 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 158
 Authors : A. Ravi Naga Teja, Dr. V. V. K. D. V. Prasad
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS090200
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 09 (September 2014)
 Published (First Online): 12092014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Non Parametric Regression of Biological Signals using Wavelets
Dr. V. V. K. D. V. Prasad
Professor of ECE,
Gudlavalleru Engineering college, Krishna dt, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA
A. Ravi Naga Teja
M.Tech Student
Gudlavalleru Engineering College, Krishna dt, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA
Abstract – To estimate the biological signals from noisy environment wavelet shrinkage method is popularly used. In this method hard and garrote filters are commonly used. A hybrid thresholding filter is proposed in this paper to estimate the biological signals. This hybrid filter is applied to noisy EEG signal contaminated with additive white Gaussian noise using FDR method and Hypothesis method. These results are compared with existing hard and garrote filters and also compared with Block James stein method using Mean square error (MSE) and Signal to noise ratio (SNR) parameters. From the results, the hybrid thresholding filter performs better than both hard and garrote filters with FDR method and Hypothesis method and also performs better than existing Block James stein method.
Keywords: Wavelet Transform, EEG signal, Wavelet shrinkage method, Denoising, hybrid thresholding filter

INTRODUCTION
and Block James stein method are proposed and coiflet wavelet is used in wavelet transform and inverse wavelet transform.

FDR method
The minFDR (minimizing false discovery rate) method was introduced by B. Vidakovic for onedimensional data. It determines the same global threshold for all shrinkage functions by keeping the expected value of the fraction of coefficients erroneously included in the reconstruction below a given fraction p. Given the M wavelet coefficients (n, n = 1, 2… M), first it computes xvalues.
xn=2[1 (wn/)]
Where (.) is the cumulative distribution function of the standard normal distribution and is an estimation of the noisestandard deviation. Then xn values are ordered as x(1)x(2)x(3).x(M). Starting with n = 1, let q be the largest index such that
In present days there has been phenominal growth in collection of signals or data. During the transmission, it is
x (q)
p
contaminated with noise. Before processing the signal at the destination, denoising is required. This is applicable to biological signal also. The random noises uncorrelated with biological signals can be approximated by additive gaussian
The threshold value is obtained as
= 1(1 (x

Hypothesis method
(q)
/2))
noise There are so many methods for denoising the signal, Wavelet transform is very popular method because of its good localization properties of time and frequency domain.
Wavelet shrinkage denoising is widely used technique for denoising of biological signal and a hybrid thresholding filter is proposed in this paper. This filter is evaluated by using FDR method and Hypothesis method to denoising the EEG signal. These results are compared with existing filters
The threshold estimation in this method is independent of thresholding filter used. It calculates level dependant thresholds after performing wavelet transformation on the signal (Ogden, 1997).
Let the wavelet coefficients are M in number at a particular level and assume that they are normally distributed.
and Block James stein method using MSE and SNR parameters.
V M= {
1[((1)
1/M+1)/2]} 2


WAVELET SHRINKAGE DENOISING
( ) is cumulative distribution function of standard normal density. Where is error probability parameter. Then find the largest of the squared wavelet coefficients at that level,
In this method, first the noisy EEG signal is applied to Wavelet transform to get wavelet coefficients. After fixing the threshold value using thresholding method, the wavelet
denoted by 2
(M1) and compare it to the above value V M. If
M M
2 /2> V
coefficients are modified subjecting to threshold value using a thresholding filter. The inverse wavelet transform is applied on modified wavelet coefficients to get the denoised EEG signal. In this paper, FDR method, Hypothesis method
Where, is an estimate of the standard deviation of noise, 2M is retained as signal. Next repeat the process with the square of second largest (in absolute value) wavelet
coefficient 2 (M1). If
2 (M1)
/2> V
Garrote filter is defined as
, = 2 for all >
M1
The procedure continues until at some point the bth largest (in absolute value) coefficient satisfies
= 0 otherwise
2 (b)
/2> V
,
b
The threshold at that level is then set as = 2 (b).
The recommended value for is 0.05.

Block James stein method
Block James stein method was proposed by CAI (1999). It is also a thresholding method containing blocks but in this thesholding filter is not used. Fix a block size L and a threshold level and divide the empirical wavelet coefficients j,k at any given resolution level j into nonoverlapping blocks of size L. In each case, the first few empirical wavelet coefficients might be reused to fill the last block which is called the Augmented case or the last few remaining empirical wavelet coefficients might not be used in the inference which is called the Truncated case, should L not divide 2^j exactly.
j,k
S
Denote (jb) the indices of the coefficients in the bth block at level j, i.e. (jb) = {(j, k): (b 1) L + 1 k bL}.Let S2jb= k(jb)2 denote the sum of squared empirical wavelet coefficients in the block. A block (jb) is deemed important if
jb
2 is larger than the threshold and then all the coefficients in the block are retained otherwise the block is considered negligible and all the coefficients in the block are estimated by zero.

Thresholding Filters
Thresholding filters are used to apply the threshold value. In this paper Hard and Garrote filters are consider.
Hard filter is proposed by Donoho and Johnstone and it is defined as
, = for  >
= 0 otherwise
,
– 0
– 0
Fig. 2 Garrote Thresholding Filter
represents wavelet coefficients and represents threshold value


HYBRID THRESHOLDING FILTER
For filtering the noisy wavelet coefficients, the hybrid thresholding filter is proposed in this paper. This filter is designed by taking the average of outputs of Garrote and Hard thresholding filters for above threshold value. For below threshold value, 20 % of coefficient value is considered. It is represented as
2
+
, = for all  >
2
= 0.2* otherwise
represents wavelet coefficients and represents threshold value.

SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In this section the results obtained using hard, garrote and hybrid thresholding Filter on noisy EEG signal are presented. The EEG signal of sample size is 2048 and it is contaminated with white Gaussian noise of different standard deviation values are simulated. Wavelet transform with coiflet wavelet is used to decompose the EEG signal. FDR method and Hypothesis method are used to fix the threshold value. Wavelet coefficients are modified using a thresholding filter. The inverse wavelet transform is applied on modified wavelet coefficients. The results are compared using MSE and SNR parameters.
Fig 1 Hard Thresholding Filter
MSE = 1
=1
2
SNR = 10 log10
=1
2
2
=1
n represents no.of samples, is original signal and is denoised signal. The simulation experiment is repeated 100 times and average values of MSE and SNR values are taken. This process is conducted on different EEG signals and the results are same. This simulation is implemented in MATLAB environment. The results of EEG signal for =10, 20 and 30 using hard, garrote and hybrid thresholding filter with FDR method and Hypothesis method are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. Table 3 indicates the denoising results of EEG signal using Block James stein method. The original and denoised EEG signals using hybrid thresholding filter with FDR method and Hypothesis method are shown in Figs 36. Fig 7 shows denoised signal of EEG signal using Block James stein method. Graph 16 shows the comparision of the results in FDR, Hypothesis and Block James stein methods.
For =10, MSE is 60.3710 and SNR is 17.8923 are obtained on denoising of noisy EEG signal with hard thresholding filter and MSE is 70.9529 and SNR is 17.1982 are obtained with garrote thresholding filter using FDR method. For hybrid thresholding filter, MSE is 48.2747 and
SNR is 18.8645 are obtained (Table 1). This indicates that the hybrid thresholding filter performs better than both hard and garrote thresholding filters. The same behavior is found for =20 and 30 (Table 1).
Using Hypothesis method, for =10, MSE is 69.1445 and SNR is 17.3054 are obtained on denoising of noisy EEG signal with hard thresholding filter and MSE is 86.1091 and SNR is 16.3554 are obtained with garrote thresholding filter. For hybrid thresholding filter, MSE is 55.2715 and SNR is 18.2779 are obtained (Table 2). This indicates that the hybrid thresholding filter performs better than both hard and garrote thresholding filters. The same behavior is found for =20 and 30 (Table 2) .
Using Block James stein method, for =10, MSE is 60.1850 and SNR is 17.9113 are obtained on denoising of noisy EEG signal (Table 3). It is clear that the MSE and SNR values of hybrid thresholding filter using FDR method and Hypothesis method are better than Block James stein method. For =20 and 30 also the same result obtained.
Table 1: Denoising Results of EEG signal using Hard, garrote and hybrid Thresholding Filters: FDR method
=10 
=20 
=30 

MSE 
SNR 
MSE 
SNR 
MSE 
SNR 

Noisy signal 
100.4997 
15.6767 
397.6322 
9.7044 
899.4194 
6.1594 
Hard filter 
60.3710 
17.8923 
164.2737 
13.5472 
291.6928 
11.0574 
Garrote filter 
70.9529 
17.1982 
191.9717 
12.8735 
355.9487 
10.1958 
Hybrid filter 
48.2747 
18.8645 
135.8736 
14.3714 
249.6676 
11.7317 
Table 2: Denoising Results of EEG signal using Hard, garrote and hybrid Thresholding Filters: Hypothesis method
=10 
=20 
=30 

MSE 
SNR 
MSE 
SNR 
MSE 
SNR 

Noisy signal 
100.4997 
15.6767 
397.6322 
9.7044 
899.4194 
6.1594 
Hard filter 
69.1445 
17.3054 
166.2564 
13.4932 
278.9246 
11.2512 
Garrote filter 
86.1091 
16.3554 
199.8411 
12.6974 
334.6151 
10.4638 
Hybrid filter 
55.2715 
18.2779 
138.8248 
14.2779 
242.9398 
11.8502 
Table 3: Denoising Results of EEG signal: James stein method, length: 2048
=10 
=20 
=30 

MSE 
SNR 
MSE 
SNR 
MSE 
SNR 

Noisy signal 
100.4997 
15.6767 
397.6322 
9.7044 
899.4194 
6.1594 
Denoised signal 
60.1850 
17.9113 
157.7887 
13.7248 
273.7316 
11.3370 
Fig 3: Original EEG signal
20
18
16
SNR
14
12
10
8
6
10 20 30
satandard deviation
noisy signal hard filter
garrote filter hybrid filter
Graph 2: SNR values of different filters in FDR method.
Fig 4: Noisy EEG signal
Fig 5: Denoised EEG signal using hybrid thresholding filter with FDR method
800
MSE
600
400
200
0
10 20 30
standard deviation
noisy signal hard filter
garrote filter hybrid filter
Graph 3: MSE values of different filters in Hypothesis method
Fig 6: Denoised EEG signal using hybrid thresholding filter with Hypothesis method
Fig 7: Denoised EEG signal with James Stein method
20
18
16
SNR
14
12
10
8
6
10 20 30
standard deviation
noisy signal hard filter
garrote filter hybrid
filter
800
MSE
600
400
200
0
10 20 30
standard deviation
noisy signal hard filter
garrote filter hybrid
filter
Graph 4: SNR values of different filters in Hypothesis method
Graph 1: MSE values of different filters in FDR method.
800
MSE
600
400
200
0
10 20 30
standard deviation
noisy signal
denoised signal
REFERENCES
[1]. Mallat, S. G., (1989), A theory for multiresolution signal decomposition: The Wavelet representation, IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 11, pp 674693. [2]. Dr. V.V.K.D.V.Prasad (2013) Denoising of Biological signals using wavelets, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Vol.3, No.3, pp.863866 [3]. Donoho, D.L., and Johnstone, I.M., (1995), Adapting to unknown smoothness via Wavelet Shrinkage, Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 90, No. 432, pp 12001224. [4]. Donoho , D. L., and Johnstone, I. M., (1994), Ideal spatial adaptation via Wavelet Shrinkage, Biometrika, Vol. 81, pp 425 455. [5]. Donoho, D. L., (1995) ,Denoising by Soft Thresholding, IEEE Trans. Information Theory, Vol. 41, No. 3, pp 613627Graph 5: MSE values in Block James stein method
20
18
[6]. Fodor, I. K., and Kamath, C., (2003) ,Denoising through wavelet shrinkage: An empirical study, Journal of Electronic Imaging, vol. 12, pp. 151160. [7]. Carl Taswell, (2000) The what, how and why of wavelet shrinkage denoising, Computing in Science and Engineering, pp 1216
SNR
14
12
10
8
6
10 20 30
standard deviation
noisy signal
denoised signal
19
[8]. Dr. V.V.K.D.V.Prasad (2008) Denosing of Biological Signals Using Different Wavelet Based Methods and Their Comparison, Asian Journal of Information Technology, Vol.7, No.4, pp.146149 [9]. Dr. V.V.K.D.V.Prasad (2013) A New Wavelet Packet Based Method for Denoising of Biological Signals, International Journal of Research in Computer and Communication Technology, Vol.2, Issue.10, pp.10561062.[10]. Akhilesh Bijalwan, Aditya Goyal, Nidhi Sethi (2012),Wavelet Transform Based Image Denoise Using Threshold Approaches, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), Vol.1, Issue.5,pp.218221.
Graph 6: SNR values in Block James stein method.
5. CONCLUSION
In this paper, a hybrid thresholding filter for wavelet shrinkage denoising of Biological signals is proposed. The performance of this filter is evaluated by using EEG signals. The results are compared with existing hard and garrote filters and Block James stein method. It is found that the hybrid thresholding filter performs better than both hard and garrote filters with FDR method and Hypothesis method and also performs better than existing Block James stein method.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors place on record their thanks to the authorities of Gudlavalleru Engineering College, A.P for the facilities they provided.