- Open Access
- Authors : Mohsin. A. Mulla, Riya Patil, Abjijeet Mali, Komal Patil, Shubham Bhasme, Tushar Parit
- Paper ID : IJERTCONV10IS11007
- Volume & Issue : ICEI – 2022 (Volume 10 – Issue 11)
- Published (First Online): 18-08-2022
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
PCM Based Smart Cold Chain Vaccine Storage System
SITCOE,Yadrav(Ichalkaranji) Maharashtra India
Electrial Engg SITCOE,Yadrav(Ichalkaranji) Maharashtra India
SITCOE,Yadrav(Ichalkaranji) Maharashtra India
SITCOE,Yadrav(Ichalkaranji) Maharashtra India
SITCOE,Yadrav(Ichalkaranji) Maharashtra India
SITCOE,Yadrav(Ichalkaranji) Maharashtra India
Abstract As per the survey, it is found that there is a wastage of vaccines due to improper handling. This results in a 4% wastage of vaccines and an economic loss of $3 million per year. A cold chain is a device for storing and transporting vaccines at the advocated temperature range (2Â°c-8Â°c) from manufacturing to the point of use. This paper explores the Device of transportable refrigerated vaccine storage tool via the usage of phase change material (PCM) as well as IoT technology. IoT enables remote temperature sensing and monitoring. This smart system is designed with the use of Nod MCU 8266, DHT 22, and Blynk API. The PCM composition consists of 3% Sodium sulfate which results to hold the cabinet temperature for up to 3 to 4 hours after power cut-off. The storage and transportation of vaccines have very excessive requirements for the temperature and humidity specific to the storage cabinet. Power consumption is 7.5 Watt per litter of vaccine storage. Its ambitions to provide easy and cost-effective service for those who need vaccination is far-off Areas
Keywords IOT, cold chain, PCM.
The system used for retaining and distributing vaccines in precise circumstances is known as the cold chain. A cold chain is a device for storing and transporting vaccines at the advocated temperature range (2Â°c-8Â°c) from manufacturing to the point of use. While vaccines are preserved below or above the prescribed temperature range, their efficiency may additionally lose. This paper explores the Device of transportable refrigerated vaccine storage tool via the usage of phase change material (PCM). In this storage system, an attempt has been made to reduce temperature fluctuation passed off by means of power cut off of the vaccine storage system. The principal objective of this device is to improve cooling, the overall performance of the storage system, and maintain the steady temperature of the machine by way of the usage of phase change material (PCM) that's important for vaccine storage. This experimental setup is transportable to switch vaccines from one vicinity to another location. In this examination work is expected to lessen the impact on human by utilizing IoT instruments. Likewise, the wear disappointment situation which brings about items waste or any occasion connected with item discharge should be spoken with the maker end. It is additionally important to remotely getting to the situation with an immunization in the
climate. This exploration work depends on the IoT framework. This model assist the paramedical business with following the immunization security check to know the situation with medication. Here the cold chain status has been every now and again checked with web as-well as portable application to follow the condition in distant area. This component gives the trust deserving of Vaccine storage by remote checking during the coordinated factors, transportation, and conveyance of Vaccine.
Here, the cold box condition has been frequently checked with the web and a mobile application to track the temperature in remote areas. This will provides the trustworthiness of Vaccine stability by remote monitoring during the logistics, transportation, and delivery of vaccines. The storage and transportation of vaccines have very excessive requirements for the environment. Commonly, besides for some high-temperature resistant vaccines, the ambient temperature needs to be tens of ranges under zero. But, in some far-flung regions, because of vulnerable infrastructure, Risky electricity delivery, and bad storage and transportation Situations, the vaccination isnt that much effective. This Paper designs a wise vaccine storage and transportation Gadget based on Node MCU ESP 8266. The machine has the capabilities of Procedure monitoring of temperature and humidity.
This system is designed for safe storage and delivery of the vaccine in good condition. From this, can be said that a refrigeration system that is portable, Eco-friendly, economical, and consumes less amount of electricity should be used for vaccine storage . It combines software and hardware and is suitable for remote areas . Its ambition is to provide service for those who need vaccination in far-off Areas.
Weir and Hatch k.
In this paper the author said about the wastage of vaccine due to improper storage system. It has seen that 20% of vaccine provider does not reached up to the expectation for vaccine storage and handling due to this 4% vaccine get wasted and this result into the huge economical loss as 3 million dollars per year.
To avoid this it is suggested to use the refrigerator which maintain the temperature with 2-80c for the longer duration of time and also during the cut-off.
Shitanshu Devrani,sudhanshu pandey
In this paper the author has given various methods for development of cold box setup and monitor the temperature from various location. R-value test is carried out to find the resistance value by R-value test they have find out heat transfer by various method such as conduction, convection, radiation also for experiment they have done design by 3-D printing technology.
Fulzele,D P. kumbhare-
In this paper the design of vaccine cold box by use of IOT is explained. In this model DHT 11 sensor, thermocouple, Node MCU ESP 8266, GSP module are used to monitor the temperature from remote location and we can get the records on smart phone.
Avadhut A. Mali,Prathmesh R. Nikam,Shreyas V. Kamble,Piyush A. Joshi ,Chaitanya N. Kumbhar ,Rohit R. Wadingekar,Rohit P. Choudhari,Paresh M. Wadekar – Vaccination is one of the only ailment prevention techniques when carried out well throughout all sections of the at-risk population. The system used for retaining and distribution vaccines in precise Circumstance is known as as cold chain. Bloodless chain is a device of storing and transporting vaccine at the Advocated temperature range (2Â°c-eightÂ°c) from manufacturing to the point of use. While vaccines are Preserved bellow or above the prescribed temperature range its efficiency may additionally lose. This paper explores the Device of transportable refrigerated vaccine garage tool via the usage of phase change material (pcm). On this Experimental paintings, an attempt has been made to reduce temperature fluctuation passed off by means of power cut off As well as due to regularly commencing and ultimate the door of system. The principle objective of this device to Improve cooling overall performance of gadget and maintain steady temperature of machine by way of the usage of phase alternate Fabric(pcm) that's important for vaccine storage. This experimental setup is transportable to switch vaccine from one vicinity to another location. The test shows that the evaporator temperature remains constant in Variety of (2Â°c-8Â°c) whilst pcm is used.
Kishore Kumar K, Balaji S.M, Yeshwanth M, Pavan Teja N
In this examination work is expecte to lessen the impact on human by utilizing IoT instruments. Likewise, the wear disappointment situation which brings about items waste or any occasion connected with item discharge should be spoken with the maker end. It is additionally important to remotely getting to the situation with an immunization in the climate. This exploration work depends on the IoT framework. This model assist the paramedical business with following the immunization security check to know the situation with medication. Here the cold chain status has been every now and again checked with web as-well as portable application to follow the condition in distant area.
This component gives the trust deserving of Vaccine storage by remote checking during the coordinated factors, transportation, and conveyance of Vaccine
Jilin Qin, Jiong Zhang, Haitao Guo, Fanxing Meng, Xianwei Xue,
Vaccination can't best effectively shield Individuals from infectious diseases, however additionally effectively save you to unfold of infectious illnesses. The storage and transportation of vaccines have very excessive requirements at the environment. Commonly, besides for some high temperature resistant vaccines, the ambient temperature need to be tens of ranges under zero. But, in some far flung regions, because of vulnerable infrastructure, Risky electricity deliver and bad storage and transportation Situations, the vaccination charge of youngsters there's very low. This Paper designs a wise vaccine storage and transportation Gadget based on raspberry pi. The machine has the capabilities of Procedure Monitoring, storage and transportation traceability, Temperature manage and vaccine transfer. It combines software and hardware, and is suitable for far flung areas. It ambitions to provide "remaining mile" service for those who need vaccination in far off Areas.
Fig.1.VCR system 
a refrigerant compressor is part of a VCRS which features is to compress the vapor refrigerant which coming from the evaporator and to raise the strain so that the corresponding saturation temperature is better than that of the cooling medium.
By considering the 2nd law of thermodynamics the VCRS process can most of effective be completed with the useful resources of external work i.e. used for compression of refrigerant there for a compressor should be pushed via some prime mover together with electricity. Some other function of a compressor is that it constantly circulates the refrigerant thru the refrigerating device.
The condenser is a device which is used to extract heat from the hot vapor by the use of coolant. At high pressure side of refrigeration system this device is used. The heat from the refrigerants is removed first by providing area for heat transfer, by passing it to the condenser coil. The selection of condenser is based on the capacity of refrigeration system, type of coolant.
The evaporator is a tool which is used to provide required Warmness transfer floor location through which heat is absorbed via the vaporizing refrigerant from the cold chamber. The evaporator is used at low strain facet i.e. the part of the machine wherein the refrigerant is exerting low strain.
Expansion device is used decrease the pressure of refrigerant and also it control flow of refrigerant release into evaporator. This is also known as metering device. In the expansion device the thermal expansion valve can respond to the environment and control the flow the refrigerant into the evaporator and the capillary tube is fixed cannot fluctuate with head and load
NODEMCU ESP 8266: Nodemcu is a computing device that plays important role in building the IoT products. Nodemcu is a tool for open Source prototyping board designs are to be had. It incorporates system that runs on the esp8266 wi-fi soc from espress if structures and hardware that's primarily based on the esp-12 module. Its miles an interactive, programmable, low-fee, simple, smart, wi-fi enabled tool.
DHT 22: It is a sensor for measuring the temperature and humidity with scaled digital sign output. It includes a capacitive humidity sensor and a NTC temperature sensor and is connected to a high-overall performance eight-bit mcu. Consequently, it has the blessings of awesome best, extremely rapid response, robust anti-interference ability, and good value overall performance. It is a 4-pin module, consisting of four pins each of VCC, data, NC, and GND. In actual use, the best VCC, GND, and data are used. The NC
pin is empty, and the VCC voltage variety is three to five volts.
Fig.4.DHT 22 sensor
DHT22 technical specification:
Its humidity range is from 0 to 100% RH.
The accuracy of humidity is Â± 2% RH.
The range of temperature is between 40 to -80 .
The temperature accuracy is f0. 5 .
Operating voltage of sensor is DC 5V.
Fig.5. Experimental setup
The VCRS system implemented in the setup maintains the optimum temperature of 2-80c inside the cold box, when there is availability of power.
The Phase Change Materials are maintained at their particular freezing point so that they be implemented during the power outage conditions.
During power cut-Off conditions, the PCM container are kept in the cold box so that they can transfer the cooling effect to the vaccines and vaccines will constantly be maintained at the temperature of 2-80c.
The implemented sensor will allow the vaccine provider to monitor the vaccine temperature, humidity whenever necessary.
Connect the Setup and IOT to power supply.
Switch on the power supply.
Switch on the MCB of setup.
The system will start the refrigeration process.
There are three significant parts in the stage:
Blynk Application – It empowers the client to make astonishing points of interaction for their undertakings utilizing different gadgets given by them.
Blynk Server – It is answerable for handshaking between the monitoring device and equipment. Clients can utilize Blynk Cloud or run private Blynk server locally. It's open-source and could deal with different gadgets and might in fact be sent off on advancement board like Raspberry Pi and Arduino.
Blynk Libraries utilized over the equipment stages empowers correspondence with the server and cycle every one of the approaching and active orders.
Make a Blynk Record In the wake of downloading the Blynk Application, a client needs to make Another Blynk account. This record is not the same as the records utilized for the Blynk Discussions, he has previously made. The proposal given by the Blynk discussion is to utilize genuine email address for disentanglement.
Make another Venture
After a client effectively signed into their record, they can begin by making another venture
Select the equipment model which is expected by the client. c) Auth Token-
Auth Token is an interesting identifier which is expected to associate the equipment to a phone. Each new task made by the client will have its own Auth Token. The client gets the Auth Token consequently on their email after project creation. A client can likewise duplicate it physically. Click on the gadgets area and select the necessary gadget.
Add a gadget-
In the absolute initial step up project material is unfilled. Client needs to tap anyplace on the material to open the gadget box. Every one of the expected gadgets are situated here. Pick a necessary button.
Drag-n-Drop – Find the Gadget by tapping and hlding it from the menu.
Widget Settings More current gadgets can be investigated with their particular settings. Clients need to tap on the gadget to get to them. The pin is the main boundary to set in. The rundown of pins reflects actual pins characterized by equipment.
Add an Eventor-
Eventor gadget permits clients to make straightforward conduct rules or occasions. With Eventor clients don't have to compose the code. The main need is to send the worth from the sensor to the server. Eventor comes convenient When clients need to change conditions on the fly without re-uploading new outlines on the equipment. Clients can make as need might arise. Eventor could be set off from the candidate side. Clients simply have to appoint the gadget to a similar pin as their Occasion inside Eventor. Eventor doesn't continually send occasions.
Run the Project-
At the point when clients are finished with the Settings they need to press the PLAY button. This will change client from Alter mode to PLAY mode where they can interface with the equipment. While in PLAY mode, clients will not have the option to drag or set up new gadgets. So for this client needs to squeeze Pause and return to Alter mode .
VI. RESULT T1=Evaporator inlet T2=evaporator outlet T3=compressor inlet T4=compressor outlet T5=condenser inlet T6=condenser outlet
In the experimental setup sodium sulphate is used as PCM
5 min time interval, without load and with power On
Fig.6 graph of temperature inside and outside cabinet without load and with power on
This is the reading without putting any load inside the cold box and the readings are recorded at time interval of 5 minutes. As the refrigeration process get started the temperature inside the box i.e. evaporator inlet temperature get reduces. From this it can be said that our refrigeration system works normally without load.
15 min without load and with power off
Fig.7. graph of temperature inside and outside cabinet without load and with power on
This is reading without load with power off and checking the temperature inside the cold box for every 15 min of time interval. As power supply to the system was off, the
temperature readings indicates the rise in the temperature inside the cabinet.
3% pcm power on-
Fig.8. graph of temperature inside and outside cabinet with load and with power on
This is the reading with load and with power on. Here place the load as 3600 ml of water in 12 PCM packets in the container. In 3600 ml there is 3% of PCM was present. In this reading as the refrigeration process started, temperature T1 reduced and PCM changes its Phase from liquid to Solid by storing the thermal energy.
3% pcm power off-
Fig.9. graph of temperature inside and outside cabinet with load and with power off
In this reading switch off the power to setup. During power cut-off the thermal energy stored in PCM get released and again PCM start converting its phase from solid to liquid. During the power cut-off the PCM hold the temperature of cold box to minimum temperature for longer duration of time.
The above graphs from fig 6 to fig.7 clearly shows the variation in the temperature inside the cabinet and outside the cabinet for various situations. It is found that the proposed system efficiently maintains the temperature below safe level which is critical for maintaining the quality of the vaccines.
Fig. 10. Live reading of the temperature and humidity inside the cabinet on cell phone screen using IoT.
Fig.11. Graph of temperature and humidity of the cabinet at various time intervals
In this project an alternate cost effective and portable solution is provided which when implemented will help the healthcare authorities to transport vaccines to remote rural places at affordable cost and more convenience. The method which is used for remote monitoring is cost effective as well as solves the logistic and remote monitoring problem for cold chain vaccine storage. The PCM solution which is used for effective vaccine storage implementation it fulfills viable requirements regards to the cabinet temperature control which helps to reduce the damages while vaccine logistic transportation. Power consumption of is 7.5 Watt per litter of vaccine storage which is very minimal as compared to thermoelectric refrigeration system.
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