Performance Analysis of Three Phase Inverter for Minimizing Total Harmonic Distortion using PWM Technique

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV10IS11163

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Performance Analysis of Three Phase Inverter for Minimizing Total Harmonic Distortion using PWM Technique

B Sneha

Dept of EEE

The oxford college of engineering

Bharath V S

Dept of EEE

The oxford college of engineering

AbstractThere are amounts of Pulse width change (PWM) techniques used in current applications which require common execution. The routinely used and striking Pulse Width Modulation strategies are Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM), 60° Pulse Width Modulation (SDPWM) and Third Harmonic Pulse Width Modulation (THPWM). Another emerging change technique is Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM). Using SVPWM system make the sinusoidal outcome voltage using hardware and duplicate something practically the same in MATLAB programming

on THD is checked. Be that as it may, impact of exchanging recurrence isn't considered in the investigation. An essential overview among SPWM and SVPWM has been directed. THPWM shows decreased THD contrasted with SPWM. Once more, SVPWM offers most minimal THD with more prominent execution than different strategies and greatappropriate adaptable result. The most broadly involved inverter in our regular routine is Three- stage inverter.

KeywordsThree-phase inverter, pulse with modulation, sinusoidal pulse with modulation(svpwm), space vector pwm, Third harmonic distortion (THD).


    An inverter is an electrical gadget, and it is fit for changing a DCflow to an AC flow at a given recurrence as well as voltage. For example, if we need to give power supply to home apparatuses then it will utilize 230V AC. At times, when the AC power isn't free then power supply can be given to the home machines through a 12V inverter. Inverters are appropriate for PV frameworks to give the stockpile to the electrical gadgets in mountain hovels, segregated houses, boats, camper vans, and so on.

    The fundamental head of an alternator is to swap over dc input energy to ac yield energy. An ideal result voltage can be acquired by controlling the exchanging strategy of inverter. This is typically achieved by beat width-tweak (PWM) procedure. The significant four sorts of PWM strategies which are by and large utilized for three-stage inverters are Sinusoidal PWM (SPWM), Third- Harmonic Injected PWM (THPWM), Sixty Degree PWM(SDPWM), and Space Vector PWM (SVPWM). Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) is the most broadly recognized and well known PWM method. SPWM is utilized economically because of its simple execution. Both SPWM and Third HarmonicPWM show great execution in modern application. Exchanging recurrence is fluctuated to inspect the impact of THD for both SPWM and THPWM.

    The reenactment shows that THPWM offers preferred execution over SPWM. Different adjustment strategies like SPWM, Trapezoidal PWM, SDPWM and THPWM are examined by shifting balance record and exchanging recurrence. THPWMoffers 3.99% THD when balance list 1 and exchanging recurrence20 kHz. Impact of balance list


    A complete reproduction study and exploratory outcomes exhibited the great execution of the proposed control technique.

    Execution of the control framework Execution of the inverterframework Execution of the pv framework

    The total investigation of PWM procedure is proposed toaccomplish lower THD and worked on quality result.


    In this, the four tweak strategies and their exhibition variety are concentrated on in light of exchanging recurrence and regulation file.

    By changing these we have attempted to figure out which adjustment procedure offers the least THD and has a superior exhibition for three-stage inverter.

    A total investigation of SVPWM strategies is proposed to accomplish lower THD and worked on quality result.


    K. Salimian, M.R.; Aghamohammadi, M.R. proposed "A Three Stages Decision Tree-Based Intelligent Blackout Predictor for Power Systems Using Brittleness Indices". Flowing blackout is one of the primary instruments for driving power frame work to ward power outage. Anticipating the potential and pattern of force framework toward power outage assists administrator with choosing what to do as preventive activity against power outage. In this paper, for foreseeing the size of expected power outage, a three phases based choice tree indicator is proposed for assessing the size of the conceivable power outage. For this reason, the capacity for reproducing the most common way of flowing occasions is inserted inside power processing plant programming by demonstrating distance, load shedding, conflicted, and under/over recurrence transfers. During the most common way of flowing disappointments and pattern of force framework toward power outage, for checking fragile state of force

    frameworks, framework functional factors are acquired from WAMS by whicha progression of online weakness files are constantly assessed at the back to back time spans. The proposed three phases anticipating plan empowers one to segregate the seriousness of flowing disappointments and framework weak condition into threesizes of power outage, specifically, , , and ( <; <; ) for which the assessment cycle are directed separately for each size yet organized. The proposed insightful plan is shown on 39- transport New England test framework and Iran 1063- transport power framework with promising outcomes [1].

    Zhang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Dong, Z.Y. proposed "Strong Ensemble Data Analytics for Incomplete PMU Measurements-Based Power System Stability Assessment". This letter proposes another gathering information investigation model for PMU-based pre-possibility strength evaluation (SA) thinking about deficient information estimations. The model comprises of a base number of single classifiers which are, separately, prepared by a decisively chosen group of PMU estimations. Under any PMU missing situation, the power network discernibleness from accessible PMUs can in any case be guaranteed to the greatest degree to keep up with the SA precision. The proposed technique is confirmed through both hypothetical evidence and mathematical reproductions [2].

    Amini, S.; Pasqualetti, F.; Mohsenian-Rad, H. proposed "Dynamic burden changing assaults against power framework steadiness: Attack models and assurance plans". Dynamic burden modifying assaults (D-LAAs) are presented as another class of digital actual assaults against shrewd lattice request reaction programs. The essential qualities of D-LAAs are made sense of. In like manner, D- LAAs are grouped as far as open-circle versus shut circle assaults, single-point versus multi-point assaults, the kind of criticism, and the sort of assault regulator.

    A particular shut circle D-LAA against power framework solidness is formed and broke down, where the aggressor controls the progressions in the casualty load in view of a criticism from the power framework recurrence. An assurance framework is planned against D-LAAs by forming and settling a non-curved post arrangement streamlining issue. Vulnerability as for assault sensor area is tended to. Contextual analyses are introduced to survey framework weaknesses, effects of single- point and multi- point assaults, and ideal burden assurance in an IEEE 39 transport test framework [3].

    Yushan Liu, JIE HE, Baoming GE, Xiao LI, Yaosuo XUE, and Frede Blaabjerg. "A Simple Space Vector Modulation of High- Frequency AC Linked Three-Phase-to-Single- Phase/DC Converter". In this covering cunning space vector change (SVM) strategy is proposed for such kind of converer. The proposed SVM strategy switches the mains three-stage ac voltage over totally to a HF ac voltage at the fundamental side of transformer, and subsequently spreads out the HF ac voltage to a single stage ac or dc voltage at the helper side of transformer. Without need to figure

    separate trading signals for the fundamental and discretionary converters and a while later direction their errands complicatedly, the proposed SVM method can be really completed by coordinating the HF slicing into the SVM of standard deviant system converter. As needs be, no obfuscated commitment cycle estimation or elaborate trading states blend is required. Propagation and gear in- circle execution show the authenticity of the proposed methodology [4].Crestian Almazan Agustin, Jen-te yu, Cheng-kai lin, Jung jai, and Yen-shin lai. "Triple Voltage- Vector Model-Free Predictive Current Control for Four- Switch Three-Phase Inverter-Fed SPMSM Based on Discrete-Space-Vector Modulation". The proposed TVV- MFPCC uses the rule of discrete-space-vector change (DSVM) to construct the voltage vector conclusions. Three fundamental voltage vectors, either the same or specific, are straightly joined to yield the mixed voltage vectors. An overabundance voltage vector decline plot is furthermore familiar with reduce assessments by in a perfect world diminishing the newcomer voltage vectors to sixteen indistinguishable cross variety trading modes. To additionally foster figure precision, the TVV- MFPCC performs three exceptional current readings and three current differentiation assessments in one examining period. general control outline of the proposed DTC with SVPWM, which incorporates: three stage inverter, dc rectifier, inverter, regulator and burden.

    Fig 1. The block diagram of basic inverter system


    Many electronic circuits use DC voltage for operation. we are ableto simply convert AC voltage or current into DC voltage or currentby employing a device called a contact diode. A contact diode permits electrical phenomenon to flow in forward bias condition and blocks the present in reverse bias condition. Simply, a diode permits electrical phenomenon to flow in one direction solely.

  6. APPLICATIONS OF RECTIFIERS Rectifiers are utilized in tweak, demodulation and voltage multipliers. Half-wave rectifiers are utilized as a transmission top finder in AM radio. Rectifiers are utilized in electric welding to give spellbound voltage.

  7. DC LINK

    A DC interface is ordinarily used to associate a rectifier (or other DC source like a battery) and an inverter. A DC interface capacitoris utilized as a heap adjusting energy stockpiling gadget. This capacitor is associated in lined up between the positive and the negative rails and forestalls the homeless people on the heap side from returning to the info side. It likewise smooths the beats in theamended DC

    input.The determination of the right DC interface capacitor is critical toaccomplish the appropriate presentation of the framework. For instance, an under-planned DC connect capacitor can cause untimely disappointment or will cause EMI bringing about issues with electronic hardware. An over-planned DC interface capacitor isn't as savvy or size- proficient. Two significant attributes of DC connect capacitors are low ESR and high wave current rating.


    A robbery capacitor is a particular DC interface capacitor found inAC/DC power supplies. As well as going about as a heap adjustinggadget between the rectifier and inverter segments, burglary capacitors give additional energy stockpiling to help the result voltage for a predetermined "robbery time" subsequent to eliminating the AC input power. Robbery time for a power supplyis characterized as the time during which the result voltage stays inguideline after evacuation of the info voltage. For AC/DC power supplies, it is ordinarily determined at full burden and both high acline and low ac line conditions. For instance, for a 3.3Vdcresult with a ±10% (±0.33V) managed yield, the hold-up time is estimated from the time the information is eliminated to the time that the result voltage drops to 2.97V. Average robbery times for the present frameworks range from 15ms to 50m a reduced and rectangular formed electrical gear accustomed change over direct flow (DC) voltage to work flow (AC) voltage in like manner machines. The utilizations of DC includes several little varieties of hardware like sun based totally power frameworks. Direct flow is used in associate passing sizable quantity of the little electrical hardware, for example, daylight based totally power frameworks, power batteries, power-sources, energy units in light- weight of the actual fact that these unit of measurement primarily created direct flow.

    The essential job of Associate in Nursing converter is to vary DC power into AC power. The AC power or typically provided to homes, and ventures utilizing the final service if not power framework, the work power frameworks of the batteries can store merely DC power. Now and yet again, by and massive, the data voltage is lesser at in spite of purpose the result voltage could be a double for the lattice supply voltage of either 100 twenty V in any case

    240 V visible of the country. These gadgets unit of measurement freelance gadgets certain applications like daylight based totally power. There unit of measurement varied types of inverters accessible inside the market visible of the exchanging wave undulation form. Associate in Nursing converter utilizes DC power sources to relinquish Associate in Nursing AC voltage to giving the stock to the electronic equally as electrical gear. Inverters unit of measurement organized into two kind's specially single stage and three stages.


    These unit of measurement utilized in Associate in Nursing assortment of utilizations like minuscule vehicle connectors to the geographical point, family applications, equally as immense lattice frameworks.

    • Inverters or typically utilized as Associate in Nursing UPS-Uninterruptible power provides

    • These or typically utilized as freelance inverters

    • These or typically utilized in sun dimensioning powerframeworks

    • associate converter is that the essential structure sq. of aSMPS-exchanged mode power supply.

    • These or typically utilized in Centrifugal fans, siphons, blenders, extruders, check stands. transports, metering siphons and Web-taking care of gear.


    Regulator is used to control the voltage and repetition esteem visible of the need of the framework.

    Arduino Microcontroller:

    An ATmega328 is valid a microcontroller based absolutely unit which could be either used straight by purchasing from the industrialist or normally made gathering using the climate, because of its open proposition instrumentation feature. it's essentially used in correspondences and in predominant or functional differed devices.

    Arduinos processor primarily uses the Harvard style where the program code and program data have separate memory. It consists of two memories- Program memory and conjointly the knowledge memory. The code is keep inside the flash program memory, whereas the information is keep inside the information memory. The Atmega328 has thirty 2 memory board unit of storage for storing code (of that zero.5 memory board unit is used for the bootloader), 2 memory board unit of SRAM and onememory board unit of EEPROM and operates with a clock speed of 16MHz.


    An ordinary illustration of Arduino board is Arduino Uno. It includes of ATmega328-a twenty eight pin microcontroller. Arduino Uno includes of fourteen processed input/yield pins (of that six or typically utilized as PWM yields), six easy informationsources, a sixteen MHz gem generator, a USB association, associate influence jack, Associate in Nursing ICSP header, and a push. Thebelow fig 2. Shows the arduino pin chart

    Fig 2: Arduino Pin Diagram


    The DC voltage source is associated with the inverter which givesthree stage supply to enlistment engine. The voltage sufficiency isgiven as 400V. In equipment, help converter is utilized to move forward the voltage from battery or rectifier related with auto transformer.


    3 stage alternators typically utilized for lofty strength appeal. 3 one-stage half-span inverters can be associated as displayed i,e fig 3 shape a setup of 3-stage alternators.

    Fig 3 Three phase bridge inverter

    The barrier signs of 1- stage alternators ought to occur progressed, postponed by one hundred twenty degree with individual to one another to acquire three stage adjusted voltages. Table :1 shown switch states for three phase voltagesource inverter.

    A three stage result can be gotten from a setup of six stages. An inverter contains electronic switches, it is feasible to control the result voltage as well as advance the sounds by playing out various exchanging inside the inverter with the steady dc input voltage Vd. The PWM guideline to control the result voltage is displayed in fig 4. The essential voltage V1 has the greatest abundancy

    (4Vd/) at square wave, But by making two indents as displayed, the size can be decreased. Assuming the indent widthsare expanded, the key voltage will be decreased. Lap copy of a solitary stage alternator with a middle pressed become stranded DC transport, the accompanying circuit shows rule of heartbeat width balance. semiconductor and six diodes as displayed in fig 3

    There are two sorts of conductions relying upon the control signalutilized:

    1. 120 conduction.

    2. 180 conduction.

      The 180 conduction has better use of the switches and is thefavored strategy change states to deliver non- zero AC yield voltages. Examination of three stage VSI is completed in either 1200 mode or 1800 method of conduction. Here 1800 method of conduction is introduced and each switch turned on at each 600. Conduction of switches in each exchanging states, post voltages estimated at 'a' and 'b' and burden voltage ( Vab ) are displayed in the accompanying Table1:

      Table 1:Switching states and output voltage


    An inverter contains electronic switches, it is feasible to control theresult voltage as well as advance the sounds by playing out variousexchanging inside the inverter with the steady dc input voltage Vd.The PWM guideline to control the result voltage is displayed in fig 4. The essential voltage V1 has the greatest abundancy (4Vd/) atsquare wave, But by making two indents as displayed, the size can be decreased. Assuming the indent widths are expanded, the key voltage will be decreased. Lap copy of a solitary stage alternator with a middle pressed become stranded DC transport, the accompanying circuit shows rule of heartbeat width balance.

    Fig 4:The PWM principle to control the output voltage

  15. 180 CONDUCTION

    Every semiconductor regulates as one hundred eighty degree. Three semiconductors stay on a part of moment of time. Wheneversemiconductor Q1 is turned on, final an associated with the positive end of the dc load emf. At the point while semiconductorQ4 is turned on, end is obtain through adverse ed of the dc source.There are 6 methods of activity in a cycle and the span of every mode is sixty . semiconductors are numeral in the arrangement of barrier semiconductors.

    Run of the mill three-stage VSI geography is displayed beneath and center places of the inverter legs are associated with three stage RL load. There are the eight substantial switch states which are given in Switching Table. The switches of any leg of the inverter ( S1 and S4 , S3 and S6 or S5and S2) can't be turned on all the while. Since it would bring about hamper the DC connect voltage supply. Also, the switches of any leg of the inverter can'tbe turned off at the same time to stay away from indistinct states in the VSI and hence unclear ac yield line voltages.

    Two of eight legitimate states (7 and 8) are called as zero changestates to deliver zero AC line voltages. For this situation, the AC line flows freewheel through either the upper or lower parts. The leftover states (1 to 6 in Switching Table) are called as non-zero.


Fig:5 Block diagram of SPWM

In this, the dc voltage wellspring of 400V is associatedwith the three stage load through the inverter. The svpwm method is utilized for creating the beats whichis given to inverter. The heap voltage waveforms are given underneath:

Fig 6: Output voltage of spwm

The %THD of the load voltage for spwm technique is provided below:

Fig 7: simulation results

The rms voltage value for the load voltage for modulation indexof 1 is provided below:

Fig 8: output voltage for RMS voltage.

The rms value of the load voltage for m=1 is around 175V. Whenthe modulation index is varied, the rms voltage also varies accordingly.

The rms value of load voltage for m=0.5 is provided below

Fig 9: Resultant voltage of spwm

For m=0.5, the rms load voltage is around 150V. The %THD for the load voltage with switching frequencyfs=2KHz is provided below:

Fig 10: simulation result

The %THD for load voltage is around 0.51% for Fs=2KHz.When the switching frequency is increased to 5KHz,

the %THD is reduced as provided below:

Fig 11: simulation result

The %THD for load voltage is around 0.32% for Fs=5KHz.


A SVPWM strategy which is a computerized balancing procedurein view of a decreased calculation technique was introduced. In SVPWM procedure, the inverter gating signals got from the examined amplitudes of the reference stage voltages. The SVPWM plot drive the inverter with eight exchanging states, this exchanging states can be addressed by a state vector in the two- hub space framed a hexagon shape with six areas. The time timespan the state vectors in every area determined in a tested time T to execute the expected regulation strategy. The adjustment record ways to deal with (90.6%) and the most extreme result principal is (0.577Vdc) in light of the fact that the direct area in SVPWM is bigger than different kinds of PWM method. SVPWM method gives a steady exchanging recurrence and gives a superb symphonious decrease in yield voltage and current.


[1] Salimian, M.R.; Aghamohammadi, M.R. A Three StagesDecision Tree-Based Intelligent Blackout Predictor for Power Systems Using Brittleness Indices. IEEE Trans. Savvy Grid 2018,9, 5123- 5131. [CrossRef] [2] Zhang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Dong, Z.Y. Vigorous Ensemble DataAnalytics for Incomplete PMU Measurements-Based Power System Stability Assessment. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 2018, 33,1124- 1126. [CrossRef] [3] Amini, S.; Pasqualetti, F.; Mohsenian-Rad, H. Dynamicburden

adjusting assaults against power framework solidness: Attack models and assurance plans. IEEE Trans. Brilliant Grid 2018, 9, 2862-2872. [CrossRef] [4] Yushan Liu, JIE HE, Baoming GE, Xiao LI, Yaosuo XUE, and Frede Blaabjerg. "A Simple Space Vector Modulationof High- Frequency AC Linked Three-Phase-to- Single-Phase/DC Converter". Date of distribution March 6, 2020, date of current form April 7, 2020 (IEEE).

[5] Crestian Almazan Agustin, Jen-te yu, Cheng-kai lin, Jung jai, and Yen-shin lai. "TripleVoltage-Vector Model-Free Predictive Current Control for Four-Switch Three-Phase Inverter- Fed SPMSM Based on Discrete-Space-Vector Modulation". Dateof distribution April 19, 2021, date of current variant April 27, 2021 (IEEE).

[6] Nicolas Mayorga, Carlos Roncero-Clemente, Ana M.Llor, and Oleksandr Husev. "A Simple Space Vector Modulation Method With DC-Link Voltage Balancing and Reduced Common-Mode Voltage Strategy for a Three-Level T- Type Quasi-Z Surce Inverter". Date of distribution June 7, 2021, date of current adaptation June 15, 2021(IEEE).

[7] Sheikh Tanzim Meraj, Law Kah Haw, Ammar Masaoud."Improved on Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation of Cross- exchanged Multilevel Inverter". 2019 IEEE fifteenth International Colloquium on Signal Processing and its Applications (CSPA 2019), 8 – 9 March 2019, Penang, Malaysia.

[8] M. H. Rashid, Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverter, Power Electronics Circuits, Devices and Applications, 3rd ed. Pearson Education Inc., 20

[9] S. K. Sahoo, A. Ramulu, S. Batta, and S. Duggal, Performance Analysis and Simulation of Three Phase Voltage Source Inverter using basic PWM Techniques, Proc. IET Chennai 3rd Int. Conf. Sustainable Energy and Intelligent Systems, India, Dec. 27-29, 2012.

[10] M. Esa and M. A. M. Nawaz, "THD analysis of SPWM & THPWM Controlled Three phase Voltage Source Inverter", International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 04, no. 10, pp. 391-398, 2017.

[11] A. Rahman, M. M. Rahman and M. R. Islam, "Performance analysis of Three Phase Inverters with different types of PWM techniques," 2nd International Conference on Electrical & Electronic Engineering, pp. 1-4, 2017.

[12] E. H. E. Aboadla, S. Khan, M. H. Habaebi, T. Gunawan, B. A. Hamidah and M. B. Yaacob, "Effect of modulation index ofpulse width modulation inverter on Total Harmonic Distortion for Sinusoidal," International Conference on Intelligent Systems Engineering, pp. 192-196, 2016.

[13] V. Gaikwad, S. Mutha, R. Mundhe, O. Sapar and T. Chinchole, "Survey of PWM techniques for solar inverter," International Conference on Global Trends in Signal Processing,

Information Computing and Communication, pp. 501-504, 2016 [14] Z. B. Ibrahim, M. L. Hossain, I. B. Bugis, N. M. N. Mahadi, A. S.

    1. Hasim, Simulation Investigation of SPWM, THIPWM and SVPWM Techniques for Three Phase Voltage Source Inverter; International Journal of Power Electronics and drives.

[15] Tanuhsree Bhattacharjee, Dr. Majid Jamil, Dr. Anup Jana proposed Design of SPWM Based Three Phase Inverter Model A two level pulse width modulation or PWM generator and a filter circuit has been proposed here for reduction of total harmonic distortion or THD of current and voltage outputs of the three phase voltage source inverter.

[16] Saher Albatran, Ahmad Allabadi, Abdel Rahman Al Khalaileh, and Yong Fu proposed Improving the Performance ofa Two-Level Voltage Source Inverter in the Overmodulation Region Using Adaptive Optimal Third Harmonic Injection Pulsewidth Modulation Schemes Voltage source inverters (VSIs) are widely utilized in motor drives and renewable energy integration. Pulsewidth modulation (PWM)-VSIs are employed to generate a controlled alternating current (AC) waveform from a finite direct current (DC) link voltage.