Iot Based Wireless Sensor for Agriculture Monitoring

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV6IS07104

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Iot Based Wireless Sensor for Agriculture Monitoring

R. Nivetha ECE Final year SACET,Trichy.

M. Anitha ECE Final year SACET, Trichy.

D. Elavarasi ECE Final year, SACET, Trichy.

  1. Vivetha, ECE Final year, SACET,Trichy

    Abstract— The recent changes in climate have increased the importance of agriculture monitoring, making it a topical and highly active research area. The aim of this Project is to collect fundamental field information like air moisture, air temperature, soil Temperature, humidity, and salt of agriculture land using wireless sensor network system during the growing season. data is post to the user through IOT. This data is can be update frequently to the cloud and user can monitor the field condition based on sensor values and motor status also. IOT based monitoring system is proposed for continuous monitoring of field by using specified user address. We transmit the information of the field to the user using RF transreceiver with 8 channel, and 2 GHz specification for analyzing the field. Another advantageous module, User can switch ON/OFF the motor from the browser terminal, and motor based on the moisture of the soil .According to the moisture level motor was automatically ON/OFF in the agriculture land and this status was post to monitor section. Thus we propose a technique to send data fast with minimum energy for higher distance.

    Keywords– DHT11, DS18B20 ,nrf24l01.


    Agriculture uses 85% of available freshwater resources worldwide, and this percentage will continue to be dominant in water consumption because of population growth and increased food demand. There is an urgent need to create strategies based on science and technology for sustainable use of water, including technical, agronomic, managerial, and institutional improvements.The main objective of this project is to reduce unwanted consumption of water in agricultural field. As there is no unexpected usage of water, a lot of water is saved from being wasted. The irrigation system is use only when there is not sufficient moisture in the soil and the microcontroller decides when should the pump be turned ON/OFF, saves a lot time and water for the farmers. As there is no unanticipated usage of water, a lot of water is saved from creature wasted. The constant increasing command of the food provisions requires a rapid improvement in food production technology. This also gives much wanted rest to the farmers, as they dont have to go and revolve the pump ON/OFF. In a lot of countries like India where agriculture and the climatic conditions are isotropic, at a standstill we are not able to make full use of agricultural possessions.In an Automated Irrigation System using, the most significant advantage is that water is supplied only when the moisture in soil goes below a determined threshold value. In current times, the farmers have been using irrigation system through the labor- intensive control in which the farmers irrigate the

    land at regular intervals by turning the water-pump ON/OFF when essential.


      A.DHT11 :

      The DHT11 Temperature and Humidity Sensor features a calibrated digital signal output with the temperature and humidity sensor complex. Its technology ensures the high reliability and excellent long-term stability. This sensor sense wet NTC temperature measuring devices. It has excellent quality, fast response.

      Figure 4.5 Image of DHT11 sensor

      DHT11 output calibrated digital signal. It utilizes exclusive digital-signal-collecting-technique and humidity sensing technology, assuring its reliability and stability. Its sensing elements are connected with 8-bit single-chip computer,Small size , low consumption & long transmission distance (20m) . Single-row packaged with four pins, making the connection very convenient.

      1. MicroController:

        The Atmega328p is a one of the popular microcontroller chip produced by Atmel. It is an 8- bit microcontroller that has 32K of flash memory.The Atmega328 isoneofthe microcontroller chips that are used with the popular Arduino boards.This microcontroller has analog pin and digital pin for easy interface of the sensor and other WSN circuit.Feature of the Microcontroller Operating Voltage: 1.8 – 5.5V 23 Programmable I/OLinesTwo 8-bit Timer/CountersReal Time Counter with Separate OscillatorSix PWM Channels6- channel 10-bit ADC .

        Fig 2.1 pin diagram of microcontroller

      2. IOT Module(esp8266):

        Wi-Fi Direct (P2P), soft-AP Integrated TCP/IP protocol stack+19.5dBm output power in 802.11b mode Supports antenna diversity,Integrated low power 32-bit CPU could be used as application processor SDIO 2.0, SPI, UART Wake up and transmit packets in < 2ms Standby power consumption.Operating Voltage3.3V

        Fig 2.2 esp8266

        The esp8266 module it is a 8 pin .vcc power supply.and it is operated by the voltage is 3.3v .This is exceed and it is burn the esp8266 module.GND is connected to the ground terminal.Rx pin is the receiver pin UART serial communication The Tx pin( transmitter).GPIO (general purpose input and output).Reset pin reset the module apply in 3.3v. the CH-PD pin configure channel.

      3. nrf24L01

      The nrfwireless transreceiver is 8 pin of the operation. GND pin it isalso used to for the ground terminal.Vcc is a power supply operated by the voltage range is 1.9v to the 3.6v and it is mostly apply the 3v .The CE pin is a select the mode of operation either is operated by transmit data or receive a data.CSN it is used to for the enable the SPI chip.SPI provise is high the clock is enable and low the clock is disable.MOSI transmit a data from user module to the external circuit.MISO receive a data from the external circuit or module then finally IRQ interrupt request pin, it does not need to connect

      Fig 2.3 nrf 24L01

      Connection in Wireless Communication.This communication is called as Serial Peripheral interface (SPI) A standard SPI bus consists of 4

      signals, Master Out Slave In(MOSI), Master In Slave Out (MISO) , the clock (SCK), and Slave Select (SS).An SPI bus has one master and one or more slavesThe master can talk to

      any slave on the bus, but each slave can only talk to the master.Each slave on the bus must have it's own unique slave select signal.

      Fig 2.4 SPI method

      MISO pins on both the master and slave are ties together. Even though the Signal in MISO is produced by the Slave, the line is controlled by the Master . The Master generates a clock signal at SCLK and is supplied to the clock input of the slave. Chip Select (CS) or Slave Select (SS) is used to select a particular slave by the master.

      Master Out / Slave In or MOSI, as the name suggests, is the data generated by the Master and received by the Slave. Hence, MOSI pins on both the master and slave are connected together. Master In / Slave Out or MISO is the data generated by Slave and must be transmitted to Master.

      Configuration of nRF24L01:

      RF24 radio (CE, CS) — mention the pin connection Mention the pipe address

      Uint64_t pipe = 0xE8E8F0F0E1LL Radio.begin (); Start the process Radio.openWritingPipe (pipe) Radio.write(msg,1); Radio.startlistening();

      Radio.available() to check any incoming message



        This Moisture sensor can be used to test the moisture of soil, when the soil is having water shortage, the module output is at high level, and else the output is at low level. By using this sensor one can automatically water the flower plant, or any other plants requiring automatic watering technique. Mdule triple output mode, digital output is simple, analog output more accurate, serial output with exact readings.The probe is normally given a frequency excitation to permit measurement of the dielectric constant.

        Fig 3.1 Moisture sensor



      1. Operating voltage: 3.3V~5V

      2. Dual output mode, analog output more accurate

      3.3V C4




      Soil Temperature Sensor




      Soil Moisture Sensor



      Air Parameter Sensor

      DTH 11 Temperture & humidity

      3.A fixed bolt hole for easy installation

      4.With power indicator (red) and digital switching output indicator (green)

      B UZZ ER


      Reset 1

      UNO 328P

      D0-Rx 2

      D1-Tx 3

      D2 4

      D3 5

      D4 6

      3.3V Vcc 7

      Gnd 8

      X1 9

      28 A5

      27 A4

      26 A3

      25 A2

      24 A1


      23 A0 Digital Out Gnd



      20 Vcc +5v


      1 2 3


      1 2 3


      1 2 3


      1 2 3

      1. pH SENSOR:

      pH levels are important in soils, irrigation water and





      C2 33pF


      2 20


      X2 10 19 D13

      D5 11 18 D12

      D6 12 17 D11

      D7 13 16 D10

      D8 14 15 D9


      VDC4 3.3V

      1 2 3 4

      1. – GND 5 – SCK

      2. – VCC 6 – MOSI

        4 – CSN 8 – IRQ

        spray tank solutions. Soil and water pH is the single most important aspect in determining nutrient availability to crops. pH levels in spray tanks determine the effectiveness of pesticides. This multi-purpose meter to help provide a

        C3 33pF

        16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

        Vdd Vss D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 E RW RS Vee Vdd Vss

        LCD16x2 1K

        8 7 6 5 nRF24L01

        +12 v


      3. – CE

      – +





      7 – MISO

      PH 230 V,

      AC Supply N

      healthy growing environment for all plants. It tests for soil

      alkalinity / acidity, soil moisture, and sunlight



      Pump Motor

      Fig 4.1Circuit Diagram area section


      5 6 7 8

      1 2 3 4

      +3.3 VCC

      +5 VCC

      R2 10K



      1 – TX 5 – Gnd

      +5 VCC 2 – CH_PD 6 – GPIO1

      B uz zer


      Fig 3.2 pH sensor

      Q3 R7

      1. – RST

      2. – Vcc

      1. – GPIO2

      2. – RX

      +5 VCC

      Reset D0-Rx D1-Tx

      D2 D3 D4

      X2 9

      Vcc Gnd


      28 A5

      UNO 328P



      27 A4



      26 A3

      25 A2


      24 A1




      23 A0 Gnd



      20 D13


      Vcc +5v


      The DS18B20 Digital Thermometer provides 9 to 12- bit (configurable) temperature readings which indicate the temperature of the device. The DS18B20 communicates over a 1-Wire bus that by definition requires only one data line




      C2 33pF

      C3 33pF

      D5 10 19 D12

      D6 11 18 D11

      D7 12 17 D10

      D8 13 16 D9

      14 15


      2 20

        1. V

          +3.3 VCC

          1 2 3 4

          8 7 6 5

          (and ground) for communication with a central

          microprocessor. In addition, the DS18B20 can derive power .

          directly from the data line (parasite power), eliminating the

          16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

          Vdd Vss D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 E RW RS Vee Vdd Vss


          1. – GND 5 – SCK

          2. – VCC 6 – MOSI

      4 – CSN 8 – IRQ

      need for an external power supply. This sensor has been

      LCD16x2 1k

      Fig 4.2 Monitor Section

      3 – CE

      7 – MISO

      included in many applications such as Thermostatic Controls, Industrial Systems etc.

      Fig 3.3 Ds18B06

      The chip needs power so 2 of the pins, Vcc and GND, provide it power so that it can operate. The Atmega328 is a low-power chip, so it only needs between 1.8-5.5V of power to operate.The Atmega328 chip has an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) inside of it. This must be or else thAtmega328 wouldn't be capable of interpreting analog signals. Because there is an ADC, the chip can interpret analog input, which is why the chip has 6 pins for analog input. The ADC has 3 pins set aside for it to function- AVCC, AREF, and GND. AVCC is the power supply, positive voltage, that for the ADC. The ADC needs its own power supply in order to work. GND is the power supply ground. AREF is the reference voltage that the ADC uses to convert an analog signal to its corresponding digital value. Analog voltages higher than the reference voltage will be assigned to a digital value of 1, while analog voltages below the reference This circuit consists of ATMEGA 328 p which is used to collect the data from the sensor and post to main unit through wireless transceiver. It has 14 digital I/O pins, of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs and 6 analog input pins. These I/O pins account for 20 of the pins. 2 of the pins are for the crystal oscillator. This is to provide a clock pulse for the Atmega chip. A clock pulse is needed for synchronization so that communication can occur in synchrony between the Atmega chip and a device that it is connected to it.

      voltage will be assigned the digital value of 0. Since the ADC for the Atmega328 is a 10-bit ADC, meaning it produces a 10-bit digital value, it converts an analog signal to its digital value, with the AREF value being a reference for which digital values are high or low. Thus, a portrait of an analog signal is shown by this digital value; thus, it is its digital correspondent value.

      The sensor output will be analog voltage range from 0- 5v depend on the physical parameter the output voltage will be varied. These sensor output is connected to the analog port of the microcontroller. Which converts into digital data. The following formula is used to get analog with help of program.

      Output voltage in analog = (Input voltage * reference voltage) / adc resolution (1023) bits

      These values are used to for conditional operation. The microcontroller is used to collect data, processes data and output the data.The moisture sensor is used to sense the soil moisture content in terms of the analog voltage ranges from 0v to 5v. This moisture sensor is used to motor ON / OFF in an agriculture land. The motor ON / OFF depend the threshold value given below.

      Name of the Crop

      Required Moisture level



      45% to 65%



      35% to 50%



      20% to 35%



      50 % to 75%


      Green Grass

      30% to 40%

      Table 4.1 Moisture level for crops

      These are the moisture level for some crops. From this if the moisture level is lesser than the required level, motor automatically on, after reaching threshold level motor automatically off.

    4. BLOCK DIAGRAM: AirParameter

      Soil Parameter




      Wireless Transceiver

      Atmega 328 UL

      Fig 5.2 block diagram for monitor section

      In the project we design to monitor agriculture land using sensors. The sensors, gives the information like air temperature, humidity, soil temperature, soil moisture and pH value of the agriculture land during the growing section. The values of sensors are fed into the microcontroller Atmega328p, simultaneously according to the moisture value relay operate motor(ON/OFF).

      The values from microcontroller are transferred to the monitoring section through radio communication (Wireless transreceiver). Then the microcontroller which is in the monitor section receives the data from the transreceiver and post to the IOT with the preformatted HTML code. And the display unit displays the parameters of Agriculture land and the motor condition


Automated irrigation in agriculture land proposed a novel system for efficient irrigation using WSNs. The proposed system is based on a model which performs efficient irrigation management by finding the appropriate schemes for the rational utilization of water for irrigation. The development of WSN and IOT systems, which combines efficient irrigation models along with energy efficient utilization of WSNs shows to be a very promising and effective application of automation in agriculture. The proposed model can be further extended to consider the effect of the field characteristics on the quantity of water required for irrigation. Internet of Things is far and wide castoff in relating devices and gathering statistics.This agriculture monitoring system serves as a reliable and efficient system and corrective action can be taken. It gives the information about the temperature, humidity of the air in agricultural field through IOT to the farmer. It is cheaper in cost and consumes less power. The developed system is more efficient and beneficial for farmers. The system can be used in green house and temperature dependant plants. In future this system can be improved by adding several modern techniques like irrigation method, solar power source usage.

Salt Sensor

Microcontroller Atmega 328P



to monitor Section


Driver Motorr

Fig 5.1 block diagram form area 1&2 section


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