Induced Crystal G Phase Through Intermolecular Hydrogen Bond Constructed by p-n-Alkoxy Benzoic Acids with Ortho-Toluamide (nOBA:TMD)

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Induced Crystal G Phase Through Intermolecular Hydrogen Bond Constructed by p-n-Alkoxy Benzoic Acids with Ortho-Toluamide (nOBA:TMD)

T. Kalyani, L. N. V. H. Somasundar@, K. Mallika and S. Sreehari Sastry*

Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjunanagar -522510, India

@Department of Physics, DVR & Dr. H S MIC College of Technology, Kanchikacherla-521180 A.P. India

Abstract – A new series of supra molecular liquid crystals (nOBA:TMD n = 4 to 12) were synthesized with mesogenic p-n alkoxy benzoic acids (nOBAS) and non-mesogenic ortho toluamide (TMD) moieties. Intermolecular interaction between the proton donor (COOH) of nOBA and proton acceptor (OH) of TMD results the hydrogen bond. Newly formed complexes are characterized by polarizing optical microscope and differential scanning calorimetry, along with the conformational studies of hydrogen bonding through vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR). The IR spectral study confirms that the formation of hydrogen bond between proton donor (- COOH) of nOBA and proton acceptor (OH) of TMD. The formation of hydrogen bond is attributed to the quenching of the nematic and Smectic phase and inducement of crystal G phase in liquid crystal complex. A comparative study of phase abundance is presented with respect to the pure p-n alkyloxy benzoic acids (nOBA) and other hydrogen bonded liquid crystal complexes of nBAs.

Key words–Supra molecular liquid crystals,ntermolecular interactions, hydrogen bond,Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Unique materials that have large number of applications in the field of Engineering, technology and medicine are liquid crystals [1-5]. As these materials possess good number of applications, there is always vigorous research in developing novel liquid crystalline materials with different molecular structures and phases. Preparing novel liquid crystals involve various techniques like synthesizing using organic compounds and mixing two different compounds, metals and halogenated compounds etc [6-9]. In most of the cases chemists keep keen observation on the synthesis of hydrogen bond [10-21], as well as p-n Alkoxy Benzoic acids [19]. Among these novel liquid crystals, Hydrogen bonded liquid crystals have distinctive nature to show mesomorphic behavior due to their strong and directional nature in different types of interactions [22]. The alkoxy benzoic acids exhibit liquid crystalline nature. The same nature was observed in the in all hydrogen bonded liquid crystals obtained from the combinations of mesogen and mesogen, non mesogen and non mesogen, mesogen and non mesogen materials. The non-covalent interactions exhibit superficial effects on physical and thermal properties i.e., mesomorphic behavior and transition temperatures [15]. In the

    present article, a novel homologous series of liquid crystal complexes are prepared through the development of hydrogen

    bond between COOH of liquid crystal compounds p,n- alkoxy benzoic acids when n = 4 to12 and OH of non liquid crystalline compound Ortho-Toluamide (TMD). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is used to confirm the formation of hydrogen bonding and the prepared complexes mesomorphism is characterized by polarizing optical microscope (POM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC).

  2. EXPERIMENTAL

    The p-n-alkoxy benzoic acid (99% purity) and o-TMD supplied by M/s. frinton, Inc., USA. Solvent pyridine from M/s. Qualigens, India. The transition temperatures and phase variant of p-n-alkoxy benzoic acid and corresponding hydrogen bonded complexes were found from textural observations carried out using thermal optical polarizing microscope (Meopta, DRU-3) with a hot stage and HD Canon camera attachment. Methodology for sample cell preparation and observation of mesophase of the samples as a function of temperature has been given in [ 9],[16], and [19 ]. Phase transition temperatures were compared with temperatures of Perkin-Elmer Diamond Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) at a scan rate of 2oC/min and confirmed. The IR spectrum in solid state was recorded on FTIR (FTIR 5300) Spectrometer (JASCO, Japan).

    Preparation of p-n alkoxy benzoic acid (nOBA):ortho toluamide (TMD) complexes (where n=4 to 12):

    Supra molecular Hydrogen bonded liquid crystalline complexes namely, nOBA: TMD (where n=4 to 12) are prepared by the following procedure given in scheme 1. Required amount of samples for synthesis are weighed on a single pan electronic balance Dhona make, ER- 180A with an accuracy of 0.01mg.Equimolar (1:1) ratio of nOBA and TMD are used for the preparation of liquid crystal complexes 4OBA: TMD to 12OBA:TMD. Compounds are taken individually and mixed in the pyridine solvent (20ml). Thus the naturally

    existing dimeric forms of nOBA compounds with complementary hydrogen bond are converted into the monomeric form. Now the two solutions are mixed and kept under constant stirring at 800C for 4hrs. Then most of the pyridine is removed by vacuum distillation process. It means the resultant homogeneous mixture was reduced to almost dryness by removing the excess pyridine under a controlled vaccum filtration. The white crystalline product was dried and re- crystallized from hot dichloromethane solution. The yielding is at about 85%. The entire process involved in synthesis of given liquid crystal complexes are shown in the form of chemical reaction as follows.

    ortho toluamide (TMD) p,n – alkoxy benzoic acids (nOBA)

    hydrogen bond is formed between nOBA and TMD [23-26]. Crystal G phase [27] consisting of molecules packed in different layers with long axis tilted with respect to normal layer planes characterized by C centered monoclinic cell with tilt molecules having pseudo hexagonal close packing [27]. Thermal span of all the Crystal G phases induced in complexes range is around 100C 200C which is a remarkable feature of these samples. Thermal span of the nematic phase was reduced from the pure mesogens (nOBA).

    Pyridine, 4 hrs reflux (at 800C) And after distillation

    Liquid crystal complex – nOBA : TMD ,Where R= CnH2n+1, and

    n = 4 to 12.

    Newly synthesized nOBA : TMD complexes are characterized by different thermal analysis techniques: POM and DSC. Structural characterization is done by the FTIR studies. Complexation of mesogenic nOBA and non mesogenic TMD influences the thermal and phase behavior of pure mesogens. The resultant nOBA:TMD complexes shows the interesting and completely novel phases which are not present in the pure samples.

  3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    Characterization of novel homologous series of liquid crystal complexes nOBA:TMD are explained in the preceding section.

    In detail, all the pure series of samples possess nematic phase and samples with n=7 12 additionally exhibit Smectic C phase. It was observed that phase transition temperatures of all the complex samples were decreased compared to their pure counterparts. Astonishingly, nematic phase was quenched in the complexes n= 4-6 and Crystal G phase was induced in whole series of the samples and nematic phase also observed in complexes with n = 7to12. As a representative case nematic droplets and Crystal G phases of 8OBA :TMD was shown in Figs 1 and 2. Quenching of old phases, inducement of new phases and change in transition temperatures in the prepared complexes were identified which has helped us to conclude that certainlyintermolecular

    Fig 1..Nematic phase in 8OBA:TMD

    Figure3. Smectic-G phase in 8OBA:TMD

    The Phase Transition temperatures recorded using thermal microscope was in good agreeent with the recordings using DSC thermo grams given in Table

    1. As a representative case DSC thermo gram of 8OBA: TMD was shown in Fig 3.

      TABLE 1. Observed Phase Transition temperatures of

      Compound nOBA:TMD

      Phase

      Isotropic (I)0C

      I N (0C)

      I-G (0C)

      N/G-

      Cr (0C)

      n =4 (TM)

      (DSC)

      SG

      116.1

      112.4

      97.8

      n =5 (TM)

      (DSC)

      SG

      110.7

      105.1

      94

      n =6 (TM)

      (DSC)

      SG

      112

      99.6

      103.7

      85.4

      n =7 (TM)

      (DSC)

      N,SG

      103

      92.6

      94.6

      86

      96.1

      73

      n =8 (TM)

      (DSC)

      N,SG

      108

      90.2

      89.5

      86.8

      76.8

      72.1

      n =9 (TM)

      (DSC)

      N,SG

      103

      101

      100.1

      95.2

      95.8

      84.2

      n =10 (TM)

      (DSC)

      N,SG

      106

      100.3

      102.3

      91.6

      95.4

      78.2

      n =11 (TM)

      N,SG

      105.8

      94.2

      94.5

      75.3

      Compound nOBA:TMD

      Phase

      Isotropic (I)0C

      I N (0C)

      I-G (0C)

      N/G-

      Cr (0C)

      n =4 (TM)

      (DSC)

      SG

      116.1

      112.4

      97.8

      n =5 (TM)

      (DSC)

      SG

      110.7

      105.1

      94

      n =6 (TM)

      (DSC)

      SG

      112

      99.6

      103.7

      85.4

      n =7 (TM)

      (DSC)

      N,SG

      103

      92.6

      94.6

      86

      96.1

      73

      n =8 (TM)

      (DSC)

      N,SG

      108

      90.2

      89.5

      86.8

      76.8

      72.1

      n =9 (TM)

      (DSC)

      N,SG

      103

      101

      100.1

      95.2

      95.8

      84.2

      n =10 (TM)

      (DSC)

      N,SG

      106

      100.3

      102.3

      91.6

      95.4

      78.2

      n =11 (TM)

      N,SG

      105.8

      94.2

      94.5

      75.3

      nOBA:TMD using DSC and POM

      (DSC)

      96.0

      87.5

      :TMD

      n =12 (TM)

      (DSC)

      N,SG

      110

      103.5

      104.6

      89.5

      94.2

      70.9

      8

      11OBA

      :TMD

      1668

      1662

      3365

      3182

      696

      2918

      9

      12OBA

      :TMD

      1669

      1667

      3365

      3183

      698

      2916

      100

      33775379..3937345272

      33775379..3937345272

      361326.4617.26307461

      361326.4617.26307461

      3355263.69.348608738

      3446.79419

      3355263.69.348608738

      3446.79419

      2011979.524.41656493

      2011979.524.41656493

      95

      394389.6218.67385806

      394389.6218.67385806

      386338.49128.3455069

      386338.49128.3455069

      2320.36565

      2320.36565

      2065.76194

      2065.76194

      1923.02955

      1923.02955

      1869.0227

      1780.29717

      1869.0227

      1780.29717

      644.22454 692.44494

      549.7510275.627861

      644.22454 692.44494

      549.7510275.627861

      90

      Transmittance %

      Transmittance %

      2671.41016

      2555.6812

      2671.41016

      2555.6812

      2374.3725

      2374.3725

      1066.63525

      1066.63525

      1016.48603

      1016.48603

      85

      933.54694

      933.54694

      80

      2926.01387

      2848.86123

      2926.01387

      2848.86123

      1516.04938

      1427.32384

      1516.04938

      1427.32384

      1296.16435

      1296.16435

      846.75022

      769.59758

      846.75022

      769.59758

      75

      1170.79131

      1170.79131

      70

      1689.64282

      1608.63254

      1689.64282

      1608.63254

      1253.7304

      1253.7304

      65

      60

      Fig 3. DSC Graph of 8OBA:TMD

      1. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR):

    The IR Spectra of the p-n-alkoxy benzoic acids (nOBA), ortho toluamide (TMD) and their inter molecular H- bonded complexes were recorded both in solid (KBr) and dissolved (in chloroform) states at room temperature and was shown in Fig 4. The summaries of infrared frequencies along with their assignments were shown in Table 2. The IR spectra of TMD exhibit the strong characteristic absorptions bands at 3369.0 cm-1 for N-H stretching along with (out plane bend) OPB modes of NH at 618.02 cm-1 [28,29] nOBA : TMD complexes show the absorption bands in the range of 620 698 cm-1 for (NH) OPB modes, strong intense bands due to C- H mode of benzoic acid moiety in the range of 2954-2916 cm- 1which supports the existence of nOBA moieties in monomeric form upon complexation. The stretching, bending vibrations involving the proton donating groups (NH2) and proton acceptor groups (O-H) showed shifts in their absorption frequencies, confirms the formation of hydrogen bonding in liquid crystal complexes. TMD with proton accepting substituents O-H, the intra molecular H-bond in

    4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500

    wavenumber(cm-1)

    (a)

    3365.78392

    3184.47522

    2974.23427

    2783.28149

    1957.74824

    1654.92413

    1492.90358

    1394.53397

    1139.93026

    1037.70301

    945.11984

    746.45179

    682.80086

    536.21085

    3365.78392

    3184.47522

    2974.23427

    2783.28149

    1957.74824

    1654.92413

    1492.90358

    1394.53397

    1139.93026

    1037.70301

    945.11984

    746.45179

    682.80086

    536.21085

    100

    Transmittance %

    Transmittance %

    80

    60

    40

    20

    0

    4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500

    wavenumber(cm-1)

    (b)

    3948.28635

    3863.41845

    3797.8387

    3377349.79.678492429

    361346.4630.15138342

    33552636.9.348608738

    3365.78392

    3184.47522

    2926.01387

    2848.86123

    2673.33898

    2551.82357

    2374.3725

    2320.36565

    2065.76194

    2017.54154

    1923.02955

    1867.09389

    1778.36835

    1687.714

    1608.63254

    1514.12056

    11348287..7342735824

    1255.65922 1296.16435

    1170.79131

    1066.63525

    1018.41485

    933.54694

    848.67904

    769.59758

    692.44494

    644.22454

    549.71255607.27861

    3948.28635

    3863.41845

    3797.8387

    3377349.79.678492429

    361346.4630.15138342

    33552636.9.348608738

    3365.78392

    3184.47522

    2926.01387

    2848.86123

    2673.33898

    2551.82357

    2374.3725

    2320.36565

    2065.76194

    2017.54154

    1923.02955

    1867.09389

    1778.36835

    1687.714

    1608.63254

    1514.1206

    11348287..7342735824

    1255.65922 1296.16435

    1170.79131

    1066.63525

    1018.41485

    933.54694

    848.67904

    769.59758

    692.44494

    644.22454

    549.71255607.27861

    80

    75

    Transmittance %

    Transmittance %

    70

    65

    60

    55

    50

    45

    40

    35

    TMD disturbs the symmetry of the amino group. Therefore,

    4000 3500 3000 2500 2000

    1500 1000 500

    -1

    the formation of intermolecular H-bond with acceptor substituent is formed by the free N-H group. Stability of the hydrogen bonding is observed by IR peak shift of the in plane bend (IPB) mode of N-H and C-H towards the higher frequency side.

    TABLE 2. IR spectral data (cm-1) for TMD and nOBA:TMD

    wavenumber(cm )

    (c|)

    Fig 4. (a) FTIR Spectrum of 8OBA;( b). FTIR Spectrum of TMD; b).

    FTIR Spectrum of TMD;(c) FTIR spectrum of 8OBA:TMD.

    As a comparative study between the nBA:TMD [16] and nOBA:TMD (n= 4 to 12) , the data given in Table 3 reveals that in case of NH (IPB) there is a increased shift of 74cm-1 for nBA:TMD and 513cm-

    Sam ple No.

    Compo und nOBA: TMD

    (C=O)

    (NH) AMIDE

    (NH

    ) OPB

    (CH

    )ACID

    Acid

    Amide

    (NH

    ) ASY

    (NH)

    SY

    0

    TMD

    1654

    3365

    .

    3184

    618

    1

    4OBA: TMD

    1669

    1729

    3365

    3181

    620

    2954

    2

    5OBA: TMD

    1662

    1729

    3367

    3184

    686

    2953

    3

    6OBA: TMD

    1669

    1663

    3365

    3165

    698

    2931

    4

    7OBA: TMD

    1668

    1562

    3365

    3184

    751

    2931

    5

    8OBA: TMD

    1689

    1687

    3365

    3184

    693

    2931

    6

    9OBA: TMD

    1662

    1668

    3365

    3180

    682

    2918

    7

    10OBA

    1669

    1662

    3365

    3184

    694

    2918

    Sam ple No.

    Compo und nOBA: TMD

    (C=O)

    (NH) AMIDE

    (NH

    ) OPB

    (CH

    )ACID

    Acid

    Amide

    (NH

    ) ASY

    (NH)

    SY

    0

    TMD

    1654

    3365

    .

    3184

    618

    1

    4OBA: TMD

    1669

    1729

    3365

    3181

    620

    2954

    2

    5OBA: TMD

    1662

    1729

    3367

    3184

    686

    2953

    3

    6OBA: TMD

    1669

    1663

    3365

    3165

    698

    2931

    4

    7OBA: TMD

    1668

    1562

    3365

    3184

    751

    2931

    5

    8OBA: TMD

    1689

    1687

    3365

    3184

    693

    2931

    6

    9OBA: TMD

    1662

    1668

    3365

    3180

    682

    2918

    7

    10OBA

    1669

    1662

    3365

    3184

    694

    2918

    1

    for nOBA:9HB. And also by comparing the FTIR Spectra of nBA:TMD and nOBA:TMD, the below table shows that nBA:TMD exhibits the 12cm-1 hypochromic shift in (NH) bond stretch and nOBA:TMD shows 25cm-1 bathochromic shift with respect to the (NH) bond stretch respectively.

    TABLE 3. FTIR data of nBA:TMD and nOBA:TMD

    Compound

    (c=o)

    (NH) amide

    (NH)opb

    (CH)acid

    Acid

    Amide

    (NH)asy

    (NH)sy

    TMD

    1655

    3367

    3185

    682

    8BA

    1644

    2926

    8OBA

    1684

    946

    2928

    4BA:

    N.A.

    N.A.

    N.A.

    N.A.

    N.A.

    N.A.

    TMD 4OBA: TMD

    1679

    1616

    3361

    3182

    685

    2954

    5BA: TMD 5OBA: TMD

    1655

    1678

    1617

    1617

    3367

    3367

    3184

    3184

    686

    686

    2863

    2953

    6BA: TMD 6OBA: TMD

    1657

    1691

    1607

    1607

    3375

    3375

    3165

    3165

    696

    682

    2855

    2931

    7BA: TMD 7OBA: TMD

    1658

    1678

    1612

    1612

    3366

    3366

    3184

    3184

    694

    696

    2851

    2931

    8BA: TMD 8OBA: TMD

    1658

    1689

    1612

    1687

    3367

    3365

    3185

    3184

    693

    694

    2852

    2931

    9BA: TMD 9OBA: TMD

    1662

    1681

    1617

    1612

    3369

    3369

    3180

    3180

    682

    693

    2853

    2918

    10BA: TMD 10OBA: TMD

    1658

    1681

    1610

    1612

    3366

    3362

    3184

    3184

    694

    682

    2851

    2918

    TMD 4OBA: TMD

    1679

    1616

    3361

    3182

    685

    2954

    5BA: TMD 5OBA: TMD

    1655

    1678

    1617

    1617

    3367

    3367

    3184

    3184

    686

    686

    2863

    2953

    6BA: TMD 6OBA: TMD

    1657

    1691

    1607

    1607

    3375

    3375

    3165

    3165

    696

    682

    2855

    2931

    7BA: TMD 7OBA: TMD

    1658

    1678

    1612

    1612

    3366

    3366

    3184

    3184

    694

    696

    2851

    2931

    8BA: TMD 8OBA: TMD

    1658

    1689

    1612

    1687

    3367

    3365

    3185

    3184

    693

    694

    2852

    2931

    9BA: TMD 9OBA: TMD

    1662

    1681

    1617

    1612

    3369

    3369

    3180

    3180

    682

    693

    2853

    2918

    10BA: TMD 10OBA: TMD

    1658

    1681

    1610

    1612

    3366

    3362

    3184

    3184

    694

    682

    2851

    2918

  4. CONCLUSION

A new series supra molecular hydrogen bonded liquid crystal complexes have been synthesized from p- n-alkoxy Benzoic acid (nOBA) where n=4 to 12 and TMD. (The Crystal G phase induced in all the complexes, and threaded nematic phase is induced in 12OBA:TMD compound.) Hydrogen bond is established between the OH group of the p-n-Alkoxy Benzoic acid and NH group of TMD, leads to an orthorhombic arrangement of the molecules. Hence, the molecular packing was influenced by the intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding, due to this influence in each layer of the molecule of nOBA an arrangement was created like headtotail and TMD as an adjacent molecule, a condition which induce crystal G mesomorphism.

From the below Table 4 it is observed that, the thermal span for alkoxy complexes is more than alkyl complexes further that thermal stability is comparatively more in nOBA:TMD complexes and is around 50oC. crystal G phase is dominant in nBA:TMD complex and nOBA:TMD series. Further, theremal stability for nBA:TMD complexes lie in between 25oC. Hence, nOBA:TMD complexes are thermally and texturally more stable than nBA:TMD.

TABLE 4. Comparison of transition temperatures obtained from POM for nOBA:TMD and nBA:TMD

Molecular complexes

Phase Variant

I/N SG (oC)

N/SG Cr (oC)

4BA:TMD

4OBA:TMD

NA SG

NA 116.1

NA 97.8

5BA:TMD

5OBA:TMD

G SG

68.1

110.7

67.6

94

6BA:TMD

6OBA:TMD

G SG

82.2

99.6

68

85.4

7BA:TMD

7OBA:TMD

G N,SG

80

92.6

67.7

73

8BA:TMD

8OBA:TMD

G N,SG

93.7

86.8

80.3

72.1

9BA:TMD

9OBA:TMD

G N,SG

85

95.2

76

84.2

10BA:TMD

10OBA:TMD

G N,SG

83

95.4

75

78.2

11BA:TMD

11OBA:TMD

NA N, SG

NA 96

NA 75.3

12BA:TMD

12OBA:TMD

NA N, SG

NA 94.2

NA 70.9

*NA represents Not Available

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:

One of the author (SSS) is grateful to University Grants Commission for providing BSR Faculty fellowship No.:F.18-1/2011(BSR) dated: 04/01/2017. The authors also gratefully acknowledge University Grants Commission Departmental Special Assistance program at Level I program No. F.530/1/DSA- 1/2015 (SAP-1), dated 12th May 2015.

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