Modernizing the Public Administration – the Path to Digital Society

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV5IS020011

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Modernizing the Public Administration – the Path to Digital Society

Prof. Dr. Valentin Kuleto,

Information Technology School, LINK group Cara Duana 36, Zemun, Serbia,

Mr Nikola Suboti,

Information technology school, LINK group Cara Duana 36, Zemun, Serbia,

Prof. Dr Mladen Radivojevi,

Visoka kola Za Poslovnu Ekonomiju I Preduzetnitvo Dositej Dositejeva 2, Trn, Bosnia and Hercegovina,

Abstract: E-government constitutes merely a piece of the puzzle on the path to much higher goals in the development of information society. Technological advancement and the citizens ever-growing savvy require a number of new, different, faster, better and cheaper services. The process of creating a modern public administration is stimulated by the spreading of new technologies, but changes in legislation are another prerequisite for successful implementation thereof. The paper also describes the experiences of some European and Balkan countries, and offers an analysis of the state of e-government globally, in the region, and especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina, along with suggesting certain new concepts based on mobile services. What we suggest is a radical transformation of the way the public administration works, enacted by putting to use the immense potential offered by new technologies today.

Keywords: Public Administration, Electronic Administration, New Technologies, Mobile Administration


The human society is in constant flux and development, and the need for public administration services keeps growing, while the advancement of the public administration itself is dependent upon the overall development. An information society is developing, based on two pillars – technological innovation and global networking. Modern, progressive, economically prestigious societies, with highly developed democratic standards, continually work on establishing new standards and procedures. All these changes are additionally fuelled by the general trends brought about by the globalization of the economic, political, legal, social, technological and cultural context. Early 21st century has seen increased unification and equalization of legal norms. Higher economic interdependence and the growing importance of international connections and joining the European and global community require the government to continually adjust to new challenges. European legal system Acquis Communautaire is being developed and implemented in 28 EU member states. Constant harmonization with the European Unions system of legal instruments is necessary in order to create legal an ambience that Europe understands and comprehends. However, there is no unique EU model for developing electronic and mobile government (e-m- Government), because the administrative and legal frameworks and practices within the European Union are

varied there are, therefore, no unique standards for the development of e-m-government; however, there is a leaning towards a common European administrative space.

The evolution of public governance shares the fate of all important civilizational changes: the character of the state; the relationship between the central and the local government; public, mixed and private sector; the way the government is organized; parliamentarism; democratization; constitution of the organs of governance and their functioning; new national and international communications and their correlations; social reforms; the widening and enriching of the citizens freedoms and rights.

Public administration has the crucial role in the development of any community, since it prepares and executes decisions, and the quality of the political decisions of the carriers of the political power largely depends on the level of quality, knowledge and professional ethics involved. Modern public governance should provide: efficient realization of the citizens' rights and interests, because it implements laws and other regulations, and ensures their implementation; protection of human rights; implementation of certain political decisions; protection of the public interest; efficient organization of the jurisdiction; efficient control of its own self (to prevent any sort of arbitrariness), overseeing (inspection) of the work and acts of non-government entities; competent, high-quality preparation of rational laws and other regulations; improvement of each citizens quality of life (by organization and coordination in the domain of public agencies work).

The public administration reform aims to lead to fundamental changes in the ways and methods of the work of the government, changing behaviours and value systems according to the requirements of our time. The implementation of the reforms implies changing the structure, organization and rules of work. The government should perform its activities in an improved way, at less cost, with constant adjustments, and keeping in step with the environment, always implementing the latest knowledge. The tasks of public governance reform are: to harmonize the legal framework in the area of information and communication technologies (ICTs) with the requirements of Acquis Communautaire; implement the Action Plan for e- Government; increase computer literacy of state administration employees; implement the 20 e-services from

  1. Europe 2005; promote e-government; monitor the progress in the process of introducing the e-government. In the early days of the use of ICTs, governments aimed to introduce automation of their administrative work processes in order to perform them in a faster and simper way [1]. Although the literature is brimming with ICTs advantages, including networking, faster service delivery [2], efficacy and efficiency [3], decentralization, transparency and the possibility of greater control [4], one should not underestimate the fact that the technology does not offer solutions in and of itself and does not necessarily mean building of an efficient and effective e-government. Introduction of new technologies must be accompanied by transformation of public administration and providing of the human resources who have the necessary knowledge and skills in order for the technology to be implemented in the right way, which will result not only in shorter queues in public administration organs offices, but also to decreased expenditure for business and public sector which will improve the level of competitiveness, transparency of the public sector, and 24/7 availability of public services [5]. With time, e-government ceased to constitute a form of modernization of the society; it became its essential need and came to be recognized as a standard of development [6].

    bureaucratic forms of public administration organization became the subject of increased critique, and primarily Western countries decided to reduce it, while increasing the efficiency of its services.

    In the 1980s, many, mostly Anglo-American countries, initiated reforms within the so-called New Public Management. New public management is rooted in the neo- classical economic theory, and refers to the transfer of management models from the private to the public sector. It constitutes a step toward market orientation and an abandoning of the Weber's traditional bureaucratic model of public administration. However, regardless of the far- reaching reforms throughout the world, the new public management has been disputed by a number of authors from the very beginning. The critics mostly emphasized that too much focus has been placed on efficacy, without taking into consideration the improvement of wider policies, i.e. without necessarily acheving the effectiveness of the policies. Also, the citizens did not play much of a role in the making of decisions that concern policies and services [9]. Democracy based on the perception of a citizen as a client, therefore, led to increasing the chasm between administration and the citizens, and reduction of the citizen's trust into government [10].


      There are different concepts referring to the use of ICTs in the functioning of the government, so to denote technologically advanced administration, the term e- government is used. The term e-governance is sometimes used to refer to a more comprehensive concept as well as to refer to all the functions of public institutions that unfold using ICTs. The basis of terminological differentiation between e-administration (Mäenpää also calls it e- government) [7] and e-governance (which is, on the other hand, often also called e-government, in a wider sense [8]) is the opinion according to which the use of ICTs renders the government organs more oriented towards the users and the efficiency, but does not necessarily advance the quality of administration.

      E-government concerns the use of ICTs in order to facilitate the delivery of services to the citizens, business partners and employees in public administration, by providing the service through submitting documents from a single location, at any time of day or night, through multiple communication channels, regardless of geographic distance and the number of different entities involved.

      Howard Gammon is considered the originator of the idea of e-government, whose foundation was established in Gammons 1954 paper The Automatic Handling of Office Paper Work in which he pointed toward the use of technology to redesign the business process, instead of the usual practice of unquestioningly automating the existing processes emphasizing the importance of the necessary skills and knowledge of the business processes on one side, and technology on the other.

      In the 1970s, many countries started questioning the capacity of bulky public administration. The traditional,

      The first steps in e-government as we know it today are related to the creation of the Internet in the 1990s, when it was recognized that e-government can be a factor that can have considerable effect on public sector reform and the improvement of efficacy, strengthening of competition, and establishing of relations with interest groups. According to the available data, South Korea was the first country where an e-Governance system started working, at 1 November 2002. It was quickly followed by all highly developed, economically strong countries. As early as 1999, the European Union started the e-Europe project for the purpose of creating a digitally literate Europe. A number of European countries (Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland) created their own plans for development of electronic communication as early as 1994 and 1995. By adopting the Lisbon strategy and defining the goal of Europe becoming the most competitive and dynamic economy in the world based on knowledge, with improved employment model and increased social cohesion, by 2010, European leaders confirmed their choice that Europe should be transformed into a new information society, so that Europe cannot only maintain its economic level of development in new circumstances, but also ensure its further progress by fundamental changes in the fields of legislation, regulations, standardization, education, social policies and economy. The action plan for the unfolding of the essential changes in European Union was called e-Europe and the following action plans were realized at the time: e-Europe 2002 and e-Europe 2005 as well as the action plan e-Europe+ for candidate countries. Within all these plans, the development of e-government was a basic part of the planned activities. Although all national, regional and local governments in Europe have their own specific needs, they can largely cooperate, exchange their best practices, and work together on developing the standards and creating a unique European space.

      The strategic document i2010 A European Information Society for growth and employment was adopted in June 2005, and as can be seen from its name, it was oriented towards an information society in the service of economic growth and employment. In the document i2010, the European Commission suggested the following actions that would further contribute to the concept of e-government in the EU [11]: 1) adoption of the Action plan on e- government and strategic choice that public services should be enabled and available through the use of ICTs (2006); 2) initiating of actions directed towards the advancement of the quality of life, namely: a) technologies to help the aged populace, b) intelligent cars which will be smart, safer, and environmentally healthier c) creating digital libraries that will make the multimedia and multicultural European content available to all (2007); 3) initiating activities with the goal of overcoming the geographic and social digital differences, which would be brought together in the European Initiative on e-inclusion (2008).

      The fact that the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) is considerably behind in the building of an information society indicates the evident need to intensify actions directed towards the faster development of the ICT sector in these parts[12]. The initiative that for the time being, at a regional level brings together the SEE countries in the campaigns of development of information society is the eSEE (Electronic South-Eastern Europe) Initiative of the Stability Pact for South-Eastern Europe [13] directed towards expanding and accepting information technologies in Western European countries. Within this Initiative's activities, those that concern the development of e-Governance are among the leading ones. In the European Union, the spending on ICT research is only 40% of the US level, i.e. 37 billion euros as compared to 88 billion euros in 2007. These obstacles indicate that in this area the EU is behind its industrial partners, such as the USA, Japan and South Korea. This is why, in May 2010, the European Commission initiated A Digital Agenda 2010 2020 for Europe. Its purpose is to define the key role ICTs will have in the realization of the plans by 2020. Creating of the Digital Agenda involved the use of various reports and strategies from the earlier periods, as well as recommendations from the public consultations conducted by the European Commission in 2009. [13] European governments are dedicated to bringing the user-oriented, personalized and multiplatform e-governance services to wide use by 2015. This is why the governments should take steps to avoid any unnecessary technical requirements, such as applications that work only in a specific technical environment or on specific devices. Most public services that operate via the Internet do not work across borders, at the expense of the mobility of the citizens and the business, so Europe needs better administrative cooperation in order to develop and use cross-border public services. Digital agenda for Europe aims to turn Europe into a generator of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth on a global level. All seven pillars of the Digital Agenda have international dimensions. Interoperability and the standards that have been recognized on the global level can help promote faster innovations through reducing the risk and expenses of new technologies. Dealing with the threats of the growing computer criminality

      must also take place in the international context. In the Digital Agenda, The European Commission suggested 101 measure, 31 of which are legislative.

      Ministerial Declaration on eGovernment [14], signed on 18 November 2009 in Malmö by EU ministers, demonstrated a common vision of e-government and defined the priorities that should be reached by 2015. The new eGovernment Action Plan [15], which follows the Malmo eclaration, was signed on 15 December 2010 in Brussels, during a conference called Lift-Off Towards Open Government. The action plan outlines the realization of the key goals given in the Malmo declaration in 2011-2015. The plan predicts the increase of the number of e-service users, as well as creating cross-border e-services. The European Commission plans to optimize the conditions for the development of cross-border e-government services that can be used by all citizens and legal entities regardless of the country of origin. Implementation of the 2011-2015 eGovernment Action Plan implies creation of a new- generation e-government that will provide open, flexible and collaborative e-government services at regional, national and EU levels.


      It is important to honour the fact that the development of e-government is a complex concept, and that monitoring of such development necessarily involves taking into consideration various factors – such as the capacity of local government organs for the development of e-government, legal and social context, and the political will to advance various concepts of e-government, including participatory potentials. For instance, Mäenpää (2004: 14-15) holds that the key factors that affect the development of e-government are: ICTs, cultural, financial, legal and human factors. Accordingly, various approaches and criteria are used for assessment of the development of e-government; [16] some are focused solely on the characteristics of online presence of the government organs, while others imply following of the internal capacities of the government organs and the effects of the e-government programmes.

      The World Economic Forum WEF takes several indicators into consideration in its regular annual assessments of e-readiness of different countries, such as the environment (infrastructure, political and regulatory environment, market environment), readiness (individual, government and business readiness) and the usage of ICTs (individual, business and government use of ICTs).

      United Nations' Department of Economic and Social Affairs publishes an E-Government survey biennially. 2014 marked the first time that the report included all 193 UN member states. Due to a number of factors, there are major differences between regions and countries, but despite serious economic, social and environmental challenges many countries are facing, they strive to overcome said limitations in order to achieve significant advancement in the e- government domain. In the 2014 Report, global and regional e-government leaders are presented in the following table:

      Figure 1 World and regional e-government leaders

      Republic of Korea remained in the first place in 2014. Like the earlier ones, the 2014 Report shows that Europe is still a leader with the highest regional index, while the leading countries in Europe are France (4), the Netherlands (5), Great Britain (8) and Finland (10). America, with the USA (7) is next, followed by Asia, where the Republic of Korea is the leader; then comes Oceania – lead by Australia (2), and finally – Africa – where the leader is Tunisia (75).

      Although Europe remains a global power in the development of advanced technologies and continues to be a global leader in the development of e-government, the previous report (2012) placed seven European countries among the first 10, whereas this report (2014) includes four European countries. However, 11 of 20 and 26 of 40 are European countries. Due to the financial crisis, unemployment and the ageing population, the European countries are actively seeking innovative solutions in order to remain competitive and be able to offer a wide range of public services to their citizens. The global trend is multichannel providing of public services via various means: traditional, via telephone and call centres, web portals, email, SMS, mobile portals, mobile applications, social networks, info kiosks… The achieved level of the countries' development has a decisive influence on the degree in which the e-government concept will be accepted and implemented. The developed countries have well-established government and economy, realize constant economic growth, growth of productivity and high standard of living, unlike the developing countries whose governments have not been properly constituted, and whose economies exhibit a number of weaknesses. Well-trained technical staff, a high level of technical knowledge and ability, good infrastructure and internet access for all citizens, as well as computer literacy, are largely conducive to the development and implementation of e-government. The opposite situation in the developing countries constitutes limiting factors for the development of e-government [17].

      Table 1 Ranking by year


      Ranking by year




      Bosnia and Herzegovina
























      The following table shows the ranking from the last three reports for the countries of the region, placing Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 97th place out of 193 countries, and showing that it continually takes lower positions.


      Although the general state of the affairs when it comes to the development of e-government in Bosnia and Herzegovina is unsatisfactory, there are a number of positive examples, such as: informatization of business processes in registry offices, office business, electronic sessions of the government, web portals, identification documents, e- legislation… Despite these advancements, the level of development of electronic services is still low; only some of the e-services have achieved the level of full accessibility. Full accessibility means that no other formal procedure (personal or paper communication) is required besides electronic or mobile access in order to realize public service, as well as that such service is available to everyone. The current state is still characterized by: insufficiently developed common information and communication infrastructure; underdevelopment of official records in electronic form, as databases necessary for the development of electronic and mobile services; ubiquity of paper documents in most procedures; insufficient standardization and coordination of the development of information systems in government organs; lack of competent personnel.

      How to provide mobile services to the citizens if not even electronic business is fully present?

      The fact that proves that the citizens are using ICTs more and more is that the Internet is used by 3,042,656 people in Bosnia and Herzegovina, according to the data from December 2013, which is a 40.33% increase compared to 2012, as published by the countrys Communications Regulatory Agency (RAK); this is a considerable increase compared to the earlier years. In December 2013 there were as many as 3.5 million mobile telephony users (prepaid and postpaid), as the RAK's data shows [18]. However, the level of usefulness of ICTs will be proportional to the range and quality of legislation, because, no matter how intensive the application of ICTs, the lack of an appropriate legal framework constitutes a danger of legal insecurity, along with jeopardizing some of the fundamental values of the legal systems. This is why the introduction of ICTs into various aspects of public governanc must necessarily be accompanied by adequate regulations, in accordance with modern societies trends, and there needs to be action aimed at unification of electronic legislation at a wider, European and international level [19]. Changes based on the positive comparative experience of developed states need to be introduced into our legislation. It must involve modern communication (establishing of contact) between the organs and the clients, through use of new technology (computers, telephones, mobile devices and other modern devices). Current regulations on work of public administration at the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as those referring to the Republic of Srpska, are adjusted to the traditional M.O. of public administration and its current state, rather than the need for its modernization. Although the National Assembly

      of the Republic of Srpska adopted a set of regulations that constitute the foundation for the introduction of e- government – namely, the Republic of Srpskas Law on Electronic [20], the Republic of Srpska's Law on Electronic Signature [21] and the Republic of Srpskas Law on Electronic Document [22], and the Law on Information Security [23] and developed the Strategy of the Development of the Local Self-Government for the period 2009-2015 (which implies strengthening of the e-government) and the e- Government Strategy (2009-2012), these regulations are barely applied in practice.

      Many countries in the environment have adopted laws on e-government – for instance, Austria and Italy as early as 2004, Montenegro in 2014 – and almost all of them have adopted, or are in the process of adopting, new laws on administrative procedure. This is why Bosnia and Herzegovina needs to review a number of regulations, especially the Law on General Administrative Procedure, which needs to be another crucial instrument od modernization of not only the administrative procedure, but also of the entire way the public administration works. For a long time, this law has been a very good legal foundation for the operations of public administration based on law and provided legal security in the process of establishing government acts and other decisions, as well as a sufficient level of legal protection of the citizens in relation to said acts and decisions. Taking into consideration the fact that, within the last couple of decades, public administration has taken on new organizational forms that take over the execution of its functions, as well as the rapid development of ICTs conducive to the change of social circumstances and the conditions that we live in, it is understandable that the public administration must adjust to these changes in order to fulfil its role as socially useful and necessary for the sake of social development. The current Law does not cover all the modern kinds of administrative activities and, therefore, does not provide full legal protection in relation to said activities. It implies a relatively complicated, long and expensive administrative procedure and does not provide the necessary general legal framework for e-government. According to the current law, Documents are submitted to the competent organ on workdays during the working hours [24]. Deliveries are accepted on workdays, during daytime [25]. Although electronic registry office has been introduced into the republic's governmental organs in the Republic of Srpska, documents are still submitted almost exclusively at the counter, with required documentation that can be collected solely within the working hours (by 4pm). For instance, what good is an entirely organized and prepared possibility of electronic submission of a form, if it is not foreseen in the regulations, or if proof of paid fee is still mostly regulated through the use of a stamp or a copy of the receipt, or a proof that a document has been submitted is still a number received at the counter, and the development of a case can still be followed only by registry office and the clerk to whom the case has been assigned, while the client is unable to do that. The countries in the region have also modernized the regulations on office business, for instance the Republic of Serbia has adopted the Regulation on Electronic Office Business of the State Administration Organs [26] and the

      Instructions on Electronic Office Business [27] in order to solve at least a part of these problems.

      Therefore, the new Law on General Administrative Procedure needs to establish a legal framework for the development of e-government, without being disadvantageous to the citizens who lack internet access or ICT savvy. However, regardless of the need for adopting a new Law on General Administrative Procedure, and besides the fact that the public administration keeps a number of official records in electronic form, the provision of Article

      124 Paragraph 3 of the Law on General Administrative Procedure, stipulating that: Public official shall acquire, in the line of duty, the information on the facts subject to official records is still not implemented in practice, and this would certainly expedite lengthy administrative procedures.


      Nowadays, the trend is – service based on the user, self-service, and offering of services [28]. The legal basis for this exists, as has been noted above in this paper. But, in order to deal fully with a client-oriented service, it is necessary that, in addition to service in electronic form delivered by computers, we also provide service via mobile devices. The offer needs to comprise full electronic and mobile service.

      The citizens mostly perceive the public administration services as quite slow and time-consuming, inconvenient, toilsome and complex. The users have always appreciated the services that are: fast, simple, efficient, custom-made, safe, reliable.

      The citizens now expect the public administration to act like a successful business organization. It is true that public administration does not have to compete for clients and that there is simply no competition, and that its position is fundamentally different to that of the market system. Can new technologies lead to competition in public administration? The answer is a resounding yes, because it is certain that those who can provide a more efficient service are those who will be asked to provide it, too.

      It will take considerable investments in new technologies to satisfy the needs of both sides – the service user and the public administration. The citizens – service users would profit the most. They would be able to go about their business swiftly and without waiting, free from standing in endless queues, to receive timely service and precise information, or to do a job that sometimes takes days of visiting various government institutions. They want not only electronic, but mobile service, too. The citizens want to be able to send their birth certificate to the institution that requires it via a mobile device, just like business systems (for example, restaurants or flower shops) want to be able to request and receive mobile service (for instance, concerning longer working hours on certain days).

      Why is it that in these parts – and the situation is not much different in the neighbouring countries – it is so hard to obtain such service using a mobile device? The problem lies partly in the aforementioned documents (e-Europe 2002, e- Europe 2005, e-Europe+ and i2010 A European Information Society for Growth and Employment, etc.) that

      make almost no mention of mobile service. Although the Law on Electronic Signature was passed in Bosnia and Herzegovina as early as 2006, its implementation is still not an everyday practice, and without its implementation, electronic and mobile services cannot be realized.

      The goal of establishing electronic and mobile government is to have such organizational procedures that, using the latest technologies, provide a more efficient, cheaper service via several communication channels. Introducing of electronic and moble service should not be limited to automation of the existing state and the existing way of performing the service processes; there need to be new solutions offered, based on actual needs whose fulfilment is provided using the modern technological advancements [29].

      Some of the characteristics of the new concept are:

      • There must be several different communication channels that provide access to public services, chosen by the citizens and business systems according to their simplicity and accessibility.

      • The services must be organized according to the users needs, i.e. life and work situations of the citizens and the business subjects, not according to the internal organization of the administrative organs.

      • The services provided by the public administration must be fully integrated, instead of constituting isolated wholes.

      • The users requests accepted at designated points (counters) are transparently processed in the background, regardless of the number of different organs involved in said processing and the number of different access channels. In providing their services, the organs can rely upon other organs services.

      • Citizens and business subjects require minimum documentation to submit a request and satisfy their needs. All other necessary information, if available through an administrative organ, is obtained through communication within the public administration, using integrated services (service chain).

      The new concept of electronic and mobile service requires using new technology not only as a problem-solving tool, but also as an impetus for reform and renewal of public administration in equal measure. Therefore, the goals of introducing electronic and mobile service must not be limited to mere providing of standard services using new technologies. The primary goal is a radical transformation of the way the public administration works through using the immense potential of todays new technologies. Along with introducing new technologies, there must be a thorough change of the M.O. The informatization of the existing M.O. would merely strengthen its position and lengthen its duration, whereas the goal of automation is to change the essence of the public administration operations; to make them simple, open, efficient and citizen-oriented.

      The use of the electronic and mobile service will provide enhanced access to information to the citizens, as well as the improvement of services (examples include information on taxes and income, all kinds of permits, health services, labour market…). Direct access to clerks in all services will provide a more efficient contact and create a

      relationship of trust between the citizens, the economy and the public administration (all service users and providers). Government services will be provided with enhanced access to information and services and enhanced efficiency of service providers. Data consolidation will lead to increased quality of reports and electronic and mobile exchange of documents and information. Business costs will be reduced, isolated islands of communication inside the public administration and service users will br eliminated, the economy will benefit from improved access to information and services, and the cost of communication will be reduced.

      The security and privacy of data on citizens and service users: due to high sensibility of the managed data, its exchange and processing in an environment devoid of comprehensive security solutions can jeopardize realization, as well as the purpose of electronic and mobile service transformation. While on the one hand, the citizens are offered public benefit in the form of increased efficiency and effectiveness, as well as the possibility of more serious participation in public issues, on the other, they are faced with unimaginable risks od unlawful and undemocratic breach of privacy. This also concerns the right of access to public information, which is necessary for the efficient cooperation of different bodies in the sharing of the citizens private information.

      Using the electronic and mobile channels to the maximum, the user should be enabled to receive a service at any time, using any channel, wherever said user may be. This strategy places the user into the centre of the service process. They will be able to send a request for a service from home, and also receive the requested service in an appropriate form at home.


Public administration constitutes the segment of society which is the slowest to adjust to the needs of organizational and functional adaptation to the requirements of efficient action in complex and changeable conditions of the information society.

Contrary to the traditional administration, the administration that operates according to the postulates of electronic and mobile service and implements business intelligence will finally reach the position where it can personalize the activities of providing the services to each individual user. This is the time of movement towards integrated solutions, personalization and self-service. Service users are rapidly turning away from individual solutions towards integrated solutions. They increasingly demand solutions in one place and under one roof. In such service model, the administrations must offer a higher number of services per transaction, as well as a more comfortable and cheaper service. In order to solve the problem of choice, the users are looking for integrated solutions and self-service because they render the process of requesting and receiving the service easier.

In this paper, in order for the public administration to provide the possibility of choice of a communication channel, and a faster, better, cheaper service, to the service users, we proposed introducing not only electronic, but also mobile service. If we want to talk about digital society, mere e-business of e-governance is not sufficient; it also requires

mobile service, which we here propose to be implemented en route to digital society.

The future requires work on certain new solutions, because there already are not only ideas, but also pilot solutions for a new concept based on mobile services. Legislation needs to be somewhat amended in order to provide adequate conditions for moving on to self-service and the users increased participation in the service chain through the use of electronic and mobile services.


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