Physiochemical and Phytochemical Screening of Various Extracts of Myrica esculenta Linn. Himalayan Plant

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Physiochemical and Phytochemical Screening of Various Extracts of Myrica esculenta Linn. Himalayan Plant

Harish Shap*

JBIT College of Pharmacy, Dehradun (Utttrakhand)

Abhishek Kumar Pandey3 Institute of Medical Sciences, Deptt. of Pharmacology , BHU, Varanasi(U.P)

Arif Naseer2

AVIPS,

Shobhit University, Gangoh, Saharanpur (U.P.)

Prabhat Upadyay3

Institute of Medical Sciences, Deptt. of Pharmacology , BHU, Varanasi(U.P)

Abstract:- Myrica ensculenta Linn. Sny. Myrica nagi belonging to family myricaceae, Commonly known as bey berry in English, Kaifal in Hindi, Katphal in Sanskrit, is an important medicinal tree distributed in India, Nepal, China, with a medium to large woody, evergreen, dioeious, subtropical tree varying from 3 to 15 m from place to place in sub-tropical Himalayas at altitudes of 900 to 2100 m. The plant is known to have varied medicinal properties and the stem bark of this plant has a variety of reported traditional uses for the treatment of asthma, fever, dyspnoea, throat and lung infections, chronic bronchitis and coughing. The different parts of Myrica ensculenta Linn. Such as leaves, stem, bark, seed & roots were collected from Pinder velly Distt. Chamoli Garhwal (Uttrakhand) Himalaya Region . The all plant parts powder was subjected to systematic Preliminary Phytochemical screening by successively Extracting them in five solvents viz- Pet.ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water. Then testing for the presence of chemical constituents. The Extractive values (%)/ yield find out in Bark Metanol (23.06%) comperision to other part. Maximum % of alcohol soluble extractive: Myrica leaves (35.3%). Maximum % of Water soluble extractive: Myrica stem (24.8%). Maximum moisture content Myrica stem (9.93%). Maximum total ash: Myrica Bark (3.4%). Maximum acid insoluble ash: Myrica Bark(1.5%). The Flavnoids, tannis, Carbohydrate, resins and Phytosterols are presents mostly in all parts.

Keyword: Myrica esculenta, Extactive value, Flavnoids, Moisture Content

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Myrica esculenta Sny.Myrica nagi is a medium to large woody, evergreen, dioeious, subtropical tree belonging to family myricaceae, Commonly known as box berry or bey berry in English, Kaifal in Hindi, Katphal in Sanskrit, Kaiphal in urdu is an important medicinal tree distributed in India, Nepal, China, Pakistan, and Malaya Islands. In

    India Myrica esculenta is found in Arunachala Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram. Khasia, Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand , Bengal. The tree yields a drupaceous fruit which is one of the tastiest wild fruits of the sub-Himalayan region. This fruit tree carries a lot of commercial importance and every year its fruits worth thousands of rupees are sold.These fruits are very much liked by all.

  2. MATERIAL AND METHOD

    A. Preparation of Extracts

    The all plant parts of 500 g of powdered five parts of plants were subjected to systematic Preliminary Phytochemical screening by successively Extracting them by Successive solvent extraction method in five solvents viz- Pet.ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water. Then testing for the presence of chemical constituents.

    All the extracts were concentrated by using rotatary vacuum evaporator at low temperature. They were then weighed and Percentage of yield different extractive values was calculated with respect to air-dried substance. The colour and were consistency of the extracts noted and results are tabulated in TABLE NO. 1

    Proximate analysis or Physicochemical studies were done for Moisture contents, Total ash (water soluble ash, acid-insoluble ash, alcohol soluble ash) Extractive value (water soluble extractive value, alcohol soluble extractive value ) as per WHO guidelines according to the method described in Indian Pharmacopeia. TABLE NO. 2 Extractive values determination of water and alcohol soluble extractive value was used as means of evaluating the quality and purity of the constituents of which could not be readily estimated by other means. TABLE NO. 3

  3. RESULT

    Table1: Data showing successive extractive values (% yield) and nature of extracts of the Myrica esculenta Linn.

    Plant parts

    Solvents

    Colour

    Nature of the extracts

    Extractive values (%)/ yield

    Leave

    Pet. Ether

    Blackish green

    Waxy

    2.06

    Chloroform

    Dark green

    Semi solid

    3.08

    Ethanol

    Dark green

    Sticky

    0.486

    Methanol

    Dark green

    Semi solid

    0.587

    Water

    Dark green

    Sticky

    13.27

    Stem

    Pet. Ether

    Brown

    Sticky

    1.07

    Chloroform

    Brown

    Sticky

    8.38

    Plant parts

    Solvents

    Colour

    Nature of the extracts

    Extractive values (%)/ yield

    Seed

    Pet. Ether

    Brown

    stiky

    1.69

    Chloroform

    Brown

    sticky

    6.66

    Ehanol

    brown

    Semi solid

    4.02

    methanol

    Brown

    stiky

    3.02

    Water

    Brown

    Sticky

    6.06

    Root

    Pet. Ether

    Brown

    Sticky

    2.03

    Chloroform

    Brown

    Semisolid

    5.08

    Ehanol

    Brown

    sticky

    5.07

    methanol

    Dark brown

    semisolid

    10.09

    Water

    Brown

    sticky

    6.09

    TABLE 2: Data showing % Alcohol soluble extractive values and % Water soluble extractive values in Myrica esculenta

    Linn.Parts (Leave, Stem, Bark, Seed and Root).

    Sample Identity

    % of alcohol soluble extractive

    n=3

    % of Water soluble extractive

    n=3

    Leave

    35.3

    15.7

    Stem

    14.5

    24.8

    Bark

    8.6

    6.8

    Seed

    16.8

    19.5

    Root

    8.4

    12

    Maximum % of alcohol soluble extractive: Myrica leaves (35.3%). Maximum % of Water soluble extractive: Myrica stem (24.8%).

    TABLE 3: Data showing values of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash in Myrica esculenta Linn.Parts (Leave, Stem, Bark, Seed and Root).

    Sample Identity

    Moisture Content % n=3

    Total Ash % n=3

    Acid insoluble ash % n=3

    Leave

    8.72

    2.83

    0.52

    Stem

    9.93

    2.47

    0.02

    Bark

    5

    3.4

    1.5

    Seed

    6.32

    2.4

    1.3

    Root

    4.42

    1.3

    0.01

    Maximum moisture content: Myrica stem (9.93%).

    Maximum total ash: Myrica Bark (3.4%).

    Maximum acid insoluble ash: Myrica Bark(1.5%).

    Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis

    Extracts obtained were subjected to various chemical tests to detect the chemical constituents present in them .Results are tabulated in TABLE NO.4- 8.

    Table 4: Qualitative chemical tests of the extracts of Myrica esculenta Linn. (Leaf)

    Chemical Constituent

    Tests

    Pet.ether

    Chloroform

    Ethanol

    Methanol

    Water

    Alkaloids

    1. Mayers test

    +

    +

    +

    2.Dragendroffs test

    +

    +

    +

    3. Wagners test

    +

    +

    +

    4. Hagers test

    +

    +

    +

    Carbohydrates

    1. Molischs test

    +

    +

    +

    2. Benedicts test

    +

    +

    +

    3. Fehlings test

    +

    +

    +

    Glycosides

    1.ModifiedBorntragers

    +

    +

    +

    2. Legal test

    +

    +

    +

    Saponins

    1. Foam test

    +

    2. Froth test

    +

    Phytosterols

    1. Salkowski test

    +

    +

    +

    2.Libermann Burchard

    +

    +

    +

    3. Tschugajew test

    +

    +

    +

    Fats & Oil

    1. Stain test

    +

    Resins

    1. Acetone water test

    Phenols

    1. Ferric Chloride test

    +

    +

    +

    Tannins

    1. Gelatin test

    +

    +

    +

    Flavanoids

    1. Alkaline reagent

    +

    +

    +

    2. Lead acetate test

    +

    +

    +

    3. Shinoda test

    +

    +

    +

    4. Zn-Hcl reduction

    +

    +

    +

    Proteins

    1.Xanthoproteic test

    2. Ninhydrin test

    3. Biuret test

    Triterpenes

    1. Copper acetate test

    + = Positive; – = negative

    Table 5: Qualitative chemical tests of the extracts of Myrica esculenta Linn. (Stem)

    Chemical Constituent

    Tests

    Pet.ether

    Chloroform

    Ethanol

    Methanol

    Water

    Alkaloids

    1. Mayers test

    2.Dragendroffs test

    3. Wagners test

    4. Hagers test

    Carbohydrates

    1. Molischs test

    2. Benedicts test

    3. Fehlings test

    Glycosides

    1.ModifiedBorntragers

    2. Legal test

    Saponins

    1. Foam test

    +

    +

    +

    2. Froth test

    +

    +

    +

    Phytosterols

    1. Salkowski test

    +

    2.Libermann Burchard

    +

    3. Tschugajew test

    Fats & Oil

    1. Stain test

    Resins

    1. Acetone water test

    +

    +

    +

    Phenols

    1. Ferric Chloride test

    +

    +

    Tannins

    1. Gelatin test

    Flavanoids

    1. Alkaline reagent

    +

    2. Lead acetate test

    +

    +

    3. Shinoda test

    +

    +

    4. Zn-Hcl reduction

    +

    +

    Proteins

    1.Xanthoproteic test

    +

    +

    2. Ninhydrin test

    +

    +

    3. Biuret test

    Triterpenes

    1. Copper acetate test

    + = Positive; – = negative

    Table 6: Qualitative chemical tests of the extracts of Myrica esculenta Linn. (Bark)

    Chemical Constituent

    Tests

    Pet.ether

    Chloroform

    Ethanol

    Methanol

    Water

    Alkaloids

    1. Mayers test

    2.Dragendroffs test

    3. Wagners test

    4. Hagers test

    Carbohydrates

    1. Molischs test

    +

    +

    2. Benedicts test

    +

    +

    3. Fehlings test

    +

    +

    Glycosides

    1.ModifiedBorntragers

    2. Legal test

    Saponins

    1. Foam test

    +

    2. Froth test

    +

    +

    Phytosterols

    1. Salkowski test

    +

    +

    +

    2.Libermann Burchard

    +

    +

    3. Tschugajew test

    +

    +

    Fats & Oil

    1. Stain test

    +

    Resins

    1. Acetone water test

    Phenols

    1. Ferric Chloride test

    Tannins

    1. Gelatin test

    Flavanoids

    1. Alkaline reagent

    +

    +

    +

    2. Lead acetate test

    +

    +

    +

    3. Shinoda test

    +

    +

    +

    4. Zn-Hcl reduction

    +

    +

    +

    Proteins

    1.Xanthoproteic test

    2. Ninhydrin test

    3. Biuret test

    Triterpenes

    1. Copper acetate test

    + = Positive; – = negative

    Table 7: Qualitative chemical tests of the extracts of Myrica esculenta Linn. (Seed)

    Chemical Constituent

    Tests

    Pet.ether

    Chloroform

    Ethanol

    Methanol

    Water

    Alkaloids

    1. Mayers test

    2.Dragendroffs test

    3. Wagners test

    4. Hagers test

    Carbohydrates

    1. Molischs test

    +

    +

    2. Benedicts test

    +

    +

    3. Fehlings test

    +

    +

    Glycosides

    1.ModifiedBorntragers

    2. Legal test

    Saponins

    1. Foam test

    +

    +

    2. Froth test

    +

    +

    Phytosterols

    1. Salkowski test

    2.Libermann Burchard

    3. Tschugajew test

    Fats & Oil

    1. Stain test

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    Resins

    1. Acetone water test

    Phenols

    1. Ferric Chloride test

    Tannins

    1. Gelatin test

    +

    +

    +

    Flavanoids

    1. Alkaline reagent

    +

    +

    +

    2. Lead acetate test

    +

    +

    +

    3. Shinoda test

    +

    +

    +

    4. Zn-Hcl reduction

    +

    +

    +

    Proteins

    1.Xanthoproteic test

    2. Ninhydrin test

    3. Biuret test

    Triterpenes

    1. Copper acetate test

    Table 8: Qualitative chemical tests of the extracts of Myrica esculanta Linn. (Root)

    Chemical Constituent

    Tests

    Pet.ether

    Chloroform

    Ethanol

    Methanol

    Water

    Alkaloids

    1. Mayers test

    2.Dragendroffs test

    3. Wagners test

    4. Hagers test

    Carbohydrates

    1. Molischs test

    2. Benedicts test

    3. Fehlings test

    Glycosides

    1.ModifiedBorntragers

    2. Legal test

    Saponins

    1. Foam test

    2. Froth test

    Phytosterols

    1. Salkowski test

    2.Libermann Burchard

    3. Tschugajew test

    Fats & Oil

    1. Stain test

    Resins

    1. Acetone water test

    Phenols

    1. Ferric Chloride test

    Tannins

    1. Gelatin test

    Flavanoids

    1. Alkaline reagent

    2. Lead acetate test

    3. Shinoda test

    4. Zn-Hcl reduction

    Proteins

    1.Xanthoproteic test

    2. Ninhydrin test

    3. Biuret test

    Triterpenes

    1. Copper acetate test

    + = Positive; – = negative

  4. CONCLUSION:

The Conclusion of the research work of Such Parts as leaves, stem, bark, seed & roots were collected from Pinder velly Distt. Chamoli Garhwal (Uttrakhand) Himalaya Region . The testing for the presence of chemical constituents are Alkaloids, Flavanoids , Tannins, Phytosterols, Saponins are determine.The Extractive values (%)/ yield find out in Bark Metanol (23.06%) comperision to other part. Maximum % of alcohol soluble extractive: Myrica leaves (35.3%). Maximum % of Water soluble extractive: Myrica stem (24.8%). Maximum moisture content Myrica stem (9.93%). Maximum total ash: Myrica Bark (3.4%). Maximum acid insoluble ash: Myrica Bark(1.5%). The Flavnoids, tannis, Carbohydrate, resins and Phytosterols are presents mostly in all parts.

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