Modified DSR Protocol using Link Prediction Algorithm for Reliable Ad Hoc Network

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Modified DSR Protocol using Link Prediction Algorithm for Reliable Ad Hoc Network

Ashutosh

M.Tech, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur

Mr. Bhut Nath Singh Munda

Associate Professor, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur

Aman Raj

M.Tech, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur

Abstract The MANET(mobile ad hoc network) is a self- configured, self-organized, infrastructure less network and it consists nodes which are mobile in nature and each node can transfer the data packets with each other over either radio or infrared. Some devices like laptop computers and personal digital assistants that can able to communicate with each other directly can be examples of nodes in the adhoc network. In MANET each device is free to move independently in any direction and will change the links to other devices frequently. Each node must forward the data packets until it reach at destination. MANET have variety range of applications like military battle field, disaster area, commercial use, sensor networks, etc. In those places where a temporary network architecture is required in quick interval of time for the transmission of data. The adhoc network uses no centralized authority. So, there will be no collapse in the network mobile nodes moves away from the transmission range. In this type of network nodes must be able to enter/leave the network according to their wish. Since MANET have limited transmission range of nodes so multiple hops are required for the transmission of the data packets. We have analyzed various routing protocols like DSR(Dynamic Source Routing), DSDV(Destination Sequenced Distance Vector), AODV(Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector). The DSR protocol have more restrictions as comparison with other routing protocols like DSDV and AODV routing protocols. The link break is one of the major limitation in DSR protocol. The link break occurs simultaneously in DSR protocol because MANET there is a frequent change of topology which cause continuous mobility of nodes results link break so we have proposed a link prediction algorithm from which DSR protocol link break issue can be resolved. The parameters like energy consumption, throughput, end to end delay has been evaluated in Network Simulator 2(NS2) simulation software.

KeywordsDSR; DSDV; AODV; Link prediction; Topology.

    1. INTRODUCTIONMANET(mobile adhoc network) is a type of self- organized, self-configured, infrastructure less network which are connected wirelessly. This network is adhoc because it doesnt depend on a pre-existing infrastructure like access point in wireless network or routers in wired network. An ad hoc network is a self-organizing multi-hop wireless networkthat does not rely on fixed networks or predefined networking. In this network architecture each nodes is used to forward the data packets to other nodes. So, transmission of data depends on network connectivity and the routing algorithm. Since, MANET can reconfigure itself and frequent change of topology makes mobility of the nodes. Wireless mobile adhoc network are self-configuring, dynamic networks in which nodes are free to move. The power consumption in nodes and frequent link break due to continuous mobility of nodes are major limiting factors in it. Consumption of power is always a topic of interest for researchers because in this type of network nodes has very limited amount of battery. When these networks deployed then battery replacement is not possible and due to continuous mobility of nodes there is link break occurs and in MANET for the reliable data transmission proper link management is the most required parameter. The routing protocol is the most important topic and DSR(Dynamic Source Routing), DSDV(Destination- Sequenced Distance-Vector), AODV(Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector) are those protocol which are frequently used in MANET. We have analyzed various protocols like DSR, DSDV, AODV routing protocols [4] and DSR protocol has more restrictions compared with DSDV and AODV routing protocols. The major limitation of DSR protocol is flooding and link break due to frequent change of topology. So, we have proposed an algorithm from which proper link management is done and it make the network architecture of the DSR protocol more reliable and the proposed algorithm will have proper link management to make the network architecture of the DSR protocol more efficient than normal DSR protocol.
    2. METHODOLOGYIn MANET(Mobile adhoc network) due to continuous mobility of nodes there is a frequent change in the topology and those mobility of nodes cause link break. In traditional routing algorithms when the link break occurs then new route discovered for the transmission of data packets and that methodology results too much delay and so much costly and ultimately the QoS(Quality of Service) of the network will beaffected. So, we have proposed a methodology which can able to predict the time at which the link will break.So, we have proposed a algorithm to predict the time after which the active link will break termed as link prediction algorithm [7]. The link prediction algorithm work on the basis power of the signal received by the nodes data packets and approximation of time and this works by approximating the time at which power of signal strength drops below the threshold power.

      When threshold power of the signal strength drops below the threshold level then it indicates that two nodes separating from each others transmission range. So, when that signal power falls below certain level then it will alert the source that the link might break. So, source either find an alternative route in advance or it will repair the link.

      We have taken three consecutive power of signal which is received by data packets received by earlier node are used to predict the link using newton divided difference method.

      = 1 + 1 + 1 2 2 1

      Where,

      =Threshold signal strength tp =Predicted time

      Where are signal power strengths for time when packets arrived at ,

      Figure 1. Link prediction used when link break and the routing of data packets done from alternative new path.

      In figure it is mentioned that if and link break then source will find an alternative new path to send data packets from source towards destination.

    3. SIMULATION AND RESULTS
  1. Energy consumption:In modified DSR protocol based on link prediction the energy consumption parameter has been analysed in AODV, DSR and DSDV routing protocols Table 1 shows the analysed results in tabular form and figure 1 shows the results in graphical form.TABLE 1: ENERGY CONSUMPTION
    No. of nodes Modified DSR AODV DSR DSDV
    10 52.1894 65.0119 92.396 81.04
    20 52.67 74.7506 97.5785 86.72
    30 54.814 78.65 101.4862 92.99
    40 55.1219 83.5684 104.3964 96.34
    50 56.346 85.4783 109.3 115.04
    60 <>57.7455 89.388 113.22 126.89
    70 59.0557 94.2947 116.12 133.2083
    80 60.3672 98.2026 121.036 146..56
    90 61.6785 104.1157 123.948 163.239
    100 63.989 105.256 128.85 175.933
    No. of nodes Modified DSR AODV DSR DSDV
    10 52.1894 65.0119 92.396 81.04
    20 52.67 74.7506 97.5785 86.72
    30 54.814 78.65 101.4862 92.99
    40 55.1219 83.5684 104.3964 96.34
    50 56.346 85.4783 109.3 115.04
    60 57.7455 89.388 113.22 126.89
    70 59.0557 94.2947 116.12 133.2083
    80 60.3672 98.2026 121.036 146..56
    90 61.6785 104.1157 123.948 163.239
    100 63.989 105.256 128.85 175.933

     

    2 + + 2

    =

    ± 2 4

    2

    3

    The prediction of link break (tp) alerts the source even before the path breaks, allowing the source to restore the path locally or identify an alternate new route in advance.

    Fig 1: Graphical view of energy consumption

  2. Average Throughput Analysis:In modified DSR protocol based on link prediction the Average throughput analysis parameter has been analysed in AODV, DSR and DSDV routing protocols Table 2 shows the analysed results in tabular form and figure 2 shows the results in graphical form.TABLE 2: AVERAGE THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS
    No. of nodes DSDV Modified DSR DSR AODV
    10 562.845 673.0719 626.45 650.3058
    20 565.571 676.1522 627.47 651.257
    30 565.885 676.1989 637.69 655.3657
    40 562.4785 675.079 646.672 651.5789
    50 566.7384 695.5121 648.85 652.7189
    60 588.827 701.1921 647.279 656.9789
    70 594.871 704.7455 656.222 655.2856
    80 597.311 716.478 657.5322 659.8185
    90 597.3956 724.6785 639.251 659.8383
    100 597.3659 727.305 632.0588 675.4573

    Fig 2: Graphical view of average throughput

  3. End to end delay analysis:In modified DSR protocol based on link prediction the end to end analysis parameter has also been analysed in DSR, AODV and DSDV routing protocols Table 3 shows the analysed results in tabular form and figure 3 shows the results in graphical form.TABLE 3: END TO END DELAY ANALYSIS
    NO.OF NODES DSR Modified DSR AODV DSDV
    10 1.061 0.2347 0.6814 0.6315
    20 1.026 0.5511 0.7144 0.6364
    30 1.1577 0.6241 0.8744 0.7948
    40 1.1617 0.6125 0.911 0.8134
    50 1.1786 1.2243 0.96552 0.9574
    60 1.667 1.656 1.6828 1.55
    70 1.677 2.2271 2.1862 1.559
    80 1.7 2.2712 2.2693 1.5964
    90 1.77 2.2803 2.647 1.6801
    100 1.9743 2.2977 2.892 1.6158

    Fig 3: Graphical view of end to end delay analysis

    V. CONCLUSION

    The modification in normal DSR protocol shows good performance in end to end delay and throughput as we compared with DSR, AODV, DSDV and modified DSR protocols. The simulation result shows that the proposed approach shows better performance in the transmission of data packets from source to destination. The proposed approach link prediction made the link of the network architecture more reliable. A lots of future scope is available for the this model we have discussed here so we can make some more modification in this protocol to make it much more effective. Further these modifications which are discussed can be implemented in other routing protocols like DSDV and AODV protocols for making these routing protocols much more effective.

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