Impact of Solid Waste Disposal on Quality of Ground Water Around Different Landfill Sites of Nizamabad City, Telangana State

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Impact of Solid Waste Disposal on Quality of Ground Water Around Different Landfill Sites of Nizamabad City, Telangana State

Neeli Vasavi*, Naseem.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry Telangana University, Nizamabad.

Abstract:- One of the worldwide biggest challenges is solid waste management. Land filling is the simple and common method of disposing solid waste ever observed in developing countries. The landfill leachates loaded with pollutants percolates in to water bodies present around the landfill sites results in pollution of ground water. An attempt is made to study the impact of landfills on ground water quality present around the landfills of nizamabad city and for proper interpretation the results also compared with the results of assessment of water samples from Alwal landfill located in Greater Hyderabad where an integrated solid waste management is undertaken. The water samples collected from various radial distances from the landfill site. Results of the study clearly indicate that the ground water quality is deteriorated badly and regular monitoring of ground water quality is needed. It also recommends need of Site-specific policies on ground water pollution control for Nizamabad landfill sites.

Key words: Landfills, Solid waste, Pollution, Leachate, Ground water and WQI (water quality index).

INTRODUCTION

Disposing of solid waste at open low lying areas in unscientific manner leads to pollution of air, water and soil and also results in adverse affects on public health living nearby areas (7-9). Deterioration of ground water quality due to percolation of leachate generated from landfill sites is predominantly observed in many developing countries like in India (10-13). It is reported that most of the landfills are unlined and without leachate collection system. The rate of deterioration of quality of ground water resources near the landfill sites is need of urgent regular monitoring measures in many cities and towns of the country (14). The susceptibility of an aquifer to pollution from landfill leachate is highly dependent on number of factors like location of dumping site, composition of waste dumped, toxicity of leachate, depth and flow of water table and type of landfill (15, 16). Ground water is the most common source of water supply in both urban and rural regions of developing countries and pollution of ground water is potential threat to environment and public health (14, 17).

The impact of leachate on ground water has been reported in many studies (18-20) with a common conclusion of presence of high level of organic and inorganic pollution due to percolation of leachate. A study conducted [15] reported high values of pH, nitrate and

BOD in ground water sample collected from the vicinity area of Malang landfill. A research (21) conducted in metropolitan city of Delhi, reported high levels of trace elements like K+, Cl- and NH4+. Studies (22, 23) have investigated the leachate composition generated from dumping sites and related it with ground water quality of nearby areas. An improper solid waste management system and absence of properly designed solid waste disposal mechanisms, landfills with growing urbanization, industrialization and population explosion has led to environmental pollution. The contamination of ground water is a potential environmental problem and needs to be addressed. Hence, an efficient method has been carried out to monitor the ground water quality index around municipal solid waste landfill sites of Nizamabad city. The quality of the ground water has been studied.

The waste generated in Nizamabad is dumped in open dumping sites. Residential and agricultural land is located in the vicinity of the dumping sites of three selected regions of city with seasonal rivulets flowing nearby the dump sites. Although the Municipal Corporations of the city are providing water supply but around 30% residents are still using ground water supplies like bore wells for daily needs. Percolation of leachate from these open dumping sites poses threat to ground water sources so a study was planned to evaluate the effect of dumping sites on the ground water resources in the vicinity areas of dumping sites of Dharmaram, Nagaram, Nehru Nagar respectively. The study also reported the WQI, calculated over a period of two seasons (Dry & Wet) from all the three regions of study sites of Nizamabad city to cover major city topographically, for determining the impact of leachate percolation on the groundwater quality.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area

Nizamabad city is the headquarters of the nizamabad district, Telangana State. It is located at the intersection of longitude of 18.672° N 78.094° E and spread over an area of about 40 Sq Km. To determine the possible ground water contamination due to percolation of leachate from selected solid waste land fill sites, the ground water samples were collected from the nearby selected land fill sites i.e Dharmaram, Nagara, Nehru nagar of Nizamabad city during dry and wet seasons of the monitoring campaign. The ground water samples were collected from

the bore well and other nearby submersibles close to the solid waste dumping sites at 5 different downstream locations (1Km, 2Km, 3Km, 4Km and 5Km) from the MSW dumping sites. Figure 3 (a), (b) (c) and (d) shows the aerial view of the studied areas with ground water sampling points. A total of 30 samples (n=5 for each site) were collected for the study purpose during entire two sampling

periods (dry & wet) from three study sites of Nizamabad and 10 samples were used from alwal region of Hyderabad during entire two seasonal campaign. Separate analysis was carried out for the samples collected from different distances of study locations. The analysis of ground water samples were carried out as per the standard procedures.

Fig 1 View of Nizamabad City Fig 2 Showing study sites of Nizamabad city.

Fig 3 (a) Aerial View of the Nagaram study area with ground water sampling points

Fig 3 (b) Aerial View of the Dharmaram study area with ground water sampling points.

Fig 3 (c) Aerial View of the Nehru Nagar study area with ground water sampling points.

Fig 3 (d) Aerial View of Alwal, Hyd., study area with ground water sampling points.

ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGY

-2

-2

-3 +2 + 2

-3 +2 + 2

According to WHO organization, about 80% of all the diseases in human beings are caused by water. Once the groundwater is contaminated, its quality cannot be re- established easily and to device ways and means to protect it. Groundwater Quality helps us understand the hydro geologic system, flow dynamics and groundwater contamination Ground water samples were determined for physico-chemical parameters according to the standards APHA and BIS methods (29, 30). All the samples in the experimental work were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl-), sulphate (SO4 ),

phosphate (PO4 ), calcium (Ca ), magnesium (Mg ), ammonical nitrogen (NH +-N), fluoride (F-), nitrate (NO -),

sub-indices of these parameters is quantified which are finally aggregated using an aggregate indexing method by means of different mathematical expressions (24, 37).

WATER QUALITY INDEX- BIS 10500:

Determination of WQI as based on the BIS 10500 standards was determined by assigning weights (wi) according to the relative importance of each chemical parameter for drinking purposes and has been summarized [12]. The parameters like chloride, nitrate, total solids, ammonical nitrogen, sulphate, fluorides and electrical conductivity has been assigned maximum Weightage of 5 because of their high significance in maintaining quality of ground water [61]. Other determined parameters like calcium, magnesium, total hardness and total alkalinity were assigned weight between 1 and 5 depending on their importance in water quality assessment. The relative

4

sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+).

3

weight (Wi) is computed using following equation:

i

i

Wi = wi / n = 1 wi

WATER QUALITY INDEX:

Water quality index (WQI) is a method of rating of existing water quality status in a single expression which is helpful for selection of treatment techniques (31). WQI provides information about the water quality in a single value. WQI utilizes the water quality data and helps in modification of the policies formulated by the environmental agencies (32). It represents the assessment of water quality through determination of physico-chemical and biological parameters of ground water (33). WQI was initially developed by Horton (34, 35) and after that concept has been modified by many scientists and researchers (34-37). A general approach for determination of WQI includes parameter selection wherein these parameters are selected based upon their impact on water quality. Once the parameters are fixed, determination of

Where; Wi= relative weight

wi = weight of each parameter, n= number of parameters.

A quality index (qi) based on the parameters were computed by dividing the concentration of each sample by its respective standard as assigned by BIS 10500 and multiplying the result by 100:

qi = Ci/Si x 100

Where; qi= quality rating based on concentration of the ith parameter Ci = concentration of each parameter (mg/l), Si= Indian drinking water standard for computing WQI, SI is first determined for each parameter:

SI = wi x qi

Where; SI= sub-index of the ith parameter WQI is then determined using following equation:

WQI = SI

Table 1 Water quality rating as per BIS 10500

WQI

Value Rating of water quality

<50

Excellent water quality

50-100

Good water quality

100-200

Fair water quality

200-300

Poor water quality

>300

Very poor water quality

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The Physico-chemical characteristics of the groundwater samples collected from Dharmaram, Nagaram and Nehru Nagar of Nizamabad and alwal region of Hyderabad are described in Table 2. Obtained results were also compared

to the WHO and BIS standards for drinking water .The results of all the parameters are symbolized as S1 and S2 for Dharmaram, Nagaram , Nehru Nagar and Alwal, Hyderabad for Dry and Wet seasons respectively.

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS

Table 2 Physico-chemical Characteristics of ground water at different downstream distances for two seasonal campaigns for three regions of Nizamabad city and Alwal,Hyderabad.

Parameters

X-Dist. (Km)

Dharmaram

Nagaram

Nehru Nagar

Alwal. Hyd.

Standards

S1

S2

S1

S2

S1

S2

S1

S2

WHO

BIS

Temperature (°C)

1

27.3

23.6

29.5

24.1

26.8

23.8

27.8

22.4

2

26.5

22.7

28.6

23.5

26.2

23.2

27.1

21.7

3

24.8

21.5

28.1

22.7

25.4

22.6

26.5

21.1

4

22.4

20.4

27.3

22.1

23.7

22.3

25.8

20.6

5

21.7

20.1

26.9

21.3

22.8

21.7

25.1

20.3

pH

1

7.56

7.83

6.21

6.33

6.97

6.84

7.23

6.99

6.5-9.2

6.5-8.5

2

7.54

7.81

6.43

6.52

7.24

7.11

7.62

7.06

3

7.43

7.76

6.49

6.67

7.28

7.29

7.53

7.23

4

7.51

7.79

6.85

6.94

7.19

7.18

7.08

7.29

5

7.36

7.78

7.22

7.14

7.23

7.33

7.52

7.34

TDS (mg/L)

1

752

875

1273

1391

879

913

736

779

500

500

2

724

865

1239

1374

851

898

721

752

3

708

832

1144

1339

833

886

704

741

4

645

809

1123

1283

817

851

683

723

5

621

756

1101

1251

794

823

668

711

Ammonical Nitrogen (NH3-N)

(mg/l)

1

1.4

1.8

1.8

1.7

1.6

1.8

1.2

1.4

0.5

2

0.8

1.3

1.1

1.3

1.2

1.4

0.5

0.7

3

0.4

0.7

0.6

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.2

0.3

4

0.1

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.6

0.09

0.04

5

0.08

0.1

0.04

0.03

0.05

0.12

0.01

0.02

Phosphate (mg/l)

1

0.07

0.09

0.6

0.8

0.06

0.08

0.03

0.05

2

0.03

0.04

0.5

0.6

0.03

0.04

0.01

0.02

3

0.02

0.03

0.3

0.4

0.01

0.02

0.0

0.0

4

0.01

0.01

0.07

0.09

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

5

0.0

0.0

0.04

0.06

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Turbidity (JTU)

1

12

13

11

10

13

14

8

7

1

2

10

12

9

8

11

12

6

6

3

8

10

7

9

9

10

5

6

4

6

7

5

6

8

10

2

4

5

5

6

4

5

6

7

2

3

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

(mg/l)

1

125

158

247

342

128

149

132

158

5

2

114

143

229

331

121

142

108

127

3

107

133

211

312

115

134

93

113

4

95

117

194

289

109

126

76

85

5

92

107

183

281

94

114

64

72

Sulphate (mg/l)

1

125

158

78

92

127

158

169

189

200

200

2

121

153

73

94

118

154

164

172

3

117

154

71

97

114

152

162

176

4

116

156

74

88

113

161

152

169

5

123

151

81

84

119

158

157

167

Sodium (mg/l)

1

89

72

124

114

116

108

158

189

2

73

54

117

103

104

92

149

204

3

64

46

107

85

92

79

172

251

4

53

41

85

71

83

64

186

214

5

42

32

81

62

71

53

179

247

Potassium (mg/l)

1

18

23

14

18

19

23

21

19

2

13

21

11

16

15

17

17

15

3

11

18

8

13

12

16

13

13

4

7

14

5

11

8

14

10

8

5

6

12

4

9

4

15

7

5

Total Hardness (TH)

(mg/l)

1

458

468

745

842

471

493

371

412

300

200

2

442

459

736

825

432

462

347

395

3

428

442

711

764

402

438

312

364

4

403

430

682

751

372

411

268

328

5

376

412

654

724

339

385

232

302

Calcium (Ca)

(mg/l)

1

36

45

28

39

42

51

53

68

100

75

2

42

53

31

47

48

63

57

73

3

49

59

39

56

57

78

69

79

4

52

62

51

62

53

81

73

83

5

57

72

59

69

63

73

78

75

Magnesium (Mg)

(mg/l)

1

23

37

24

54

38

42

21

32

150

30

2

28

45

36

63

32

53

26

36

/td>

3

34

59

27

52

49

59

35

39

4

27

48

21

61

58

55

42

29

5

39

52

29

48

55

50

37

24

Total Alkalinity (TA)

(mg/l)

1

469

489

751

826

462

487

382

427

200

2

438

462

742

801

438

462

352

402

3

421

448

719

778

409

437

324

371

4

401

417

672

762

387

407

284

346

5

372

385

645

734

364

371

259

327

Nitrates (mg/l)

1

23.3

39.4

18.3

31.6

23.2

39.6

19.4

41.5

10

45

2

25.5

41.7

21.2.

34.8

25.3

42.4

21.3

38.9

3

24.7

42.5

17.7

32.4

29.7

44.8

20.7

42.5

4

21.6

40.3

23.4

33.6

27.4

47.9

18.4

43.6

5

29.9

43.8

27.2

35.7

26.8

45.2

19.6

44.7

Chlorides (mg/l)

1

123

143

85

97

136

153

158

189

250

250

2

148

149

93

117

142

168

149

204

3

162

139

97

123

138

189

172

251

4

177

153

91

114

156

224

186

214

5

165

158

105

129

169

217

179

247

Fluorides (mg/l)

1

4.6

3.7

5.3

4.8

4.5

3.8

3.6

1.8

1.5

1.0

2

4.1

3.2

5.1

4.2

4.1

3.1

3.1

1.7

3

3.5

2.4

4.7

3.7

3.7

2.6

2.8

1.6

4

3.2

2.1

3.9

3.3

3.3

2.2

2.4

1.9

5

2.6

1.7

3.5

2.7

3.1

1.4

1.5

1.3

EC

(S/cm)

1

1293

1582

2345

2569

1389

1593

1058

1278

300

300

2

1285

1532

2189

2411

1271

1532

932

1185

3

1241

1472

2004

2143

1195

1472

874

1123

4

1196

1395

1872

2079

1172

1395

817

1102

5

1125

1327

1749

1894

1087

1327

804

1058

Water Quality Index (WQI): WQI is one of the most effective tools to provide feedback on the quality of water to the policy makers and environmentalists by giving a single value. In the present study WQI determined on the BIS 10500 standards and values for all the three study sites of Nizamabad respectively were calculated using equation

for standards for drinking water purposes as recommended by BIS 10500.

The values of WQI obtained using the methodology based on BIS 10500 have been summarized in Table 3 and the classification of water quality have been summarized in Table 4

Table 3 WQI for Three sites of Nizamabad and alwal, Hyderabad as per BIS 10500

Dist. / Monitoring

Dharmaram (DRM)

Nagaram (NRM)

Nehru nagar (NN)

Alwal, Hyderabad

S1

S2

S1

S2

S1

S2

S1

S2

1 km

117

132

123

136

121

128

97

102

2 Km

105

109

113

108

104

110

91

96

3 Km

85

89

92

96

82

86

69

72

4 Km

47

56

52

63

49

48

41

48

5 Km

43

44

43

49

41

43

38

43

Avg

79.4

86

84.6

90.4

79.4

83

67.2

72.2

Avg. of 2 seasons

82.7

87.2

81.2

69.7

Table 4. Showing output result of Water quality index (WQI) at different distances of all the study regions.

Dist. / Monitorin g

Dharmara (DRM)

Nagaram (NRM)

Nehru nagar (NN)

Alwal, Hyderabad

Average

S1

S2

S1

S2

S1

S2

S1

S2

DRM

NRM

NN

Alwal

1 km

U.D

U.D

U.D

U.D

U.D

U.D

Very Poor

U.D

U.D

U.D

U.D

Very Poor

2 Km

Very Poor

Very Poor

Very Poor

Very Poor

Very Poor

Very Poor

Poor

Very Poor

Very Poor

Very Poor

Very Poor

Very Poor

3 Km

Poor

Poor

Poor

Very Poor

Poor

Very Poor

Poor

Poor

Poor

Very Poor

Very Poor

Poor

4 Km

Good

Poor

Poor

Poor

Good

Good

Good

Good

Poor

Poor

Good

Good

5 Km

Good

Good

Good

Good

Good

Good

Good

Good

Good

Good

Good

Good

U.D: Unsuitable for drinking

COCLUSION AND DISCUSSION

It was observed from Table 4 that the ground water quality in almost all study sites of Nizamabad within a 2 km vicinity of the dumpsite experiences poor quality of ground water for drinking purpose, without any exception during entire seasonal monitoring campaign. Beyond 2km radius vicinity of any dumping site of Nizamabad that are located in Dharmaram, Nagaram and Nehru nagar experienced a good water quality value. The poor quality of groundwater in Dharmaram is primarily because having more dense small and medium scale industries. The primary reason behind poor water quality in Nagaram is might be due to high dense population and highest socio-economic status among all areas of Nizamabad city. That could be result in disposal of high amount solid waste into the environment. Lack of proper solid waste management systems could be considered as primary reasons for poor water quality on Nehru nagar. The cumulative average of all distance collection points of any of the study site lies under the category of good water quality, as shown in Table 3.

Seasonal variation showed that the overall dry seasonal water quality was superior to wet season due to increased chances of leachate percolation in to layers of soil associated with dumping sites which was resultant of high moisture content in the environment. So dry seasonal water quality index of all study sites including alwal region of Hyderabad was observed to be superior when compared to wet seasonal water quality index. One important note has been observed from the results that with increase in downstream distance, the quality of groundwater improved. Similarly, it was observed from that the overall quality of groundwater was classified as good for all study sites including the alwal region of Hyderabad. The WQI results revealed that the ground water samples from the nearby location to the dumping sites are affected due to leaching of ions from the leachate. We made an important observation from the results that relative water quality of alwal Hyderabad is good when compared to other threes study sites of Nizamabad. This observation could take a positive important note to understand implementation procedures towards sustainable development of various solid waste management practices for Nizamabad city.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

One of the authors (Vasavi Neeli) is grateful to staff members of the department of Telangana University for their continuous support during the period of study and also

thankful for the constructive comments of the reviewers towards this article during its review process.

REFERENCES

  1. Sethi S, Kothiyal N.C., Nema A.K., Kaushik M.K.,

    Characterization Of Municipal Solid Waste In Jalandhar City, Punjab, India, J Hazard, Toxic Radioact Waste, Asce 17(2):97 106, 2013.

  2. Rana, R., Ganguly, R., Gupta, A.K. Physico-Chemical Characterization Of Municipal Solid Waste From Tri-City Region Of Northern India- A Case Study, The Journal Of Material Cycles And Waste Management, Doi 10.1007/S10163-017-0615- 3, 2017.

  3. ASTM Standard Test Method for Residual Moisture Of A Refuse Derived Fuel Analysis Sample, E790, Astm International, West Conshohocken, 2004a.

  4. ASTM Standard Test Method for Ash In The Analysis Sample Of Refuse Derived Fuel, E830, Astm International, West Conshohocken, 2004b.

  5. ASTM Standard Test Method for Determination Of Composition Of Unprocessed Municipal Solid Waste, D5231- 92, Astm International, West Conshohocken, 2008.

  6. ASTM Standard Test Method For Volatile Matter In The Analysis Sample Of Refuse Derived Fuel, E897, Astm International, West Conshohocken, 2004c.

  7. Kalra N., Kumar R., Yadav S.S., Singh R.T., Water Quality Index Assessment Of Ground Water In Koilwar Block Of Bhojpur (Bihar), Journal Of Chemical And Pharmaceutical Research, 4(3), 1782-1786, 2012.

  8. Raman N., Narayanan Sathiya D., Impact Of Solid Waste On Ground Water And Soil Quality Nearer To Pallavaram Solid Waste Landfill Site In Chennai. Rasayan J. Chem. Vol.1, No.4 (2008), 828-836, 2008.

  9. Ranjan R.K., Ramanathan A.L., Parthasarthy P., Kumar A., Hydro Chemical Characteristics Of Groundwater In The Plains Of Phaglu River In Gaya, Bihar, India. Arabian Journal Of Geoscience 6:3257-3267.

  10. Ahsan A., Alamgir M., El-Sergany M.M., Shams S., M., Rowshon M.K., Nik Daud N.N. Assessment Of Municipal Solid Waste Management System In A Developing Country, Chinese Journal of Engineering 561935, 11.

  11. Rafizul I.M., Alamgir M., Islam M.M., Evaluation Of Contamination Potential Of Sanitary Landfill Lysimeter Using Leachate Pollution Index, Sardinia, Thirteenth International Waste Management And Landfill Symposium, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre, Italy, 2011.

  12. Rafizul I.M., Alamgir M., Kraft E., Haedrich G., Monitoring Of Leachate Characteristics Of Sanitary Landfill Lysimeter Under Tropical Conditions.2nd International Conference On Solid Waste Management In Developing Asian Countries, 13-15, Waste Safe, Kuet, Bangladesh, 183-184, 2001b. 243

  13. Rafizul I.M., Alamgir M., Kraft E., Haedrich G., Bio- Treatment Of Leachate Generated From Municipal Solid Waste In Sanitary Landfill Lysimeter.2nd International Conference On Solid Waste Management In Developing Asian Countries, 13-15, Waste Safe 2011, Kuet, Bangladesh,191-193, 2011c.

  14. Singh S., Raju N.J., Nazneen S., Environmental Risk Of Heavy Metal Pollution And Contamination Sources Using Multivariate

Analysis In The Soils Of Varanasi Environs, India, Environmental Monitoring And Assessment 187. 2015a.

[34]

Rafizul I.M., Alamgir M., Kraft E., Haedrich G., Monitoring Of Leachate Characteristics Of Sanitary Landfill Lysimeter Under

[15]

Singh U.K., Kumar M., Chauhan R., Jha P.W., Ramanathan

Tropical Conditions.2nd International Conference On Solid

A.L., Subramanian V., Assessment Of The Impact Of Landfill On Groundwater Quality: A Case Study O The Pirana Site In

Waste Management In Developing Asian Countries, 13-15, Waste Safe, Kuet, Bangladesh, 183-184, 2001b.

Western India, Environmental Monitoring And Assessment

[35]

Rafizul I.M., Alamgir M., Kraft E., Haedrich G., Bio-

[16]

141:309321, 2008.

Al-Khadi S., Assessment Of Ground Water Contamination

Treatment Of Leachate Generated From Municipal Solid Waste In Sanitary Landfill Lysimeter.2nd International Conference On

Vulnerability In The Vicinity Of Abqaiq Landfill- A Gis

Solid Waste Management In Developing Asian Countries, 13-15,

Approach, Dissertation, King Fahad University Of Petroleum And Minerals, Saudi Arabia.

[36]

Waste Safe 2011, Kuet, Bangladesh,191-193, 2011c.

Kumar D., Alappat B.J., Nsf-Water Quality Index: Does It

[17]

Jhamnani B., Singh, S.K., Ground Water Contamination Due To

Represent The Exerts Opinion?. Practice Periodical Of

Bhalaswa Landfill Site In New Delhi, Department Of Civil And Environmental Engineering, Delhi College Of Engineering, India,

Hazardous, Toxic And Radioactive Waste Management, 13:75- 79, 2009.

Journal Of Environmental Science And Engineering, 1 (3), 121-

[37]

Zhao Y., Christensen T., Lu W., Wu H., Wang H.,

[18]

125, 2009.

Akinbile O., Christopher Yusoff S., Mohd., Environmental

Environmental Impact Assessment Of Solid Waste Management In Beijing, China, Waste Management, 31 (4), 793-799, 2011.

Impact Of Leachate Pollution On Groundwater Supplies In

[38]

Dunnette D.A., A Geographicaaly Variable Water Quality Index

Akure, Nigeria. International Journal Of Environmental Science And Development, Vol.2, No.1, Issn: 2010-0264, 2011.

Used In Oregon, Journal Of Water Pollution Control Federation, 51, 53-61, 1979.

[19]

Akinbile C.O., Yusoff M.S., Shian L.M., Leachate

[39]

Aravind J., Sudha G., Kanmani P., Devisri A.J., Dhivyalakshmi

Characterization And Phytoremediation Using Water Hyacinth(Eichorrnia Crassipes) In Pulau Burung, Malaysia, Bioremediation Journal, 16, 1,9-18, 2012.

  1. Cumar S.K.M., Nagaraja B., Environmental Impact Of Leachate Characteristics On Water Quality, Environmental Monitoring And Assessment, 178, 1, 499-505, 2011.

  2. Eshanthini P., Padmini T.K., Impact Of Leachate On Ground Water Quality Near Kodungaiyur Dumping Site, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, International Journal Of Pharm Tech Research Coden (Usa): Ijprif, Issn: 0974-4304, 8, 10, 171-179, 2015.

  3. Bundela P.S., Gautam S.P., Pandey Ak., Awasthi M.K., Sarsaiya S., Municipal Solid Waste Management In Indian Cities- A Review. International Journal Of Environmental Sciences, 1, 4, 591-606, 2010.

  4. Schwarzbauer J., Heim S., Brinker S., Littke R., Occurrence And Alteration Of Organic Contaminants In Seepage And Leakage Water From A Waste Deposit Landfill, Water Research, 36: 22752287, 2002.

  5. Bhalla G., Swamee P.K., Kumar A., Bansal A., Assessment Of Groundwater Quality Near Municipal Solid Waste Landfill By An Aggregate Index Method, International Journal Of Environmental Sciences, 2, 2. Issn 0976 4402.

  6. Liou S.M., Lo L., Wang S.H., A Generalized Water Quality Index For Taiwan, Environmental Monitoring And Assessment, 96, 35-52, 2004.

  7. Usman, Y.M., Environmental Impact Of Landfill On Groundwater Quality In Maiduguri, Nigeria, The International Journal Of Engineering And Sciences (Ijes), Volume 5, Issue 1, 2319 1805, Issn (E): 2319 1813 Issn, 2016.

  8. Tyagi, S., Sharma, B., Singh, P. & Dobhal, R., Water Quality Assessment In Terms Of Water Quality Index, American Journal Of Water Resources, 2013, Vol. 1, No. 3, 34-38.

  9. Nawaf Al., Asman A., Ali El-B., Application Of Water Quality Index To Assess The Environmental Quality Of Kuwait Bay, International Conference On Advances In Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Sciences (Aabes-2014), Dubai (Uae), 2016.

  10. American Public Health Association (APHA), Standard Methods for Examination Of Water And Wastewater, 21st And 23rd Edition, 2005, 2017.

  11. Bureau of Indian Standards, BIS 10500, Drinking Water- Specification, Second Revision, Government of India, New Delhi, 2012.

  12. Bhalla G., Swamee P.K., Kumar A., Bansal A., Assessment Of Groundwater Quality Near Municipal Solid Waste Landfill By An Aggregate Index Method, International Journal Of Environmental Sciences, 2, 2. Issn 0976 4402.

  13. Tyagi, S., Sharma, B., Singh, P. & Dobhal, R., Water Quality Assessment In Terms Of Water Quality Index, American Journal Of Water Resources, 2013, Vol. 1, No. 3, 34-38.

  14. Kalra N., Kumar R., Yadav S.S., Singh R.T., Water Quality Index Assessment Of Ground Water In Koilwar Block Of Bhojpur (Bihar), Journal Of Chemical And Pharmaceutical Research, 4(3), 1782-1786, 2012.

S., Raghavprasad M., Equilibrium And Kinetic Study On Chromium (Vi) Removal From Simulated Waste Water Using Gooseberry Seeds As A Novel Bio Sorbent, Global Journal Of Environmental Science And Management, 1(3): 233244, 2015.

  1. Bhalla B., Saini M.S., Jha M.K., Leachate Contamination Potential Of Unlined Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Sites By Leachate Pollution Index, International Journal Of Science, Environment Issn 2278-3687 And Technology, 3, 2, 4, 444 457, 2014.

  2. Bhalla B., Saini M.S., Jha M.K., Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Leachate Treatment Efficiency By Leachate Pollution Index, International Journal Of Innovative Research In Science, Engineering And Technology, 3, 1. Issn: 2319-8753, 2014.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *