industrial wastewater.

  5. Aesthetic and recreational benefits: The Phytorid Bed Technology wetland plants and accompanying fauna may create a visually beautiful and ecologically varied ecosystem. This may increase a site's overall value and appeal while also providing chances for pleasure and education.

  6. Low upkeep: Phytorid Bed Technology is typically low upkeep since the natural processes involved in wastewater treatment require less intervention. Nonetheless, constant monitoring and management are still essential to assure peak performance and avoid any problems.


Phytorid beds are a highly effective and sustainable technology for water treatment and management in India. In addition to the benefits mentioned earlier, Phytorid beds supply several other advantages over traditional water treatment methods.

Sample number

Place/Location Of sample



Home Kitchen Sink

2 Lit.


Fresh Sewer Water

2 Lit.


Sullage water from local industry

2 Lit.

A reed bed model measuring 1.5ft x 1.5ft x 1ft is a small- scale system designed to mimic the natural filtration process of wetlands using plants and microbes. The system typically consists of a shallow rectangular basin or container filled with a substrate made up of gravel or sand and planted with different types of reeds or other wetland plants.

The model works by allowing wastewater to flow into the substrate, where it is naturally treated as it passes through the lants' roots and the substrate. The plants absorb nutrients and organic matter from the wastewater, while bacteria and other microorganisms in the substrate break down harmful contaminants and pathogens.


Before Treatment

After Treatment




pH Test






1.21 mg/lit

5.25 mg/lit



T.S. S







B.O. D







C.O. D








38.29 NTU




MPN (per 200 ml)




The 1.5ft x 1.5ft x 1ft reed bed model is suitable for small- scale applications, such as in households, small communities, or as a demonstration model for educational purposes. It can be used to treat various types of wastewaters, such as greywater from sinks and showers or blackwater from toilets, depending on the design and configuration.

  • Basin or container: The reed bed model is typically housed in a shallow rectangular basin or container made of durable, water-resistant materials such as plastic, concrete or fiberglass. The basin is usually lined with a geotextile fabric to prevent soil erosion and facilitate water drainage.

  • Substrate: The substrate is the material that provides the medium for the plants and microorganisms to grow in.

    It is typically made up of a layer of coarse gravel or sand at the bottom, followed by a layer of finer sand or soil on top. The substrate provides a surface for bacterial growth and allows water to pass through easily.

  • Plants: Wetland plants such as reeds, rushes, and sedges are typically used in the reed bed model. These plants have long, fibrous roots that provide a large surface area for bacterial growth and nutrient uptake. They also release oxygen into the water, which helps to support aerobic bacteria that break down harmful contaminants.

  • Inlet and outlet pipes: The reed bed model has an inlet pipe that brings wastewater into the basin and an outlet pipe that takes treated water out. The pipes are usually fitted with filters or screens to prevent large particles or debris from entering the system.

    • Operation: The reed bed model works by allowing wastewater to flow into the substrate through the inlet pipe. The water then percolates through the substrate and the roots of the wetland plants, where it is treated by bacteria and other microorganisms. As the water flows through the substrate, contaminants and pathogens are removed and nutrients are absorbed by the plants. The treated water then flows out through the outlet pipe and can be reused for non-potable purposes such as irrigation, flushing toilets, or washing clothes.

  1. pH: This test measures the acidity or alkalinity of the water. In this case, the pH was reduced from 10.2 to 7.2, indicating a 29.411% reduction in acidity.

  2. D.O: Dissolved Oxygen (D.O) is a measure of the amount of oxygen dissolved in water. The D.O level increased from 1.21 mg/lit to 5.25 mg/lit after treatment, which is a 33.334% increase.

  3. T.S.S: Total Suspended Solids (T.S.S) is a measure of the number of solid particles suspended in the water. The T.S.S level decreased from 773.25 mg/lit to

    128.29 mg/lit after treatment, indicating an 83.409% reduction.

  4. B.O.D: Biological Oxygen Demand (B.O.D) is a measure of the amount of oxygen required by microorganisms to break down organic matter in the water. The B.O.D level decreased from 149.25 mg/lit

    to 29.63 mg/lit after treatment, indicating an 80.147% reduction.

  5. C.O.D: Chemical Oxygen Demand (C.O.D) is a measure of the amount of oxygen required to oxidize all the organic and inorganic matter in the water. The

    C.O.D level decreased from 409.24 mg/lit to 102.28 mg/lit after treatment, indicating a 75.00% reduction.

  6. Turbidity: Turbidity is a measure of the clarity of the water and is caused by suspended particles. In this case, the turbidity decreased from 38.29 NTU to 3.69 NTU after treatment, indicating a 90.6735% reduction.

  7. There appears to be no result for parameter number

  8. MPN: Most Probable Number (MPN) is a measure of the number of bacteria in the water. The MPN decreased from 15.32 per 200 ml to 1.29 per 200 ml after treatment, indicating a 91.576% reduction.

Wildlife Habitat: Phytorid beds provide valuable habitat for a wide range of wildlife species, including birds, insects, and amphibians. This enhances the biodiversity of the surrounding area and contributes to the conservation of local ecosystems.

Community Involvement: Phytorid bed installations often involve local communities in their design, construction, and maintenance. This fosters a sense of community ownership and responsibility for the environment, promoting long-term sustainability and community development.

These advantages, along with the positive results and outcomes described earlier, demonstrate the effectiveness and sustainability of Phytorid beds for water treatment and management in India. With increasing environmental awareness and the need for cost-effective and sustainable water management solutions, Phytorid beds are likely to become increasingly popular in India and other countries in the years to come.


    As a wastewater treatment technology, Phytorid Bed Technology offers numerous advantages, but it also has certain obstacles and limits. One of the most difficult issues is considering site-specific considerations when building and executing a system. Because soil type, climate, and terrain may all have an impact on system efficacy, it is critical to customise the design to these characteristics to achieve maximum performance. Site evaluations and soil testing may be required to establish the optimum method.

    Requirements for upkeep are another crucial factor for Phytorid Bed systems. While they often require less upkeep than standard treatment approaches, they nonetheless need

    routine administration and monitoring to operate at their best. Work like plant upkeep, sediment removal, and water quality parameter monitoring might fall under this category. The system's performance may suffer or it may even stop working if it is not properly maintained. Some contaminants, including nitrogen and phosphorus, may be effectively removed from wastewater using Phytorid Bed Technology. The removal of other contaminants, including heavy metals or organic compounds, could not be as successful. This may restrict its usage in some contexts, such as the treatment of industrial effluent. While determining whether or not to employ Phytorid Bed Technology, the sorts of pollutants that need to be eliminated must be carefully taken into account. The land use restrictions of Phytorid Bed systems are one of its drawbacks. Compared to other wastewater treatment techniques, these systems demand a sizable quantity of land. This may be a drawback in urban or crowded locations where land is scarce or expensive. While creating and putting these systems into place, the available land space must be carefully taken into account. The efficacy of Phytorid Bed systems can also be impacted by seasonal variations. Seasonal variations in temperature, precipitation, and plant growth can all have an influence on the system's overall efficacy. To guarantee optimal performance throughout the whole year, this can need changes to the system's design or operation.

    Last but not least, adopting Phytorid Bed Technology for wastewater treatment might be difficult due to regulatory constraints. Depending on where the system is located and what it is used for, there may be different rules controlling its use. For the system to be used and maintained properly, it is crucial to thoroughly investigate and adhere to all applicable requirements.


Finally, phytorid bed technology is an excellent option for treating wastewater in a sustainable and cost-effective manner. This method, which uses plants and bacteria to remove contaminants from polluted water, provides a creative alternative to typical wastewater treatment systems, which demand a lot of energy and maintenance.

One of the primary benefits of phytorid bed technology is its ability to remove a wide variety of contaminants, including organic waste, nitrogen, phosphorus, heavy metals, and pathogens. This not only improves the environment by improving water quality, but it also encourages the growth of flora and fauna near treated bodies of water.

Despite its tremendous advantages, phytorid bed technology is not without restrictions and obstacles. Temperature, pH, and hydraulic loading rate can all have an impact on the system's effectiveness, thus further study is needed to optimise its design and long-term sustainability.

To summarise, phytorid bed technology has the potential to be an extremely useful instrument for encouraging sustainable development and environmental preservation. With further study and development, this technology can continue to provide an effective and environmentally responsible answer to the rising problem of wastewater treatment.


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