Performance Enhancement of Multi-Cylinder Common Rail Diesel Engine for Automotive Application

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Performance Enhancement of Multi-Cylinder Common Rail Diesel Engine for Automotive Application

Performance Enhancement of Multi-Cylinder

Common Rail Diesel Engine for Automotive Application

SUNDHARAM K, Dr.D.GANESH,

PG student, Assistant Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering, (Sr. Grade College of Engineering), Internal Combustion Engineering Divisions, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Guindy campus,Anna University, Internal Combustion Engineering Divisions,

Chennai-60002 Guindy Campus,Anna University, Chennai-600025

Modern diesel engines are becoming compact and quieter. The myth that diesel engines are noisy is changing. Thanks to the research and developments in engine downsizing and combustion efficiency improvements that makes achievement of very high specific power and better fuel economy possible. The three major areas in which modern research focuses are optimisation of turbocharging to get best torque especially at the low end, optimisation of fuel injection system for precise and consistent metering and mass optimisation of powertrain parts to realize better fuel consumption.

This thesis focuses on enhancing engine performance by optimisation of turbocharging and improving the combustion efficiency thereby achieving better fuel consumption. Performance enhancement is achieved through careful selection of Turbocharger to meet the increased airflow demand, selection of Charge Air Cooler to reduce the intake air temperature and selection of Piston to withstand higher peak firing pressures.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    In the race to cut CO2 emissions and boost fuel economy, there is broad consensus among vehicle manufacturers that downsizing the internal combustion engine or increasing the specific output of the engine. Increasing the power to weight ratio is basic mantra for reducing the fuel economy and meeting the stringent emission norms. Consumers want to drive more fuel efficient vehicles without affecting the Engine Performance.

    In the present work, the following targets are taken to increase the specific output of the Engine

    • To increase the Power output by 30%

    • To increase in the Max Torque by 15%

    • To reduce the minimum BSFC by 10%

    • To reduce the rated BSFC by 5%.

      The above targets can be achieved by means of

    • Turbocharging which delivers more air to the combustion chamber to burn additional fuel and to ensure highly efficient and clean combustion.

    • Intercooling reduces the temperature of intake air, thereby increases the density of air.

    • Efficient combustion by utilizing the maximum capability of Engine Components (Peak Firing Pressure).

    1. TURBOCHARGER

      Power output of the Engine is directly proportional to

      Mass flow rate of air and it can be increased by the following ways,

      • By increasing the speed of the engine.

      • By increasing the size of the engine.

      • By increasing the number of cylinders.

      • By means of supercharger.

      • By means of Turbocharger.

        Of the above, Turbocharger is the efficient way of providing increased mass flow rate of air.

        It is a device, which uses the Exhaust energy to drive a Turbine. This Turbine is coupled to Compressor through a shaft. The energy extracted in the Turbine will be utilized to drive the compressor and finally the energy will be imparted to intake air. Thereby, the charge air pressure and mass flow rate is increased.

        K.Sundharam,D.Ganesh

        403

        Proceedings of International Conference ICSEM13

        Parameter

        Existing Engine Configuration

        Proposed Engine Configuration

        Rated Power in kw

        40.5

        55

        BSFC in g/kwh

        250

        235

        Fuel Flow in kg/h

        10.125

        12.92

        Air Fuel Ratio

        24

        24.8

        Air flow in kg/h

        243

        320

        Schematic layout of TC / CAC Engine is shown Fig. 1

        Fig. 1: Schematic Layout of TC / CAC Engine

    2. CHARGE AIR COOLER

      Charged Air Cooler (CAC) or Intercooler is a Heat Exchanger device, which removes heat from the compressed charge air (after TC) at Constant Pressure and delivers it to the Cylinders through intake valve. By means of cooling the charge air the following benefits can be obtained,

      1. Increased air density / Oxygen availability for Combustion

      2. Less Exhaust Temperature.

      3. Less nox Formation.

      4. Increased Volumetric Efficiency.

      5. Reduced Compression work.

      In the present work, Air to Air CAC type being used for cooling the intake air.

    3. PISTON

    Piston is a device which reciprocates inside the Cylinder Bore and converts the Heat energy obtained through Combustion of Fuel air mixture into useful work by means of Connecting Rod and Crankshaft. Top surface of the Piston (Crown) is subjected to High pressure and temperature of Combustion.

    Piston undergoes thermal fatigue, as the temperature inside the cylinder varies from atmospheric Temperature to Peak Cylinder Temperature. Generally Pistons are made of Aluminum in order to keep reciprocating mass under certain limited / minimum values.

    Along with Cylinder Head, Piston and its Bowl, Rings will form the Combustion Chamber. Bowl used in the present work is of re-entrant type, to improve turbulence, thereby better mixing.

    Air Flow (in kg/h) = Fuel Flow (in kg/h) * (A/F) Table 1:- Air flow Calculation @ Rated Power

    Step 2:- Boost Pressure Requirement Calculation To calculate the required engine inlet pressure (kpa)

    Air Mass Flow in kg/s

    N Engine RPM

    Volumetric Efficiency

    V – Engine Displacement in Litres

    T2 – Compressor Outlet Temperature in K.

    R – Specific gas constant of the air (287 J/kg K)

    Step 3: Calculation of Compression Pressure Ratio Pressure before Compressor

    Pressure After Compressor

    (Taking Intercooler Pressure Drop into account) Pressure Ratio (pc )

  2. TURBOCHARGER MATCHING PROCESS

    1. TC COMPRESSOR SELECTION PROCEDURE Step 1:- Air flow Calculation

      Based on Engine Power, BSFC and Air Fuel Ratio,

      Air flow can be calculated

      Fuel Flow (in kg/h) = Power (in kw) * BSFC (in g/kwh) / 1000.

      Fig 2 :- Parameters of TCIC Engine

      404

      Step 4: Selection by Plotting Results in Compressor Map

      • Calculated values of Air Mass Flow, Pressure Ratio for Low Engine Speed, Max Torque & Rated Power to be Plotted on Compressor Map given in Fig. .

      • The following parameters to be taken while selecting the Compressor

        • Good Efficiency at Low Speed, Rated Power and Max Torque

        • Altitude Reserve

        • Adequate Surge Margin

      Based on the Engine Target Performance, Turbocharger with ø41mm Compressor had been selected. Engine Air flow requirements are plotted on the below compressor Map and all the above parameters for selecting the compressor had been achieved.

      Fig 3 :- Engine Air Flow Curve on Turbo Compressor Map

    2. CAC PERFORMANCE TARGETS.

    Table 2 :- CAC Performance Targets

    Performance condition

    Value

    Air flow rate (kg/s)

    0.089

    Cooling air speed (m/s)

    9

    Inlet Pressure (bar)

    2.2

    Temperature before intercooler (°C)

    170

    Ambient Temperature (°C)

    35

    Performance Target

    Temp after intercooler (°C)

    55

    Charge air pressure drop (mbar)

    50

    Air side pressure drop across the Charger (mbar)

    8

    Heat Rejection (kw)

    10.28

    .

    HEAT REJECTION

    Qrint = mair * Cp * (T2 T2)

    Qrint Heat Rejected in Intercooler in kw Mair Mass Flow Rate of air in kg/s

    Cp Specific Heat of Air at Constant Pressure (1.005 kj / kg K) T2 Temperature of air before Intercooler in °K

    T2 Temperature of air after Intercooler in °K

  3. COMPARISION OF ENGINE PERFORMANCE

    DATA

    The below performance curve provides the comparison between the existing Engine performance data and new proposed Engines target Performance.

    1. POWER

      Fig.4 :- Variation of Brake Power with Speed

    2. TORQUE

      Fig 5:- Variation of Torque with Speed

    3. BSFC

      Fig 6:- Variation of BSFC with Speed

    4. AIR FLOW

    Fig 7 :- Variation Air flow with Speed

  4. ENGINE PERFORMANCE TESTING.

    1. TRIAL – 1

      Performance Testing conducted on the Engine with the New Turbocharger, Charge Air Cooler and Piston. Fueling increased to increase the power output (55kw) of Engine. Correspondingly, the required air flow (315 kg/h) was achieved by adjusting the Wastegate of the Turbocharger. However, the Turbo Compressor Outlet Temperature was increased to 188°C from the target value of 170°C max., due to the increase in boost pressure (1600mbar Gauge). Moreover the Exhaust Gas pressure also increased up to 2800mbar Gauge approx. And it directly impacts the BSFC, which increases to 247 g/kwh from the target value of 235 g/kwh.

      Targets met in the Performance Testing

      1. Power of 55kw achieved

      2. Torque of 175 Nm achieved

      3. Air Flow of 315 kg/h achieved

      4. Exhaust Temperature maintained within 720°C

        Targets not met in the Performance Testing

      5. Turbo Compressor outlet temperature too high (188°C). Results in higher loss of Heat Energy from the CAC.

      6. Exhaust Gas pressure before Turbine too high.

      7. BSFC not meeting the target of 235 g/kwh Performance Report of Trial 1 is as follows,

        Fig 8 :- Variation Power & Torque with Speed

        Fig 9 :- Variation Air flow & Exh Temp with Speed

        Fig 10 :- Variation BSFC with Speed

    2. TRIAL – 2

      Engine Performance Testing repeated and the target Power & Torque are achieved by re-adjusting the Turbocharger wastegate setting to reduce the Air flow to 295kg/h inorder to keep the compressor outlet temperature within the acceptable limit of 170°C max. With the reduced Compressor Outlet temperature, the air is cooled to a temperature of 55°C and less heat rejected through the CAC. At the same time, the exhaust gas pressure before Turbine also within limit, such that the BSFC of Engine meets the target value of 235 g/kwh. However there is an increase in the Temperature of Exhaust gas to 703°C, still it is within limit of given Boundary Condition (720°C).

      Targets met in the Performance Testing

      1. Power of 55kw achieved

      2. Torque of 175 Nm achieved

      3. BSFC of 235 g/kwh

      4. Exhaust Temperature maintained within 720°C

      5. Turbo Compressor outlet temperature maintained at 170°C. Results in higher loss of Heat Energy from the CAC.

      6. Exhaust Gas pressure before Turbine within the acceptable limits.

    Fig 11 :- Variation Power & Torque with Speed

    Fig 12 :- Variation Air flow & Exh Temp with Speed

    Fig 13 :- Variation BSFC with Speed

  5. CONCLUSIONS

In both the performance trials the Target Power and Torque have been achieved with the new improved Turbocharger, Piston & Charge Air Cooler. However, BSFC was better in Trial 2, where the air flow was optimised such that the Heat loss through the CAC and the Pumping losses are minimum. Based on these results, Performance Trial 2 had been considered as best optimised solution for the given boundary condition.

Future scope of research in this area involves optmisation of Turbine to handle more gas flow without increasing the back pressure. VNT Turbocharger can be matched to improve the performance of Engine futher without any additonal penalty on the Fuel Consumption.

REFERENCES

[1]. Changryul, C., Sunhyuk, K. And Sunghwan, C. Development of Fuel Consumption of Passenger Diesel Engine with 2 Stage Turbocharger, SAE technical paper series, 2006-01-0021, 2006 .

[2]. Manabu, F., Yoshihiro, T. And Masaharu, U. The Development of 1.5 liter Direct injection Turbocharged Diesel Engine with Intercooler for Farm Tractors, SAE technical paper series, 891765, 1989.

[3]. Masaaki, K., Masayuki, W. And Katsuhiro, H. New 12L 6WA1TC Turbocharged Diesel Engine, SAE technical paper series, 930718, 1993.

[4]. Michael Mayer, Turbochargers, Effective use of exhaust gas energy, borgwarner Turbo systems, 2001.

[5]. Michael, S., Horst B. And Kuno, F. The New Mercedes-Benz OM 904 LA Light Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for Class 6 Trucks, SAE technical paper series, 960057, 1996.

[6]. Mohammad, G. And Rodica, B. nox Reduction Using Injection Rate Shaping and Intercooling in Diesel Engines, SAE technical paper series, 960845, 1996.

[7]. Steve, A., Mark, G., Shahed, S.M. and Kevin, S. Advanced Variable Geometry Turbocharger for Diesel Engine Applications SAE technical paper series, 2002-01-0161, 2002.

[8]. Steve, A. Turbocharging Technologies to Meet Critical Performance Demands of Ultra-Low Emissions Diesel Engines, SAE technical paper series, 2004-01-1359, 2004.

[9]. Http://www.turbo.honeywell.com/turbo-basics

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