 Open Access
 Authors : Olokuntoye B. A , Akinola A. P , Layeni O. P , Fadodun O. O
 Paper ID : IJERTV9IS090010
 Volume & Issue : Volume 09, Issue 09 (September 2020)
 Published (First Online): 21092020
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Natural Frequencies of Vibration of a Magnetoelastic Hollow Cylinder in a Magnetic Field Under Large Deformation
Olokuntoye B. A. , Akinola A. P. , Layeni O. P. , Fadodun O. O.
Department of Mathematics, Obafemi Awolowo University, IleIfe, Nigeria.
AbstractIn this work, the frequency equation of vibration of elastic hollow cylinder in a magnetic field under large deformation is obtained for a semilinear material. Also, the natural frequencies are numerically calculated and the effect of the magnetic field on the frequency modes are considered. We describe the problem using the equations of elasticity and the Maxwell equations of electromagnetism taking into consideration the effect of the magnetic field on the frequency of vibration of the cylinder. We invoke the appropriate boundary conditions on the Maxwell stress tensor within and on the surface of the cylinder. In the result, the obtained frequency equation showed that it is a generalization of the frequency equation obtained for small deformation theory. The natural frequency of the body increases as the magnetic intensity increases.
KeywordNatural Frequency, Vibration, Semilinear material, Magnetoelastic cylinder, Large Deformation

INTRODUCTION
The phenomenon of vibration involves an alternating interchange of potential energy to kinetic energy and viceversa. Any body having mass and elasticity is capable of oscillatory motion. In engineering, an understanding of the vibratory behavior of mechanical and structural systems is important for the safe design, construction and operation of variety of machines and structures. The failure of most mechanical and structural elements and systems can be associated with vibration. Rumerman and Raynor (1971) considered the natural frequencies of axially symmetric longitudinal vibration of circular cylinders. Laura et al (1974) derived the frequency equation of a cantilever beam that has additional mass attach to it, which is considered as shear force that acted on the free end of the beam. Hutchinson and ElAzhari (1986) developed a series solution of the general three dimensional equations of linear elasticity which was used to find the natural frequencies of the vibration of hollow elastic cylinders with traction free surfaces. Oz and Ozkaya (2005) investigated the natural frequencies of transverse vibration of beammass systems for different boundary conditions. Abbas (2006) examined the natural frequencies of vibration of a poroelastic hollow cylinder. Yazdanparast (2011) investigated the vibrations of hollow cylinder in rotation. AbdAlla (2012) examined the effect of magnetic field and nonhomogeneity on the radial vibrations in hollow elastic cylinder under rotation. Yahya and AbdAlla (2014) considered the radial vibrations of an isotropic elastic rotating hollow cylinder. Using Biots extension theory, Perati and Gurijala (2015) investigated the torsional vibrations in thick walled hollow poroelastic cylinder. Ebenezer and Ravichandran (2015) considered the free and forced vibrations of hollow elastic cylinders of finite length. Wang et al (2017) examined the frequency equation of flexural vibration of a cantilever beam considering the rotary inertial moment of an attached mass. The objective of this work is to derive the frequency equation of vibration of a magnetoelastic hollow cylinder in a magnetic field under large deformation for a semilinear material in form of a determinant. Also, the natural frequencies for the modes of a magnetoelastic hollow cylinder were numerically calculated and the effect of the magnetic field on the frequency modes are considered.

PROBLEM SETTING

Geometry of deformation
Let be the subset of a threedimensional Euclidean space 3 (i.e 3) occupied an isotropic semilinear elastic body with
1 and 2 as the inner and outer radii respectively of the hollow cylinder.
We seek for the plane finite deformation of from an initial configuration of into a current configuration of by the action, say, of externally applied magnetic field.
The transformation from the initial configuration into the current configuration is the form
= (, ), = , = , (1)
Where (, , ) are the material coordinates in the initial configuration and (, , ) are the material coordinate in the current configuration .
The position vectors of every particle in the initial configuration and the current configuration are respectively given as
= + ,
= (, ) + , (2)
where , , are the orthogonal local basis vectors associated with the cylindrical coordinates (, , ) in and , , are
the corresponding local basis vector associated with the cylindrical coordinates (, , ) in .
Let the geometry of deformation of from initial configuration to current configuration be the deformation gradient , where is the gradient operator in the initial configuration .
The governing equations of the magnetoelasticity problem we are considering are given as
. + = ,
. = 4 ,
. = 0 ,
(3)
Ã— = 1 ,
{ Ã— = 4 ,
where is the electric field intensity vector, is the Lorentz force, is the magnetic intensity, is the magnetic induction vector, is the speed of light, is the current density vector, is the mass density, is the charge density, and is the Piola Kirchhoff stress tensor.
2
2
The component form of the equation of motion in equation (3)1 are
+ 1
+ 1 (
) +
+
= (, ) ,
2
+ 1
+ 1 (
) +
+
= 0 ,
(4)
+ 1
+ 1
+
+
= 0 ,
{
where , and are components of Lorentz force acting on the body.

Energy function and Piolarkirchhoff stress tensor
(John, 1960) constructed the energy function for isotropic semilinear material under large deformation which is given as
2
2
= ( + 1 2( ), (5)
1 ) 2 1
where 1( ) is the first invariant of the tensor ( ) and is the right stretch tensor.
We invoke the hypothesis of hyperelasticity and take the Frechet derivative of the energy function (5) with respect to the deformation gradient to obtain the first PiolaKirchhoff stress tensor which is given as
(, ) = [ (
2
2
+ 1 2( )] , (6)
() 1
) 2 1
(, ) = 2 + (1( ) 2) . (7) The set of equations in (3) above are complemented with constitutive relations given as
= ( + 1 Ã— ) ,
(, ) = 2 + (1( ) 2),
(8)
{ = ,
where is the second rank rotation tensor and is the magnetic permeability of the body. For a perfect conductor ( ), Ohms law written as equation (8)1 becomes
= 1 Ã— (9)

Radial vibration in perfect conductor
For radial vibration, the radial component of the displacement does not vanish identically, i.e
= , = = 0 (10)
= 0 + ,
(11)
where 0 (constant) is the externally applied magnetic field acting parallel to the axis of the cylinder and = (, ) is the perturbation in the magnetic field due to deformation in the electrically conducting cylinder. Substituting equation (9) into equation (3)4 of Faraday's law and making use of equation (11) we have,
= + Ã— ( Ã— ) + Ã— ( Ã— ) . (12)
0 0
In component form, equation (12) can be expressed as
= (0,0, ) , (13)
where satisfies the equation
= 0 ((, )) 1 ( (, )) . (14)
0
The Lorentz force acting on the body is
= Ã— 0 , (15)
substituting the AmpereMaxwell equation in (3)5 into equation (15) and using equation (11) yields
= ( Ã— ) Ã— . (16)
4 0
Introducing = (, ) in Ã— gives
Ã— = (0, (, ), 0,0) = (, ) . (17)
Using equation (17) in equation (16) gives
= ( (, ), 0,0) , (18)
so that
4 0
= (, ), = 0, = 0 . (19)
4
0
Substituting equation (19) into equation (4), we have
+ 1
+ 1 (
) +
(, ) =
,
4
0
+ 1
+ 1 (
) +
= 0 ,
(20)
+ 1
+ 1
+
= 0 .
{
Substituting the components of Piola stress tensor in equation (20), (Olokuntoye et al, 2020) obtained the wave equation in the magnetoelastic semilinear cylinder as
1
1
(+2) ( ((, )))
(, ) =
(21)
4
0
(, ) = 0 ((, )) 1 ((, ) (, )) (22)
0


STRESS FIELDS IN THE CYLINDER
(Olokuntoye et al., 2020) obtained the solution of equation (21) by taking the first approximation of equation (22) i.e by approximating (, ) as 0 . The solution was given as
(, ) = (11() + 21()) (23)

Zerothlevel stress field in the cylinder
In order to obtain the stress fields associated with solution (23), we employ the relations
() = () + 1 () , (24)
1
2 1
() = () + 1 () . (25)
1
2 1
The non zero components , and of PiolaKirchhoffs stress tensor are
= (2 + ) (, ) + (,) (2 + ) , (26)
= (2 + ) (,) + (,) (2 + ) , (27)
= ( (, ) + (,) 2) . (28)
Substituting the wave solution (23) in equations (26)(28) and using the relations (24) and (25), we obtain
= (2 + ) [ ( () + ()) 1] + 1 ( () + ()) ,
1 1 2 1
1 1 2 1
= (2 + )[( () + ()) 1] + 2( + ) 1 ( () + ()), (29)
2 2 2 2
1 1 2 1
= (2 + ) 1 ( () + ()) + ( () + ()) (2 + ) ,
1 1 2 1
1 1 2 1
= ( () + ()) + 2( + ) 1 ( () + ()) (2 + ), (30)
1 2 2 2
1 1 2 1
= ( ( () + ()) + 1 ( () + ()) 2) ,
1 1 2 1
1 1 2 1
= (( () + ()) + 2 ( () + ()) 2) . (31)
1 2 2 2
1 1 2 1
The current density electric field intensity , and Maxwells stress generated in the body as a result of (, )
0(, ) = 0 are
= 1 Ã— (, ) = 1 Ã— ( + ) = 0 , (32)
4
4 0
= 1 Ã— = Ã— ( + ) =0 , (33)
and
0
= = 2 , (34)
respectively.
4 0
4 0

Firstlevel stress field in the cylinder
(Olokuntoye et al., 2020) obtained the firstlevel solution of equation (21) by taking the second approximation of equation (22)
i.e by approximating (, ) 0
0 ((, )). The solution obtained was given as
(, ) = ( () + ()) , =
(35)
1 1 2 1
2+
2
where =
and 2 = (
+ 0 ) ,
4
1, 2 are constants and 1(), 1() are Bessel functions of first and second kinds of order one respectively. Using the relation in equation (24) and (25), the nonzero PiolaKirchhoff stresses , and are =
(2 + )[( () + ()) 1] + 2( + ) 1 ( () + ()) , (36)
2 2 2
1 1 2 1
= ( () + ()) + 2( + ) 1 ( () + ()) (2 + ) , (37)
1 2 2 2
1 1 2 1
= (( () + ()) + 2 ( () + ()) 2) . (38)
1 2 2 2
1 1 2 1
The current density = (0, , 0) and the electric field = (0, , 0) generated in the cylinder under consideration are
= 1 = 1
(
0 ((, ))) ,
4
4
0
and
= 0
4
1 ((, ))) , (39)
(
(
= 0 (, ) ((, )) , (40)
where (, ) is the solution of wave equation (21).


BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND FREQUENCY EQUATION
In this section, we are going to obtain the frequency equation for the boundary conditions of an electrically conducting hollow cylinder.

Zerothlevel frequency equation
We proceed to construct the zerothlevel frequency equation which describes various modes of vibration of an electrically conducting semilinear elastic cylinder. For this, we employ this set of boundary conditions compatible with the problem under consideration:
+ + 0 = at = and = , (41)
= at = and = , (42)
where 0 is a given prescribed stress at the boundary of the cylinder, (, ), is the Maxwells stress inside the cylinder,
(, ) is the Maxwells stress in the vacuum, = (, ) is the electric wave generated in the cylinder, (, ) is the electric
wave in the vacuum, and (, ) is the radial component of the PiolaKirchhoff stress .
2
2
We recall that the magnetic wave (, ) and (, ) in vacuum satisfy the electromagnetic field equations
2 = 1 , (43)
2
2
2
2 = 1 , (44)
2
Ã— = 1 , (45)
Ã— = 1 . (46)
The solution of equation (43) is
(, ) = () () = ( ( ) + ( )) , (47)
1 2 1 0 2 0
where , are constants and ( ) , ( ) are the Bessel function of the first and second kinds of order zero respectively.
1 2 0 0
Using equation (47) in equation (46) we obtain
(, ) = ( ( ) + ( )) . (48)
1 0
2 0
For the purpose of the nature of the problem under consideration we set
(, ) = {
10
( ) ,
(49)
( ) , ,
2 0
and
(, ) = {
11
( ) ,
(50)
( ) , .
2 1
The Maxwells stresses (, ) and (, ) in equation (41) are defined as
(, ) = (, ) , (51)
4 0
(, ) = (, ) , (52)
4 0
where (, ), (, ) are the magnetic waves in the cylindrical body and vacuum respectively. Introducing equation (49) in equation (52) gives
( ) ,
(, ) = {
4
0 1 0
(53)
( ) , .
Setting 0 as
4
0 2 0
= (2 + ) 2 , (54)
0 4 0
we obtain the following from equations (41) and (42)
111 + 122 = 0, 211 + 222 = 0, (55)
1 = 2 = 0 , (56)
where the coefficient 11, 12, 21 and 22 in equation (55) are defined as
11 = (2 + )2() +
2( + )
1(),
12 = (2 + )2() +
2( + )
1(),
and
21 = (2 + )2() +
2( + )
1(),
respectively.
22 = (2 + )2() +
2( + )
1(),
For nonzero solution 1, 2 in equation (55), we set
= 11 12 = 0 (57)
21 22
Equation (57) is the zerothlevel frequency equation of an electrically conducting semilinear elastic cylinder.

Firstlevel frequency equation
In order to obtain the frequency equation at firstlevel of approximation, we employ the boundary conditions:
+ + 0 = , = = , (58)
and
(, ) + 0 = (, ) = = . (59)
The solution of the electromagnetic field equations are
1 0
1 0
( ) ,
(, ) = {
(60)
( )
2 0
and
( ) ,
(, ) = {
1 1
(61)
( ) .
2 1
The associated Maxwells stress in vacuum is
( ) ,
(, ) = {
4
0 1 0
(62)
( )
4
0 2 0
Equations (58) and (59) gives the system of linear equations in variables 1, 2, 1 and 2
111 + 122 + 131 + 142 = 0 , (63)
211 + 222 + 231 + 242 = 0 , (64)
311 + 322 + 331 + 342 = 0 , (65)
411 + 422 + 431 + 442 = 0 . (66)
The coefficient of 11, 12, , 44, in the above equation (63)(66) are written as
2( + ) 2
= (2 + ) () + () + 2 ( () ())
11 2
1
4 0
1 2
2( + ) 2
= (2 + ) () + () + 2 ( () ())
12 2
1
4 0
1 2
= ( ),
= 0, = 0,
= ( )
13 4 0 0 14
34 44
0
2( + ) 2
= (2 + ) () + () + 2 ( () ())
21 2
1
4 0
1 2
2( + ) 2
= (2 + ) () + () + 2 ( () ())
22 2
1
4 0
1 2
= ( ),
= 0, = 0,
= ( )
24 4 0 0 23
43 33
0
=
(2 () ()),
=
(2 () ())
31 0
1 2
32 0
1 2
=
(2 () ()),
=
(2 () ())
41 0
1 2
42 0
1 2
For nonzero solution 1, 2, 1, 2,
11
= 21
31
41
12
22
32
42
13 0
33 0
0
0
0
24 = 0 . (67)
44
Equation (67) is the first level frequency equation for a perfectly conducting semilinear elastic hollow cylinder under consideration.


NUMERICAL RESULTS
In this section, we evaluated the natural frequencies for the first four modes of an elastic hollow cylinder of various thickness for two different values of externally applied magnetic field. The results are shown in the tables below
Table 1: First mode of Natural Frequencies of an magnetoelastic hollow cylinder of various thickness () for two different values of externally applied magnetic field
=
=
0.1
4.600489912
4.741371586
0.2
5.911873584
6.092304748
0.3
7.597071168
7.828151931
0.4
9.762639461
10.05858459
0.5
12.5455096
12.92452227
0.6
16.12164534
16.60703595
0.7
20.71716949
21.33878818
0.8
26.6226618
27.41873278
0.9
34.21153269
44.77870011
Table 2: Second mode of Natural Frequencies of magnetoelastic hollow cylinder of various thickness () for two different values of externally applied magnetic field
=
=
0.1
12.20800396
12.7371271
0.2
15.68793269
16.52081535
0.3
20.15982573
21.42848523
0.4
25.9064455
27.79402647
0.5
33.29115675
36.05051403
0.6
42.78090245
46.75967202
0.7
54.97572909
60.65009019
0.8
70.64672824
78.66679301
0.9
119.4536756
128.6219678
Table 3: Third mode of Natural Frequencies of magnetoelastic hollow cylinder of various thickness () for two different values of externally applied magnetic field
=
=
0.1
20.43234346
20.80118
0.2
25.43096458
27.3854
0.3
32.68013854
36.05372
0.4
41.99571165
47.46582
0.5
53.96671726
62.49021
0.6
69.3500945
82.27028
0.7
89.11855032
108.3113
0.8
114.5220647
142.5952
0.9
185.3921045
199.6127
Table 4: Fourth mode of Natural Frequencies of magnetoelastic hollow cylinder of various thickness () for two different values of externally applied magnetic field
=
=
0.1
27.3691174
27.930159
0.2
35.28349447
36.62412121
0.3
45.48648622
48.02429711
0.4
58.63989551
62.97306358
0.5
75.5968999
82.57500838
0.6
97.45739184
108.2785499
0.7
125.6393217
141.9829632
0.8
161.970671
186.17872
0.9
208.8080222
244.1315142

CONCLUSIONS
The frequency equation of vibration of a magnetoelastic hollow cylinder in a magnetic field under large deformation for a semi linear material was obtained. Also, the natural frequencies for the first four modes of a magnetoelastic hollow cylinder of various thickness for two different values of externally applied magnetic field were numerically calculated. It is shown in the tables above that the natural frequencies of the magnetoelastic hollow cylinder increases as the thickness of the hollow cylinder increases. Furthermore, the effect of the magnetic field on the frequency modes were considered. It is clearly shown from the tables above that the natural frequencies of the magnetoelastic hollow cylinder increases as the externally applied magnetic field intensity increases. The results shows that the natural frequencies obtained are greater than the corresponding small deformation case.
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