 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 193
 Authors : Fatsis Antonios
 Paper ID : IJERTV6IS060240
 Volume & Issue : Volume 06, Issue 06 (June 2017)
 Published (First Online): 14062017
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Parametric Study on Performance Characteristics of Wave Rotor Topped Gas Turbines
Fatsis Antonios
Mechanical Engineering Department Technological Education Institute of Sterea Ellada 34400 Psachna, Greece
AbstractImplementation of wave rotortopping techniques to gas turbines intends to reduce specific fuel consumption and increase engines specific work. In order to keep low the cost of wave rotor integration to existing gas turbines, the original engines compressor and turbine can remain unchanged. The performance of the wave rotortopped engine is calculated using nonadiabatic thermodynamic models. The parameters chosen to be investigated are the wave rotor pressure ratio, wave rotor expansion and compression efficiencies, along with engines parameters such as compressor pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature. To accomplish this study, each of these characteristics is varied, while all the rest remain unchanged. It is concluded that variation of wave rotor characteristic parameters influences primarily the engines specific fuel consumption for high values of compressor pressure ratio and low values of turbine inlet temperature, while the engines specific work remains almost unchanged.
Keywords Wave rotor, gas turbine, regeneration, perofrmance, specific work, specific fuel consumption.

INTRODUCTION
Wave rotor technology is a very advantageous tool for gas turbine performance improvement. Integration of a wave rotor to gas turbines may reduce the specific fuel consumption and increase the specific power delivered by the engine, as stated in [1]. A wave rotor is composed of a rotor consisting of a number of axial straight blades between two coaxial cylinders inside a stationary casing. Two stationary endwall plates are located at the rotor extremities. These plates have circumferential openings allowing partial inflow and outflow through the rotor blade channels, as described in [2], [3]. In Fig. 1, one can see the fourport wave rotor configuration, which is best suited for gas turbine applications. When a wave rotor is integrated in a gas turbine, extra compression in the air flow is achieved by means of compression waves formed inside the wave rotor channels when hot exhaust gases coming out of the combustion chamber come in contact with air from the compressor. These waves are propagated inside the channels and depending on the relative circumferential position of the openings at the endwall plates of the rotor, either they reflect back inside the rotor channels as stronger compression waves or are directed towards the combustion chamber, creating simultaneously expansion waves moving in the opposite direction towards the turbine for further expansion, as described in [4]. Thus, there is an unsteady energy exchange between high enthalpy hot gases and low enthalpy air by means of pressure waves. The unsteady nature of the flow pattern inside the wave rotor
(or pressure wave supercharger) ensures the fact that there is no mixing between the air and the hot gases inside the rotor, [2]. The compression efficiency by means of unsteady pressure waves may supersede the efficiency of conventional steady flow devices. It has been shown in [5] that for pressure gain up to 2.2, the shock wave efficiency is larger than the efficiency of a steady flow diffuser. In such a case, the frictionless shock wave efficiency is estimated by the same authors as 93%
Fig.1. Fourport wave rotor schematic configuration
The flow pattern inside the rotor channels is fully unsteady, dominated by the propagation of compression and expansion waves. Various numerical models have been proposed in [6], [7], [8] and [9] to predict the unsteady flow patterns inside the rotor passages. The flows entering and exiting the rotor in the ports of the stationary manifolds are almost steady, apart from the fluctuations due to the gradual opening and closing of the rotor channels as they enter and exit the ports, as concluded in [10].
There are several possibilities to integrate a wave rotor in an existing gas turbine. An optimization study performed in [11] analyzes five different configuration possibilities. The configuration assuming unchanged baseline compressor and turbine inlet temperature provides almost the best gas turbine performance enhancement of the wave rotor topped engine. Results indicate that the performance of the topped engine is always higher than that of the corresponding baseline engine with the same compressor pressure ratio value. The benefit is greater for lower compressor pressure ratios, whereas for higher ones the benefit diminishes. In fact, for compressor pressure ratios greater than 20, almost no benefit can be obtained. This clearly favors the wave rotortopping for small gas turbines with low compressor pressure ratios, as concluded in [12].
Performance maps of the topped engine were generated in
[11] by varying the compressor pressure ratio, and the turbine inlet temperature. The above investigation assumed that the compression efficiency (C) and expansion efficiency (E) have constant values, namely E =C = 0.83. These values were also applied in [13] and [14] in previous wave rotor studies. Even though wave rotor topped gas turbine engines seem to be beneficial throughout a wide range of gas turbine sizes, efficiencies, and operating conditions, the ones to be mostly favored are the ones with low component efficiencies, as it was concluded in [15].The majority of the above research work has investigated the performance benefits of wave rotortopped engines for industrial as well as for aeronautical applications, keeping the wave rotor operating parameters constant. To begin with, this article identifies the most important wave rotor parameters affecting the performance of the whole gas turbine. As a second step, each of these parameters is varied while all the rest remain constant, resulting to a parametric study that depicts the gas turbine performance in terms of each individual wave rotor characteristic.

ONESHAFT AND TWOSHAFT GAS TURBINE CYCLE CALCULATIONS

Input data for one and twoshaft gas turbines
The procedure of the thermodynamic calculations of one and twoshaft gas turbine cycles with the integration of a four port wave rotor is described in detailed in [14] and in [16]. Figure 2 illustrates the configurations for the one and two shaft gas turbines used in this article. The calculations of the baseline (without the wave rotor) as well as the topped (with the wave rotor) engines are carried out assuming irreversible processes in all the gas turbine components. The thermodynamic model accounts also for cooling the turbine

Wave Rotor thermodynamic calculations
Figure 3 illustrates the model developed in this article to calculate the thermodynamic properties of air and hot gases when a fourport wave rotor is integrated to a oneshaft gas turbine. The cold entry of the wave rotor inflow port (point 4.0) receives compressed air from the compressor exit and releases it after being further compressed inside the rotor to the combustion chamber intake (point 4.1). The hot gases from the combustion chamber (point 4.2) enter the wave rotor hot inflow port, come in contact with the cold air being already inside the rotor channels, create compression waves to the air flow (compressing thus further the air from the compressor), get expanded and finally get directed to the outflow port towards the turbine (point 4.3) for further expansion.
Fig. 3. Symbols used for the fourport wave rotor thermodynamic calculations
The wave rotor presure ratio is a very important parameter that characterizes the performance of the wave rotor and accordingly the performance of the whole gas turbine. It is defined as:
P
in case TIT 1300 K by subtracting air flow from the
compressor.
PR 4.1
P4.0
(1)
This parameter gives the extra compression inside the wave rotor of the air flow stream exiting the gas turbine compressor.
Stagnation temperature at the cold air port of the wave rotor,
T4.0
T4.0 T04
(2)
(a)
Stagnation temperature at the port towards the turbine, T4.3
T4.3 TIT
(3)
Stagnation pressure at the cold air port of the wave rotor P4.0
P
Pduct
(4)
4.0
P04 1
100
(b)
Fig. 2 (a) Oneshaft and (b) Twoshaft gas turbine configurations, C: compressor, T: turbine, CC: combustion chamber, WR: wave
rotor, CT: compressor turbine, PT: power turbine
where Pduct are the pressure losses at the ducts connecting the wave rotor to compressor, combustion chamber and turbine.
Stagnation temperature at the wave rotor exit towards the combustion chamber, T4.1
PR c 1/ c 1

Wave rotor compression and expansion efficiencies variation, (C, E). Both of them are chosen in the range between 0.75 and 0.92 while keeping the rest
T4.1 T4.0
C
1
(5)
parameters of both gas turbine and wave rotor constant.

Effect of wave rotor pressure ratio variation
where C is the compression efficiency inside the wave rotor Stagnation pressure at the combustion chamber outlet T4.2
Numerical and experimental studies carried out in the past in [11], [12], [15], concluded that an adequate value of the wave rotor pressure ratio is PR=1.8.
T
T4.3
4.2
(6)
In order to study the effect of the wave rotor pressure ratio,
PR, on the performance of the gas turbine, thermodynamic
P
h 1/ h
calculations were done for three values of PR, namely,
1 1 4.3 nE
P4.2
PR=1.4, 1.8, 2.2, while keeping the compression and expansion efficiencies inside the wave rotor , constant
C E
where E is the expansion efficiency inside the wave rotor.



PARAMETRIC STUDY FOR ONESHAFT AND TWOSHAFT GAS TURBINES
Figure 4 presents the performance curves of wave rotor topped oneshaft gas turbines at design point illustrated with continuous lines in comparison to the base line (without wave rotor) oneshaft gas turbines illustrated with dotted lines. As a general conclusion, it can be stated that the performance curves of the wave rotortopped engines are shifted to the lower right part of the diagram. According to [14], for low values of TIT, the integration of the wave rotor reduces significantly the engines specific fuel consumption especially at high values of Rc. It increases the engines specific work mainly at high values of TIT and low values of Rc. For TIT=900 K, TIT=1000 K and TIT=1100 K, the fish
hook shapes of the base line engine curves get smoothed for the topped engines. At higher TIT values, the performance curves of the topped engines recover their expected fishhook shape.
Having identified the main flow parameters of the wave rotor, a parametric study investigates the effects on the engines performance according to:
1. Wave rotor pressure ratio variation (PR). It is chosen in the range between 1.4 and 2.2 while keeping the rest parameters of both gas turbine and wave rotor constant.
and equal to 0.83, a value recommended in the literature. Fig.
5 presents the distribution of specific fuel consumption in terms of specific work, for different values of the turbine inlet temperature TIT starting from 900 K to 1600 K. At TIT=900 K and Rc=5 one can observe small variations in specific fuel consumption (sfc) when PR is varied from 1.4 to 2.2. At high values of Rc, the sfc is strongly influenced by the value of PR. Specifically, for Rc=20 and PR=2.2, sfc is three times less than sfc corresponding to PR=1.4. From Fig. 5 it can be seen that the wave rotor pressure ratio plays an important role to the performance of one and twoshaft gas turbines, especially at large values of compressor pressure ratios (Rc) and low turbine inlet temperatures (TIT). As the wave rotor pressure ratio increases and for TIT=900 and TIT=1000 K, significant reduction in sfc can be noticed, while specific work (ws) remains almost unchanged. For values of TIT=1200 K and TIT=1400 K the gain in terms of sfc is less, although a slight reduction in ws is observed.
Fig.4. Performance of baseline and wave rotor topped oneshaft gas turbines at design point
Fig. 5 Performance of oneshaft gas turbines topped with fourport wave rotor with C=E=0.83 and variation of PR from 1.4 to 2.2 and TIT from 900 K to
1600 K

Effect of compression and expansion efficiency variation
.
One and twoshaft engine performance curves are obtained by keeping constant the value of PR, variation of E, C falls in the range of 0.75 up to 0.92 and TIT varies from 900 K to 1600 K.
In the left part of Fig. 6 one can see the performance of one shaft gas turbines when the compression and expansion efficiencies inside the rotor are varied from 0.75 to 0.92, for PR=1.4 and TIT=900 K. Variations in sfc for different values of E and C can be observed only for the case of Rc=20, whereas for lower pressure ratios the values of sfc almost coincide. For Rc=20, important improvement can be observed between the values of 0.75 – 0.83 for E and C, but no significant variation is observed between this value up to 0.92.
For TIT 1200 K the effect of variation of E and C is
negligible and the performance curves coincide. This is why only the case for TIT=1200 K is illustrated in the right part of Fig. 6.
Similar conclusions are drawn from the results illustrated in Fig.7, where PR=1.8. Slight variations between performance curves can be seen only for the case of Rc=20 and TIT=900 K between the curves corresponding to the three different values of E and C . At the right part of the same figure for TIT=1200 K the curves corresponding to the different values of E and C almost coincide, especially for low values of Rc. For the case that PR=2.2 one can observe slight variations for the three curves of different values of C and E at high values of Rc, in Fig. 8. At lower values or Rc the discrepancies are becoming less and finally the three curves coincide. The differences for TIT=1200 K are less than for TIT=900 K.
.
Fig. 6 Performance of oneshaft gas turbines topped with fourport wave rotor with PR=1.4 and E ,C varying from 0.75 to 0.92 for TIT=900 K
(left) and TIT=1200 K (right)
Fig. 7 Performance of oneshaft gas turbines topped with fourport wave rotor with PR=1.8 and E ,C varying from 0.75 to 0.92 for TIT=900 K (left) and TIT=1200 K (right)
Fig. 8 Performance of oneshaft gas turbines topped with fourport wave rotor with PR=2.2 and E ,C varying from 0.75 to 0.92 for TIT=900 K (left) and
TIT=1200 K (right)


PARAMETRIC STUDY FOR REGENERATIVE GAS TURBINES
The addition of heat exchanger in one or two shaft gas turbines is implemented mainly in ground based power plants where the engines weight and dimension are not issues. It was shown in [16] that the incorporation of a heat exchanger leads to reduced specific fuel consumption and increased specific work, especially at low compressor pressure ratios. Figure 9 illustrates configurations of one and two shaft wave rotortopped gas turbines including heat exchanger which are analyzed in the present study.
The main flow parameters for a regenerated wave rotor topped gas turbine were identified in [16] and are the same as the one and two shaft wave rotor topped engines without heat exchange discussed in a previous paragraph.
Parametric study was carried out to determine the specific fuel consumption in terms (sfc) of the specific work (ws) by varying Rc from 5 to 30 and TIT from 900 K to 1600 K and C, E from 0.75 to 0.92. for different values of PR and different values of TIT.
Figure 10 illustrates sfc ws distributions for C=E=0.92 and variation of PR from 1.4 to 2.2 and TIT =1200 K, 1400
K. It can be observed that for given values of Rc and TIT, ws
is not significantly affected by the variation of PR. On the contrary, sfc is increasing for engines with given values of PR, TIT, C, E, and high compressor pressure ratios, Rc.

Effect of wave rotor pressure ratio variation
In order to study the effect of the wave rotor pressure ratio, PR, on the performance of the gas turbine, thermodynamic calculations were done for three values of PR, namely, PR=1.4, 1.8, 2.2, while keeping the compression and expansion efficiencies inside the wave rotor C, E constant and equal to 0.83, a value recommended in the literature. Figure 10 presents the distribution of specific fuel consumption in terms of specific work at turbine inlet temperatures TIT =1200 K and TIT= 1600 K.
It can be seen that the variations in terms of ws are less distinct with respect to the wave rotor topped engines without heat exchanger, Fig. 5. When comparing the left and the right part of Fig. 10, it is observed that the sfc variation is slightly more apparent for the case of TIT=1200 K, whereas the ws variation is more apparent for the case of TIT=1400 K.

(b)
Fig. 9 (a) Oneshaft and (b) Twoshaft gas turbine with heat exchanger configurations, C: compressor, T: turbine, CC: combustion chamber, WR: wave
rotor, T: compressor turbine, PT: power turbine
Fig. 10 Performance of oneshaft gas turbines topped with fourport wave rotor with C=E=0.92 and variation of PR from 1.4 to 2.2 and TIT =1200 K (left),
TIT =1400 K (right)
Fig. 11 Performance of oneshaft gas turbines topped with fourport wave rotor with PR=2.2 and variation of nC=nE from 0.75 to 0.92 and TIT =1200 K (left),
TIT =1400 K (right)


Effect of compression and expansion efficiency variation. In the left part of Fig. 11 one can see the performance of one shaft gas turbines with heat exchanger for PR=2.2 when the compression and expansion efficiencies inside the rotor are varied from 0.75 to 0.92, for TIT=1200 K and TIT=1400 K. For the three values of E and C examined, more important variations in terms of sfc are observed for the case TIT=1200 K, whereas more important variations in terms of ws are observed for the case TIT=1400 K. It can be seen that for both cases TIT=1200 K and 1400 K, the effect of E , C variation on performance is not important.


CONCLUSIONS
A parametric study was carried out to investigate the effect of flow parameters associated to the wave rotor for one and twoshaft industrial gas turbines with and without heat exchanger. The parameters chosen as important for the performance of the wave rotor and of the whole engine are: The wave rotor pressure ratio, the efficiency of the compression and expansion processes inside the rotor and the ducting and pressure losses associated with the wave rotor. Each of these parameters is varied around a mean value which is wellestablished in the literature and used by other researches in the past. For the wave rotor topped engines without heat exchanger, it is found that the wave rotor pressure ratio (PR) affects mostly the engines performance, especially the specific fuel consumption (sfc) at values of TIT less than 1200 K and at high compressor pressure ratios (Rc). The more the PR increases, the more the sfc decreases at a given value of TIT. At high values of Rc the influence of PR is more important, whereas for low values of Rc, the PR affects less the engines performance. The variation in PR gives almost no effect in the specific work (ws) of the engine. The variation of the compression and expansion inside the rotor (C, E) influences the sfc at values of TIT less than 1200 K and at high values of PR. At PR=1.4, the influence of C, E is negligible at values of Rc less than 15. For higher values of PR, the influence of C, E can be seen only at high values of Rc. As TIT increases, the influence of C and E variation is becoming negligible. Engines with high TIT
values are also not affected by the variations of , . This
limited mainly at low values of TIT. The variation of the compression and expansion inside the rotor (C, E) influences the engine at low values of TIT, whereas for high values of TIT the performance curves almost coincide.
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