Performance and Emission Analysis of Compression Ignition Diesel Engine With Diesel Additives and Mahua Biodiesel

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV3IS041237

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Performance and Emission Analysis of Compression Ignition Diesel Engine With Diesel Additives and Mahua Biodiesel

Jibitesh Kumar Panda1, Vemparala Gopala Krishna 2, Dr. G. R. K Sastry 3 1Mechanical Engineering (M.Tech Student) NIT Agartala, Tripura-799055, India 2Mechanical Engineering (B.Tech Student) NIT Agartala, Tripura-799055, India

3Mechanical Engineering (Associate Professor), NIT Agartala, Tripura-799055, India

Abstract The insufficiency of conservative fossil fuel, their increasing cost and the detrimental effects of combustion engendered pollutants seems to make alternative birthplaces more alluring. Mahua is non-comestible in nature and is available abundantly. The present experiment assesses the performance and emission distinctive of a diesel engine using dissimilar blends of mahua biodiesel, 2-EHN and ethanol with mineral diesel. Biodiesel and diesel additive was blended with diesel in proportions of 20%, 100% by mass and studied under various load conditions. The performance and emission parameters were found to be better than the mineral diesel. The brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption were better than mineral diesel for various precise blends. The emission characteristics were also deliberated and volume of exhaust gas temperature and unborn hydrocarbon were found to be lesser than pure diesel.

Keywords Mahua Biodiesel; Transesterification; A1- 2Ethylhexyle Nitrate, A2-Ethanol; B100-Bio diesel; D100-Pure diesel; BL 1-B10 A1(10) D80; BL 2-B10 A2(10) D80; BL 3-B10 A1(5) A2(5) D80; BL 4- B20 D80


    Environmental contamination and depletion in fossil fuel resources forced scientists and engineers to concentrate investigation on renewable alternative to conventional fossil fuel. An immense deal of explorations work mainly on diesel engines has taken place not only in the design are but also in penetrating an alternative fuel [1-4]. Many researchers have concluded that biodiesel holds pledge as an alternative fuel. At present biodiesel produced mainly from meadow crop oils like rape seed, sun flower etc. We can see the various properties shown in the table 1 with comparing pure diesel. Transestrification, also called alcholysis, is the displacement of one alcohol from an ester by another alcohol in a process similar to hydrolysis. RCOOR+ROH RCOOR +ROH. Triglycerides are readily trans-esterified in the presence of alkaline catalyst at atmospheric pressure and at a temperature of approximately 600 to 700 [4-5]. Automobile sector contributes a significant amount of carbon dioxide, one of the principal greenhouse gasses. [6]


    1. Biodiesel properties

      Table 1

      Fuel properties of crude mahua oil, mahua biodiesel and pure diesel





      Density at 150C (kg/m3)




      Viscosity at

      400C (mm2/s)




      Calorific value





      Acidic value (mg KOH/g)



      Flash Point(0C)




      Pour Point(0C)




      Water content





      Ash content (%)




      Carbon residue





    2. Diesel additive properties

      Table 2




      Molecular weight (g/mol)



      Flash point (0C)



      Freezing point(0C)



      Boiling point(0C)



      Auto ignition temperature(0C)



      Density (kg/m3)



      Properties of 2-EHN, Ethanol

    3. Experimental setup and procedure

    The engine was used for experimental work consist of single cylinder, four stroke, diesel engine which connected to eddy current type dynamometer. The Rota-meter provided flow of water measurement purpose. The provision available to provide different load (3 kg, 6kg, 9Kg and 12 kg) on the engine, leading to load ranging like 0% 25% and ending up at 100% (Fig.1). A five gas analyzer was used for the measurement of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), carbon dioxide (CO2) which was measured as ppm, fitted at the exhaust, by this arrangement we can get the emission characteristics [6-9] (Fig.2). A burette which is made from glass is provided for fuel measurement biodiesel and diesel separately, a stop watch is also used and then we could calculate the bsfc[11-13]. The experiment was started at a rated speed of 1500 rpm. No adjustment was made at the fuel injection timing; 23° BTDC was used for diesel and mahua biodiesel, respectively. [9-11] The experiment was conducted by using D100, B20 A1(5) A2(5) D70, B20 A1(10) D70, B20 A2(10)D70, B20 B80 and B100, at

    different load conditions on the engine from 0% to 100% in appropriate steps at compression ratios (CR) of 17.5:1.

    The performance test was carried out on a single cylinder DI diesel engine using high speed diesel, methyl ester of mahua oil, diesel additives (2-EHN, Ethanol) and their blends with diesel by ENGINE SOFT by Apex Innovations pvt ltd (Fig.1). The engine exhaust gas was analyzed and calculated by TESTO 350 gas analyzer (Fig.2). [8-12]

    Figure 1

    Fig.1 Experimental setup

    Figure 2

    Fig.2 Gas analyzer


    1. Performance analysis

      1. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE)

        The BTE of direct injection diesel engine obtain for different blends shown in figure.3 as a function of load for compression ratio is 18.1. It can be seen from this figure that BTE in general, increasing with increasing in load.

        The variations in BTE between various loads of blends at full load conditions were more than those at parts loads. The BTE of BL 1 was about 3% more than that of pure diesel (D100) for BL 2 it was like 1.6 %. For BL 4 and BL 100 it was like 2%, 5% more as compared to D100.

        Fig.3 BTE vs Load

      2. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC)

        The variation of BSFC with load for different fuels is presented in fig.4. The BSFC, in general, was found that decreasing with addition of biodiesel and additives. The BSFC of BL 1 was about 28% less than that of pure diesel (D100) and for BL 2 it was like 10 %. For BL 4 and BL 100 it was like 32%, 35% less as compared to D100.

        Fig.4 BSFC vs Load

    2. Emission analysis

      1. Exhaust gas temperature

        The Exhaust gas temperature with respect to varying in loads (Fig.5) in general, was found that decreasing with addition of biodiesel and additives. The BSFC of BL 1 was about 4.3% less than that of pure diesel (D100) and for BL 2 it was like 2.3 %. For BL 4 and BL 100 it was like 3%, 2% more as compared o D100. In case of BL 3 it was 3.7

        % more than diesel.

      2. Unborn hydrocarbon (CxHy)

    The CxHy with respect to varying in loads (Fig.6) in general, was found that decreasing with addition of biodiesel and additives. The BSFC of BL 1 was about 16% less than that of pure diesel (D100) and for BL 2 it was like 10%. For BL 4 and BL 100 it was like 15%, 8% less as compared to D100. In case of BL 3 it was 5% less than diesel.

    Fig.6 CxHy vs Load


    The aim of the present experimental investigation was to analyses the performances and emissions of Mahua biodiesel, 2-EHN and Ethanol blends with pure diesel. The following conclusions are drawn from the tentative results:

    • Mahua biodiesel and diesel additives (2-EHN, Ethanol) seems to have a potential to be used as a substitute fuel in Direct Injection diesel engines without any alteration.

    • The brake thermal efficiency (Fig.3) was 3% better than D100 and for the bland BL1 shows a better efficiency as compared to the pure diesel.

    • Brake specific fuel consumption is lower for Mahua biodiesel blends and additives than D100 (Fig.4). The blend BL1 have 30% less BSFC then D100

    • Most of the major exhaust pollutants such as CxHy and exhaust gas temperature (Fig.6) (Fig.7) are reduced with the use of biodiesel and the additive. By using BL4 we can reduce 16% CxHy and exhaust gas temperature like 4.3% for BL1.

    • From the experimental analysis for both performances and emissions, it is concluded that BL1 could replace the diesel for diesel engine for better performance.

    Fig.5 Exhaust gas temperature vs Load


    The authors acknowledge the research to the Mechanical department, National Institute of Technology, Agartala.


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