 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 1726
 Authors : Chetan D. Gaonkar
 Paper ID : IJERTV4IS030050
 Volume & Issue : Volume 04, Issue 03 (March 2015)
 DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV4IS030050
 Published (First Online): 09032015
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Modal Analysis of Exhaust System to Optimize Mounting Hanger Location
Chetan D. Gaonkar
Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Dpt., DBCE, Margao, Goa
Abstract An exhaust system with a superior performance becomes unserviceable if its durability is insufficient, for example, due to excessive level vibrations. This excessive level of vibration caused by various excitation forces from engine and road surfaces are transferred on to the exhaust hangers which plays a vital role in clamping the exhaust systems in proper place, thus damaging the hangers much before its service life. Hence it becomes obligatory for NVH engineers to optimize the hanger location so that it undergoes minimum damage, thus increasing its durability. This paper presents a modal analysis approach for optimizing the hanger location using FEA and comparing the results with experimental modal analysis. For FEA technique, Hypermesh was used as a pre and post processor whereas Nastran was used as a solver. The methodology adopted here was to determine node and antinode points on the exhaust system so that the mounting hangers can be shifted to node points. Hence after the identification of critical frequencies, its mode shapes were analyzed to identify optimum hanger location. Further the results were compared by performing experimental modal analysis using LMS Data Acquisition System.
Keywords NVH; Exhaust system; Modal Analysis; Natural Frequency; Mode Shape; MAC Diagram

INTRODUCTION
Exhaust systems are subjected to many dynamic input loads, the most important one coming from the engine and road surface. The induced vibrations are spread along the exhaust system, and forces are transmitted to the car body through the attached points, mainly holding hangers. Due to this, these holding hangers undergoes maximum damage. To tackle this problem, a NVH engineer can use modal analysis technique. Modal analysis has turned into a real option to give an accommodating commitment in understanding control of numerous vibration phenomena which are experienced in everyday practice. Deciding the nature and degree of vibration response levels and confirming theoretical models and prediction are both significant targets that can be accomplished with experimental modal testing.

FEA TECHNIQUE
First, a FEA technique was used to perform modal analysis. In this approach, starting from the structural geometry, the boundary conditions and material characteristics
i.e. mass, stiffness and damping distribution of the structure is expressed in terms of respective matrices. Theses contain sufficient information to determine the system modal
parameters. Nowadays advanced software packages such as Hypermesh and Nastran are available.
Hypermesh is a general purpose finite element modelling package whereas NASTRAN for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: Static/Dynamic Structural Analysis (both linear and nonlinear), Heat Transfer and Fluid Problems, as well as Acoustic and ElectroMagnetic problems. The combination of these two software packages is effectively used for solving modal analysis problem in this work.

Description of the elements used
Shells are essentially 2D elements that represent 3D space, thus the term 2.5D is also used. Shells are excellent elements for thin 3D structures, such as body panels, sheet metal, injection moulded plastic or any part that can be described as having a thickness that is small relative to its global dimensions. Deflections are given at the nodes, but stresses can be found at the upper and lower surfaces as well as at the midplane. This gives the analyst the ability to extract membrane effects versus bending effects in the results.
The welds and bolted connections are simulated using rigid and Beam elements respectively. Outer surface of the muffler was meshed with shell elements of appropriate thickness. Suitable material properties were assigned to the shell elements of outer surface of muffler to match the mass of the muffler. Flex pipe is modelled with CBUSH element and its mass is represented by point mass. Contact between straps and muffler is modelled with CBUSH elements. In order to account for the weight of glass wool and other substrate materials, NSM (Non Structural Mass) element was used.

Boundary Conditions
Much attention is required in specifying boundary conditions. Improper specification of the boundary conditions may cause various problems. In this case to extract all natural frequency at the system level, freefree boundary condition is used. Fig. 1 shows boundary conditions for a conventional exhaust.

Material Properties
The material properties such as Youngs Modulus, poisons ratio and density are required as an input values for performing modal analysis. For the flex pipe present in the system, the stiffness values in X, Y and Z directions are also required. The mechanical properties of the constituents of
these considered exhaust systems are listed in Table I. and the stiffness values of flex pipe are listed in Table II.
Fig. 1. Freefree boundary condition for conventional exhaust system
TABLE I. MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF EXHAUST SYSTEM
Material Properties
Conventional exhaust system
Material and Grade
IS 3074 ERW 1
Young's Modulus
210000 N/mm2
Poisson's Ratio
0.29
Density
7.8 X 109 T /mm3
Yield Strength
240 Mpa
TABLE II. STIFNESS VALUE OF FLEX PIPE
Direction
Stiffness value (N/mm)
In Compression (Kx)
50
In extension (Ky)
50
In free bending (Kz)
107.91

Assumptions

Holes on tubes in internal parts of muffler are not considered.

Heat shields are not considered.

The analysis is carried out for freefree condition.

Glass wool and other substrate materials are modelled with NSM


Procedure for Mode Extraction
The middle surfaces are extracted from the geometry. The surfaces are meshed with shell elements. The welds and bolted connections are simulated using rigid and Beam elements respectively. Outer layer of the muffler has been meshed and has been assigned with suitable material density to match the actual weight of the muffler. The meshed model is then checked for quality checks such as wrap angle, aspect ratio, jacobian etc. By giving required loading conditions and choosing desired output, this FE model is submitted to solver (MSC Nastran) for extracting modal frequencies and mode shapes. Modal frequencies obtained are listed in Table III.
TABLE III. MODAL FREQUENCIES OBTAINED
Mode No.
Frequency
Mode 1
12.7
Mode 2
22.4
Mode 3
26.1
Mode 4
37.9
Mode 5
40.9
Mode 6
44.3
Mode 7
66.1
Mode 8
71.6
Mode 9
83.6
Mde 10
88.8
Mode shapes of Conventional Exhaust System at few critical frequencies are shown in Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and Fig. 4
Fig. 2. 1st Mode of conventional exhaust system
Fig. 3. 2nd Mode of conventional exhaust system
Fig. 4. 6th Mode of conventional exhaust system


PRE TEST
In order to take measurements on physical structures, the modal information of preliminary Finite Element (FE) model is used to define the optimal measurement setup for physical testing. In modal test setup, measuring points where accelerometer will be placed and excitation points are identified. LMS Virtual.Lab Correlation provides tools to carry out this pretest analysis.
The objective is:

To excite the structure at the right Degrees of Freedom (DOFs) as to excite the structures dynamics (modes) as good as possible.

To measure the vibrations at the right DOFs to capture the requested reallife structural dynamic information.
Following are the steps involved in pretest.

Import and visualization of FE modal data
The first step consists importing an FE model, including mode shapes, and visualizing the modes of the structure. The imported model is first investigated for displacement mode shapes. This will provide information on where to put the measurement points. Fig. 5 shows the imported FE model of conventional exhaust system on which geometry is created.
Fig. 5. A test wireframe for conventional exhaust system

Creation of the Test Geometry
The nodes of the wireframe, which will contain the measuring points of structure, need to capture the relevant mode shapes of the FE model. If the wireframe has poor spatial resolution, it cannot distinguish between different mode shapes, typically in the higher frequency range. The goal is to capture all relevant modal information, with a limited set of measuring points. This reduces test effort, cost and time. Typically, start off with a somewhat coarse wireframe. After having carried out a first pretest analysis, the points can be easily added and/or moved until good pre test result is obtained. LMS Virtual.Lab Correlation provides the tools to create the wireframe interactively and productively.

Evaluation and Refinement of the Test Geometry
To evaluate if the set of measuring DOFs is capable of distinguishing between all relevant mode shapes, the MAC (Modal Assurance Criterion) is used. It provides a quantitative measure to express how well/poor the mode shapes of two different mode sets are correlating. This guarantees that, if FRFs are measured in a physical test in these DOFs (as response DOFs), the test data will contain enough information to estimate all mode shapes and clearly distinguish between them. Fig. 6 shows MAC diagram for Conventional Exhaust System.
Once the evaluation and refinement of the wireframe model is completed, the points used to create wireframe can be used as locations for mounting accelerometer in experimental modal analysis. In this case, 43 points were used to create wireframe which are listed in Table IV.
Points
Node Id
Coordinates
X
Y
Z
1
38906
2171.862
179.502
599.702
2
39356
2182.011
24.4384
674.164
3
39415
2172.206
156.479
434.396
4
39673
2180.332
207.4181
599.519
5
39721
2171.609
29.8922
379.206
6
39896
2158.239
222.512
472.94
7
40942
1623.007
181.517
597.624
8
41399
1647.988
211.5442
595.11
9
41447
1647.982
45.3584
380.484
10
42602
1894.445
175.279
603.707
11
43715
1902.955
19.7621
674.298
12
43917
1860.403
156.998
434.777
13
46261
1911.466
211.5543
595.098
14
46314
1868.914
45.3136
380.479
15
46912
1868.914
221.766
471.725
16
47952
1605.402
11.1579
674.345
17
47993
1596.55
156.805
434.635
18
48282
1596.342
217.2566
465.084
19
48477
2188.748
197.4347
601.146
20
48797
2188.75
171.074
589.634
21
49124
2198.759
68.4494
499.644
22
49346
2194.703
96.2882
554.314
23
49364
2200.053
18.3106
504.213
24
49774
2193.564
140.5062
549.384
25
50127
1570.736
23.9196
568.446
26
50199
1573.622
84.9391
582.652
27
50266
1580.75
207.7272
474.223
28
50395
1580.75
147.04
443.314
29
50679
1576.531
151.975
531.826
30
50931
1574.042
91.8684
513.714
31
51698
2339.058
50.0374
442.304
32
54671
3120.539
45.6596
431.438
33
57548
4176.326
46.4321
432.784
34
58168
3736.425
38.8433
423.137
35
59919
4990.747
243.4751
617.75
36
61831
5055.413
970.9751
680.527
37
62108
1531.084
55.7097
590.484
38
63975
884.929
56.6156
497.677
39
66068
357.027
45.934
434.001
40
66571
102.057
49.8433
421.743
41
102078
108.824
29.7582
0
42
102085
0
0
0
43
102623
57.253
50.7631
103.51
TABLE IV. COORDINATES TO LOCATE ACCELEROMETER ON CONVENTIONAL EXHAUST SYSTEM
Fig. 6. MAC diagram for Conventional Exhaust System


EXPERIMENTAL MODAL ANALYSIS
The experimental approach starts from the measurement of dynamic input forces and output response of the structure of interest. These measurements are often transformed into frequency response functions. They can be expressed in terms of modal parameters. The FFT analyzer is a batch processing device i.e. in samples the input signal for specific time interval collecting the sample in a buffer, after which it performs the FFT. A calculation on that batch and displays the resulting spectrum. The FFT analyzer used for this experiment is of LMS Test.Lab 12A.

Test Procedure
Using the accelerometer mounting locations from Table IV, wireframe geometry was created using LMS Test Lab. Fig. 7 shows the wireframe geometry for Conventional Exhaust System.
Fig. 7. Wireframe geometry for Conventional Exhaust System
For preparing the structure to perform experimental modal analysis, the exhaust systems are supported using bungee cords in order to simulate the freefree boundary condition which is shown in Fig. 8. All the points where accelerometers are to be mounted were marked with the help of measuring tape and marker. Also based on the structure, the exciting points are located and marked.
Hanging Point
Fig. 8. Freefree hanging of Conventional Exhaust System
The excitation points are generally chosen with comparatively higher stiffness so as to excite whole structure. Fig. 9 shows the selected excitation point for this exhaust system.
On muffler in Y direction On muffler in Z direction On front pipe in X direction On muffler in Z direction
On First Pipe in Z direction On muffler in X direction
Fig. 9. Excitation points for Conventional Exhaust System
For acquiring the data some initial setup like channel set up, impact scope, trigger and windowing are done in LMS Data Acquisition System. After this initial setup the data is acquired through various accelerometers for different hitting locations. Once the data is acquired, it is post processed using LMS Test.Lab.

Post Processing
Post processing refers to activities that are involved after the completion of experimental modal analysis to extract results from the test. These include plotting the frequency response curves, coherence graphs, identifying the modes and extracting modal frequencies and shape.

FRF curve to obtain Model Frequency
Fig. 10 shows the summed FRF for Conventional Exhaust System. The summed FRF is a summation of FRF of all the points considered on the structure. The peak in sum FRF indicates the mode at particular frequency. The series of s in red color indicates that the mode is stable. The peaks with the stable mode denoted by s has to be accepted and one with the unstable mode has to be rejected. In this manner all the possible modes are selected which are displayed in left side of LMS Test.Lab window.
Fig. 10. Summed FRF for Conventional Exhaust System
Table V. shows the model frequencies obtained.
TABLE V. EXPERIMENTAL MODEL FREQUENCIES
Mode No.
Frequency
Mode 1
11.069
Mode 2
22.786
Mode 3
25.355
Mode 4
31.843
Mode 5
39.155
Mode 6
47.753
Mode 7
64.809
Mode 8
112.606

Modal Validation
The Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) is a statistical indicator that is most sensitive to large differences and relatively insensitive to small differences in the mode shapes. This yields a decent measurement marker and a level of consistency between mode shapes. The MAC considers just modal shapes which imply that a different frequency comparison must be utilized as a part of conjunction with the MAC qualities to focus the corresponded mode pairs.
All the modes that were selected in the previous step are analyzed and validated. The undesirable ones are rejected after determining them from the MAC diagram. The modes which contribute to a greater extent (above 20%) on other mode are determined and rejected in the stabilization window. Fig. 11 shows the MAC diagram for Conventional Exhaust System.
Fig. 11. MAC diagram for Conventional Exhaust System

Mode Shapes
After validating the modes in MAC, the mode shapes are extracted to visualize the behaviour of the structure. Mode shapes of Conventional Exhaust System at few critical frequencies are shown in Fig. 12, Fig. 13, and Fig. 14.
Fig. 12. 1st Mode of conventional exhaust system
Fig. 13. 2nd Mode of conventional exhaust system
Fig. 14. 6th Mode of conventional exhaust system


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
For the purpose of optimizing hanger location, modal analysis was performed. Table VI. shows the comparison of modal frequencies obtained for two exhaust systems using FEA and Experimental modal analysis approach.
Mode No.
Modal Frequency (Hz)
FEA
Experimental
Mode 1
12.7
11.069
Mode 2
22.4
22.786
Mode 3
26.1
26.355
Mode 4
37.9
31.843
Mode 5
40.9
38.155
Mode 6
44.3
47.753
Mode 7
66.1
64.809
Mode 8
71.6
———
Mode 9
83.6
———
Mode 10
88.8
112.606
TABLE VI. COMPARISON OF MODEL FREQUENCIES

Marginal variations between FEA and Experimental modal frequency values are observed. This is due to the assumptions considered while performing modal analysis through FEA.

In mode shapes, nodal points are the point with minimum displacements from mean position and antinodal points are the points with maximum displacements from mean position. Nodal and antinodal points are identified in mode shape for location of mounting clamps. In Fig. 15, E1 and E2 are the existing locations for mounting clamps and P1 and P2 are the new proposed location for conventional exhaust system. Fig. 16 and Fig. 17 show the FRF comparison between existing and new proposed location. Prepare Your Paper Before Styling
Fig. 15. Proposed mounting location for Conventional Exhaust System
Fig. 16. FRF comparison of point E1 v/s P1
The peak amplitude in the existing location (E1) has a magnitude of 1.74 (m/s2)/N at 64.91Hz whereas the magnitude of amplitude at 64.91Hz in proposed location (P1) is 0.56 (m/s2)/N.
% Reduction in amplitude = 100 – (0.56/1.74)*100
= 67.82%
Fig. 17. FRF comparison of point E2 v/s P2
The peak amplitude in the existing location (E2) has a magnitude of 1.38 (m/s2)/N at 64.91Hz whereas the magnitude of amplitude at 64.91Hz in proposed location (P2) is 0.68 (m/s2)/N.
% Reduction in amplitude = 100 – (0.68/1.38)*100
= 50.72%
From the above comparisons it can be seen that amplitudes of FRFs at a point of current locations are high. Ample amount of percentage reduction in the amplitudes is observed in case of proposed location. Thus durability of mounting brackets can be improved by shifting them to new proposed location.


CONCLUSION
The purpose of this work was to optimize the hanger location using FEA technique and comparing the results with experimental modal analysis. For this purpose modal analysis was performed. New locations for mounting clamps have been suggested to increase its durability by shifting it to nodal locations. Obtained % reductions in amplitude of FRF in case of new proposed mounting location are 67.82% and 50.72%. Fatigue Life calculation can be done for new proposed mounting location to check the actual increased life and durability of the mounting clamps.
REFERENCES

Peter Avitabile, Experimental Modal Analysis: A Simple Non Mathematical Presentation, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts.

S. S. Rao, Mechanical Vibrations: 2011, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

MÃ¸ller N., Gade S., Operational Modal Analysis on an Exhaust System, BrÃ¼el & Kjaer A/S, Denmark

Mr. N. Vasconcellos, Mr. F. dos Anjos and Mr. M. Argentino, Structural Analysis of an Exhaust System for Heavy Trucks, debis humaitÃ¡ IT Services Latin America, Brazil

Jim Lally; Accelerometer selection consideration