- Open Access
- Authors : Ashutosh , Bhut Nath Singh Munda , Aman Raj
- Paper ID : IJERTV10IS050483
- Volume & Issue : Volume 10, Issue 05 (May 2021)
- Published (First Online): 04-06-2021
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Modified DSR Protocol using Link Prediction Algorithm for Reliable Ad Hoc Network
M.Tech, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur
Mr. Bhut Nath Singh Munda
Associate Professor, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur
M.Tech, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur
Abstract The MANET(mobile ad hoc network) is a self- configured, self-organized, infrastructure less network and it consists nodes which are mobile in nature and each node can transfer the data packets with each other over either radio or infrared. Some devices like laptop computers and personal digital assistants that can able to communicate with each other directly can be examples of nodes in the adhoc network. In MANET each device is free to move independently in any direction and will change the links to other devices frequently. Each node must forward the data packets until it reach at destination. MANET have variety range of applications like military battle field, disaster area, commercial use, sensor networks, etc. In those places where a temporary network architecture is required in quick interval of time for the transmission of data. The adhoc network uses no centralized authority. So, there will be no collapse in the network mobile nodes moves away from the transmission range. In this type of network nodes must be able to enter/leave the network according to their wish. Since MANET have limited transmission range of nodes so multiple hops are required for the transmission of the data packets. We have analyzed various routing protocols like DSR(Dynamic Source Routing), DSDV(Destination Sequenced Distance Vector), AODV(Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector). The DSR protocol have more restrictions as comparison with other routing protocols like DSDV and AODV routing protocols. The link break is one of the major limitation in DSR protocol. The link break occurs simultaneously in DSR protocol because MANET there is a frequent change of topology which cause continuous mobility of nodes results link break so we have proposed a link prediction algorithm from which DSR protocol link break issue can be resolved. The parameters like energy consumption, throughput, end to end delay has been evaluated in Network Simulator 2(NS2) simulation software.
KeywordsDSR; DSDV; AODV; Link prediction; Topology.
- INTRODUCTIONMANET(mobile adhoc network) is a type of self- organized, self-configured, infrastructure less network which are connected wirelessly. This network is adhoc because it doesnt depend on a pre-existing infrastructure like access point in wireless network or routers in wired network. An ad hoc network is a self-organizing multi-hop wireless networkthat does not rely on fixed networks or predefined networking. In this network architecture each nodes is used to forward the data packets to other nodes. So, transmission of data depends on network connectivity and the routing algorithm. Since, MANET can reconfigure itself and frequent change of topology makes mobility of the nodes. Wireless mobile adhoc network are self-configuring, dynamic networks in which nodes are free to move. The power consumption in nodes and frequent link break due to continuous mobility of nodes are major limiting factors in it. Consumption of power is always a topic of interest for researchers because in this type of network nodes has very limited amount of battery. When these networks deployed then battery replacement is not possible and due to continuous mobility of nodes there is link break occurs and in MANET for the reliable data transmission proper link management is the most required parameter. The routing protocol is the most important topic and DSR(Dynamic Source Routing), DSDV(Destination- Sequenced Distance-Vector), AODV(Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector) are those protocol which are frequently used in MANET. We have analyzed various protocols like DSR, DSDV, AODV routing protocols  and DSR protocol has more restrictions compared with DSDV and AODV routing protocols. The major limitation of DSR protocol is flooding and link break due to frequent change of topology. So, we have proposed an algorithm from which proper link management is done and it make the network architecture of the DSR protocol more reliable and the proposed algorithm will have proper link management to make the network architecture of the DSR protocol more efficient than normal DSR protocol.
- METHODOLOGYIn MANET(Mobile adhoc network) due to continuous mobility of nodes there is a frequent change in the topology and those mobility of nodes cause link break. In traditional routing algorithms when the link break occurs then new route discovered for the transmission of data packets and that methodology results too much delay and so much costly and ultimately the QoS(Quality of Service) of the network will beaffected. So, we have proposed a methodology which can able to predict the time at which the link will break.So, we have proposed a algorithm to predict the time after which the active link will break termed as link prediction algorithm . The link prediction algorithm work on the basis power of the signal received by the nodes data packets and approximation of time and this works by approximating the time at which power of signal strength drops below the threshold power.
When threshold power of the signal strength drops below the threshold level then it indicates that two nodes separating from each others transmission range. So, when that signal power falls below certain level then it will alert the source that the link might break. So, source either find an alternative route in advance or it will repair the link.
We have taken three consecutive power of signal which is received by data packets received by earlier node are used to predict the link using newton divided difference method.
= 1 + 1 + 1 2 2 1
=Threshold signal strength tp =Predicted time
Where are signal power strengths for time when packets arrived at ,
Figure 1. Link prediction used when link break and the routing of data packets done from alternative new path.
In figure it is mentioned that if and link break then source will find an alternative new path to send data packets from source towards destination.
- SIMULATION AND RESULTS
- Energy consumption:In modified DSR protocol based on link prediction the energy consumption parameter has been analysed in AODV, DSR and DSDV routing protocols Table 1 shows the analysed results in tabular form and figure 1 shows the results in graphical form.TABLE 1: ENERGY CONSUMPTION
No. of nodes Modified DSR AODV DSR DSDV 10 52.1894 65.0119 92.396 81.04 20 52.67 74.7506 97.5785 86.72 30 54.814 78.65 101.4862 92.99 40 55.1219 83.5684 104.3964 96.34 50 56.346 85.4783 109.3 115.04 60 <>57.7455 89.388 113.22 126.89 70 59.0557 94.2947 116.12 133.2083 80 60.3672 98.2026 121.036 146..56 90 61.6785 104.1157 123.948 163.239 100 63.989 105.256 128.85 175.933 No. of nodes Modified DSR AODV DSR DSDV 10 52.1894 65.0119 92.396 81.04 20 52.67 74.7506 97.5785 86.72 30 54.814 78.65 101.4862 92.99 40 55.1219 83.5684 104.3964 96.34 50 56.346 85.4783 109.3 115.04 60 57.7455 89.388 113.22 126.89 70 59.0557 94.2947 116.12 133.2083 80 60.3672 98.2026 121.036 146..56 90 61.6785 104.1157 123.948 163.239 100 63.989 105.256 128.85 175.933
2 + + 2
Â± 2 4
The prediction of link break (tp) alerts the source even before the path breaks, allowing the source to restore the path locally or identify an alternate new route in advance.
Fig 1: Graphical view of energy consumption
- Average Throughput Analysis:In modified DSR protocol based on link prediction the Average throughput analysis parameter has been analysed in AODV, DSR and DSDV routing protocols Table 2 shows the analysed results in tabular form and figure 2 shows the results in graphical form.TABLE 2: AVERAGE THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS
No. of nodes DSDV Modified DSR DSR AODV 10 562.845 673.0719 626.45 650.3058 20 565.571 676.1522 627.47 651.257 30 565.885 676.1989 637.69 655.3657 40 562.4785 675.079 646.672 651.5789 50 566.7384 695.5121 648.85 652.7189 60 588.827 701.1921 647.279 656.9789 70 594.871 704.7455 656.222 655.2856 80 597.311 716.478 657.5322 659.8185 90 597.3956 724.6785 639.251 659.8383 100 597.3659 727.305 632.0588 675.4573
Fig 2: Graphical view of average throughput
- End to end delay analysis:In modified DSR protocol based on link prediction the end to end analysis parameter has also been analysed in DSR, AODV and DSDV routing protocols Table 3 shows the analysed results in tabular form and figure 3 shows the results in graphical form.TABLE 3: END TO END DELAY ANALYSIS
NO.OF NODES DSR Modified DSR AODV DSDV 10 1.061 0.2347 0.6814 0.6315 20 1.026 0.5511 0.7144 0.6364 30 1.1577 0.6241 0.8744 0.7948 40 1.1617 0.6125 0.911 0.8134 50 1.1786 1.2243 0.96552 0.9574 60 1.667 1.656 1.6828 1.55 70 1.677 2.2271 2.1862 1.559 80 1.7 2.2712 2.2693 1.5964 90 1.77 2.2803 2.647 1.6801 100 1.9743 2.2977 2.892 1.6158
Fig 3: Graphical view of end to end delay analysis
The modification in normal DSR protocol shows good performance in end to end delay and throughput as we compared with DSR, AODV, DSDV and modified DSR protocols. The simulation result shows that the proposed approach shows better performance in the transmission of data packets from source to destination. The proposed approach link prediction made the link of the network architecture more reliable. A lots of future scope is available for the this model we have discussed here so we can make some more modification in this protocol to make it much more effective. Further these modifications which are discussed can be implemented in other routing protocols like DSDV and AODV protocols for making these routing protocols much more effective.
- N.M. Upadhyay, K. Gaurav and A. Kumar, “Modified DSR, an energy conserving approach to DSR protocol in MANET”, IEEE International Conference, Communications and Signal Processing (ICCSP), pp. 1146-1149, April 2014.
- P.Khatri, Using identity and trust with key management for achieving security in Ad hoc Networks”, IEEE InternationalConference, Advance Computing Conference (IACC), pp 271-275, February 2014.
- Deepti Badal and Rajendra Singh Kushwah, A Energy Efficient Approach to DSR Based Routing Protocol for Ad-Hoc Network, International Journal of Computer Application, Vol.118 No. 4, pp. 14-17, May 2015.
- Uma Rathore Bhatt, Abhishek Dangarh, Akansha Kashyap, Aishwarya Vyas, Performance analysis of AODV & DSR Routing Protocol for MANET, IEEE fourth International Conference on Communication Systems and Network technologies, pp.254-258, April 2014.
- Pravin Ranjan and R. Leela Velusamy, Route Discovery Mobile Adhoc Network using an optimum angle selection based approach, IEEE fourth International Conference on Computer and Communication technology ,pp. 199-204, September 2014.
- Elizabeth MR, Keong TC. A review of current routing protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. IEEE Wireless Personal Communications. 1999 Apr; 6(2):4655
- Anita Yadav, Y. N. Singh and R. R. Singh, Improving Routing Performance in AODV with Link Prediction in Mobile Adhoc Networks, Wireless Personal Communication, Volume 81, Issue 1, pp. 603618, July 2015.
- Elizabeth M, Belding R, Perkins CE. Evolution and future directions of the ad hoc on-demand distance-vector routin protocol. Ad Hoc Networks Journal. 2003 Jul; 1(1):12550.
- Shengming J, Dajiang H, Jianqiang R. A prediction based link availability estimation for mobile ad-hoc networks. In Proceedings of Conference of IEEE Computer and Communications Socities. Infocom; Alaska, USA. 2001 Apr. p. 174552.
- Prashant S, Lobiyal DK. DSR with link prediction using Pareto distribution. In IEEE International Conference on Networking and Information Technology; Manila. 2010 Jun. p. 2933.
- Adrian JC, Leon PLD, Cormac JS. Link cache extensions for predictive routing and repair in ad hoc wireless networks. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE Conference on Mobile and Wireless Communication Networks (MWCN); 2002 Sep. p. 537.
- Perkins CE. Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing. Internet draft; 2003. p. 137. Available from: http:// www.draft- ietfmane-aodv-00.txt