 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 490
 Authors : Priyanka Kumar, Dr. Arti Khaparde
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS060056
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 06 (June 2014)
 Published (First Online): 07062014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Performance Analysis of Isoperimetric Algorithm Applied to CT Images
Priyanka Kumar
Electronics and Telecome. Engg Maharashtra Institute of Technology, Pune, India
Dr. Arti Khaparde
Electronics and Telecome. Engg Maharashtra Institute of Technology,
Pune, India
Abstract Isoperimetric algorithm is one of the effective algorithm which solves the problem of Graph Partitioning and is based on the optimization of Isoperimetric constant. Isoperimetric algorithm is easy to parallize and works smoothly on nonplanar graphs and has wide applications in image processing fields such as Image Segmentation. This paper is intented to analyze the various parameters of the above algorithm e.g. scale, stop, cutoff, connectivity and recursion cap for segmentation purposes when applied to CT images.
Index TermsIsoperimetric constant, Graph Partitioning, Image Segmentation, Isoperimetric algorithm.

INTRODUCTION
Image Segmentation is one of the most important area in the field of Image Processing, which means dividing the image into its constituent regions or objects. One of the most difficult problems in segmentation is to find the region of minimum area so that the smallest part could be obtained from the entire image. Out of the many algorithms which have been proposed to solve the above problem, isoperimetric algorithm is better as it solves the problem of Graph Partitioning and gives us the optimized segments.
A. Graph Partitioning Problem
The Graph Partitioning problem is to choose the partition from the vertex set such that the sum of the edge weights in the entire vertex set is about the same. The chosen partition should share the minimal number of spanning edges while satisfying a constant known as the cardinality constraint.
Suppose given a graph such that Gr= (V, E), where V denotes the set of vertices and E denotes the set of edges, that determines the connectivity between the nodes, then the graph partitioning problem is to divide the graph Gr into n disjoint partitions such that the number of cuts in the edges of the cuts are minimized and also on the other hand, the weights of the subdomains should get reduced. The weight of subdomains means the algebraic sum of vertex weights allocated in it. Here both vertex and edges can be weighted so as to satisfy the cardinality constraint, where v denotes the cardinality constraint for weight of vertex v and e denotes the cardinality constraint for weight of edge e.
Graph Partitioning appears in many fields such as parallel processing, solving linear systems of sparse type for VLSI circuit design and image segmentation.

ISOPERIMETRIC ALGORITHM

The classic isoperimetric problem [5]
The Graph partitioning has been strongly influenced by the classic isoperimetric problem, which is to find the boundary of minimum perimeter enclosing maximal area and the above isoperimetric problem totally depends upon the isoperimetric constant hi. Defining the isoperimetric constant hi for a manifold as:
… (1)
where S is the region in the manifold, S is the area of the region of boundary S, VS denotes the volume of region S and hi is the infimum of ratio over all possible S. If VT denotes the total volume, than for a compact manifold Vs 0.5 VT and for a non compact manifold Vs is less than infinity.

The Isoperimetric algorithm [5]
A graph is a pair Gr = (V, E) with vertices (nodes) v V and edges e E V X V. An edge, e, spanning two vertices, vi and vj, is denoted by eij. A weighted graph is more general than unweighted graph hence we have developed our results for weighted graphs. Here a weighted graph typically is assigned a real and non negative value called a weight and the weight of the edge is denoted by w (eij) or wij. The degree of the vertex vi denoted by di is given by,
(2)
For a graph Gr the isoperimetric constant is defined in Eq.1. Since we are dealing with finite graphs, so in graphs with finite node set the infimum in Eq.1 becomes minimum.
Hence we will use the word minimum in place of infimum. So E.q.1 can now be written as,
(3)
The boundary of a set S is now defined as S=
{}, denotes the set complement and
(4)
For a given set S, we term the isoperimetric ratio as h(S). The segmentation is better if the isoperimetric ratio is low and this is possible if h(S) = hi, where S and could be considered as the isoperimetric sets for the graph Gr, which could be called as the heuristic sets with lowest isoperimetric ratio for the purpose of partition that runs in low order polynomial time.

Derivation of Isoperimetric algorithm [5]
Define an indicator vector y that takes binary values at each node,
(5)
.. (6)
Define a pxp matrix L, also known as Laplacian matrix in the context of finite difference method and the admittance matrix in the context of circuit theory as,
. (7)
.. (8)
(9) By the definition of Laplacian matrix,
. (10)
If k indicates the vector of all ones, then the volume S can be maximized subject to the condition
. (11) may be done by asserting the constraint as,
Thus, the isoperimetric constant of a graph may be written in terms of indicator vector y as,
(13)
subject to the condition as specified in Eq.11. For the indicator vector y, h(y) denotes the isoperimetric ratio associated with the partition y. The constrained optimization of the isoperimetric ratio can be obtained by the introduction of Lagrange multiplier to take the positive real values by minimizing the cost function given by the equation,
(14)
now differentiating Eq.14 w.r.t y will yield a minimal partition so the differentiation gives us,
(15)
So, the problem of finding minimum partition gets reduced to solving the linear system as,
(16)
Since, we are interested with only the unique solution of Eq.16, the scalar multiplier is ignored but as matrix L is singular, finding the unique solution to the above equation requires additional constraint, which could be done by choosing the node of largest degree as the ground node vg, and determining L0 and d0 by eliminating the row/column corresponding to vg such that,
(17)
which then becomes the nonsingular system of equations. Solving the Eq.17 will then yield a real valued solution which may be considered as a partition by setting the threshold. This algorithm can be applied recursively to each partition separately until the condition for obtaining the lowest isoperimetric ratio is obtained. Lower the isoperimetric ratio, better is the partition and if the isoperimetric ratio fails to meet the predetermined threshold, then we term this threshold as the stop parameter which should be in the interval (0,1).The isoperimetric algorithm considers a condition of finding a lowest isoperimetric ratio which runs in low order polynomial time.
(12)


IMPLEMENTATION
The flowchart for the implementation of isoperimetric algorithm is shown in Fig (1).
Start
Input Image
Find Weights
Build L matrix and d vector
Choose node of largest degree
Solve for y0
Threshold Potentials

Threshold the potentials y at the value till the lowest isoperimetric ratio is obtained.

Continue the recursion until the isoperimetric ratio is larger than the stopparameter.


RESULTS
The isoperimetric algorithm was applied to the different CT images so as to analyze the various input parameters. The different set of values for each input parameter e.g ValScale, stop, cutoff, recursion cap and connectivity was applied to analyze the various segments. The average time of each parameter was also computed to prove that the above algorithm runs in low order polynomial time. The below section from A to E gives the subjective analysis while the section F gives computational time analysis.

Val Scale: This parameter is used for generation of weights. The segmentation efficiency depends upon the type of image. The results of above parameter when applied to the CT image for the ValScale values are shown in Fig (2), Fig (3) and Fig (4).
Fig 2. Segmentation for ValScale=50
Lowest Iso perimetric
No ratio
Yes
Continue recursion
Stop
Fig 3. Segmentation for ValScale=110
Fig1.Flowchart of isoperimetric algorithm for image segmentation.
The implementation of isoperimetric algorithm for image segmentation can be summarized in the followings steps as:

Find weights for all edges.

Build the L matrix and d vector using the equations 7, 8 and 9.

Choose the ground node vg as the node of largest degree, and determine L0 and d0 by eliminating the row/column corresponding to ground node.

Solve Eq.17 for y0.
Fig 4. Segmentation for ValScale=200
From the above results, it is seen that for this image 110 is better Valscale value as it gives the optimized segmentation. For the valscale value 50, the image is under segmented , while for the valscale value 200, the image is over segmented.


Stop: This parameter provides the maximum allowable isoperimetric ratio above which the execution of the
isoperimetric algorithm stops. The results of above parameter for the stop values 1e5, 1e4 and 1e3 are shown in Fig (5), Fig (6) and Fig (7).
Fig 5. Segmentation for Stop=1e5
Fig 6. Segmentation for Stop=1e4
Fig 7. Segmentation for Stop=1e3
For this image 1e4 is better option.

Cut off: This parameter gives the minimum number of nodes that can be considered for a valid segment. We have chosen the three values 40,100 and 900 which could be considered as the minimum, medium and maximum value. The results of above parameter are shown in Fig (8), Fig (9) and Fig (10).
Fig 8. Segmentation for Cut off=40
Fig 9. Segmentation for Cut off=100
Fig 10. Segmentation for Cut off=900
From the above results it can be seen that 100 is better cutoff value.

Recursion Cap: This parameter gives the number of iterations so as to provide optimized segmentation. The results of above parameter for the values 5, 9 and 90 are shown in Fig (11), Fig (12) and Fig (13).
Fig 11. Segmentation for Recursion Cap= 5
Fig 12. Segmentation for Recursion Cap= 9
Fig 13. Segmentation for Recursion Cap= 90
From the above results it can be seen that 5 is better value for recursion cap.

Connectivity: This parameter is used for comparing neighbouring pixels on connectivity basis. Many connectivity schemes can be used, but here we have used two connectivity schemes namely 4point Connectivity and 8point Connectivity.
Fig 14. Segmentation using 4point Connectivity Scheme.
Fig 15. Segmentation using 8point Connectivity Scheme.
It is seen that 8point connectivity is better as it avoids over segmentation.

Computational Time Analysis
The average time of each parameter was computed w.r.t to other parameters to analyze their performances, that the optimized Segmentation is obtained in less time. The results for each parameter are shown in Table(Ia), Table(Ib), Table(IIa), Table(IIb) ,Table(IIIa), Table(IIIb), Table(IVa) and Table(IVb).
Table I(a): Average time for valscale parameter using 4point connectivity scheme:
Parameter
Value
min
med
max
Val Scale
50
110
200
Stop
1e5
1e5
1e5
Cut off
40
40
40
Recursion Cap
5
5
5
Connectivity
4point
4point
4point
Time(in seconds)
3.004
3.35
3.69
Table I(b): Average time for valscale parameter using 8point connectivity scheme:
Table II(a): Average time for stop parameter using 4point connectivity scheme:
Parameter
Value
min
med
max
Val Scale
50
50
50
Stop
1e5
1e4
1e3
Cut off
40
40
40
Recursion Cap
5
5
5
Connectivity
4point
4point
4point
Time(in seconds)
3.00
3.58
3.70
Table II(b): Average time for stop parameter using 8point connectivity scheme:
Parameter
Value
min
med
max
Val Scale
50
50
50
Stop
1e5
1e4
1e3
Cut off
40
40
40
Recursion Cap
5
5
5
Connectivity
8point
8point
8point
Time(in seconds)
2.88
3.43
3.57
Table III(a): Average time for cut off parameter using 4point connectivity scheme:
Parameter
Value
min
med
max
Val Scale
50
50
50
Stop
1e5
1e5
1e5
Cut off
40
100
900
Recursion Cap
5
5
5
Connectivity
4point
4point
4point
Time(in seconds)
2.92
3.00
3.03
Parameter
Value
min
med
max
Val Scale
50
110
200
Stop
1e5
1e5
1e5
Cut off
40
40
40
Recursion Cap
5
5
5
Connectivity
8point
8point
8point
Time(in seconds)
2.9102
3.250
3.60
Table III(b): Average time for cut off parameter using 8 point connectivity scheme:
Parameter
Value
min
med
max
Val Scale
50
50
50
Stop
1e5
1e5
1e5
Cut off
40
100
900
Recursion Cap
5
5
5
Connectivity
8point
8point
8point
Time(in seconds)
2.89
2.97
3.002
Table IV(a): Average time for recursion cap parameter using 4point connectivity scheme:
Parameter
Value
min
med
max
Val Scale
50
50
50
Stop
1e5
1e5
1e5
Cut off
40
40
40
Recursion Cap
5
9
90
Connectivity
4point
4point
4point
Time(in seconds)
2.92
2.86
2.99
Parameter
Value
min
med
max
Val Scale
50
50
50
Stop
1e5
1e5
1e5
Cut off
40
40
40
Recursion Cap
5
9
90
Connectivity
8point
8point
8point
Time(in seconds)
2.89
2.90
2.96
Table IV(b): Average time for recursion cap parameter using 8point connectivity scheme:


CONCLUSION
Isoperimetric algorithm is one of the effective algorithm, which solves the problem of graph partitioning. From the results it can be concluded that the isoperimetric algorithm is better for image segmentation as it runs in low order polynomial time. To get the optimized segmentation in less time the valscale parameter and stop parameter could be considered high while the cutoff parameter and the recursion cap could be considered low with 8point connectivity scheme.
REFERENCES

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Daming Zhang ; Maosheng Fu ; Dengdi Sun ; Bin Luo,,Image threshold selection with Isoperimetric partition, 5th International Conference on Computer Science and Education (ICCSE), vol. 10, pages 328 333, pp. 9781424460021, Aug 2010.

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