 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 238
 Authors : Pallavi. B
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS20218
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 02 (February 2014)
 Published (First Online): 10032014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
High Speed FPGA Based Dual Field Elliptic Curve Cryptography Using Mixed Coordinates
Pallavi. B,
M.Tech 4th SEM Student

Institute of Technology, Digital Communication and Networking, Bangalore, India
Abstract Cryptography has become a crucial issue to ensure the security of transmitted data. Elliptic Curve Cryptography is asymmetric key cryptography. In this paper, we can perform either prime field G (p) operations or binary field G (2m) operations for arbitrary prime numbers. Using this architecture we can achieve the high through put of both fields that is prime and binary fields.
Keywords Elliptic Curve Cryptography, Prime field, Binary field, Processor

INTRODUCTION
Strength of R.S.A lies in integer factorisation problem. Elliptic curve is a curve that is a group. The dis advantage of
R.S.A is the use of large numbers for its operation. Cryptography is used for confidentiality, authentication, data integrity, and nonrepudiation. It is divided into two types: secret key and public key cryptography. Public Secretkey cryptography is mainly used in key management, authentication, signatures and certificates. The main dis advantage in public key cryptography is its key size is large to meet the requirements. ECC is one of the public key cryptography algorithms.

INTRODUCTION TO ECC

Basics of ECC
The use of elliptic curves was introduced in 1985. Point addition and Point doubling are the main features of ECC. Its attractive feature is lesser key size. Elliptic curves are not ellipses. In general cubic equations for elliptic curves take the form which is givenby the below equation.
y2=x3+ax+b. (1)
We also have O (point of infinity). To plot such a curve we need to compute
y= 3 + + (2)
Fig1: Elliptic curve of y2= x33x+5
There are 2 types of fields of interest

Prime field

Binary field


Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithmic Problem
It has the following components

A welldefined finite field GF(p) or GF(2m)

Point P of higher field present on elliptic curve E

A scalar multiple of P lets say k such that k.P = P+P+P++P (k times)


Advantages of ECC
The following are some of the advantages of ECC

Solving Q = KP is more difficult than factorisation used by R.S.A

Different finite fields can be used for ECC according to security requirements.

ECCrequires less power and hence its used in mobile devices and wireless applications.

Implementing scalar multiplication in software and hardware is feasible.



APPLICATION OF ECC: DIFFIE HELMANN KEY EXCHANGE
According to the figure shown in the left the order n of a point G in an ellipse is the smallest positive integer. The key exchange is given by the following steps

A selects an integer nA less than n. This is As private key and A generates public key PA which is given by nA X G.

B computes PB = nB X G

A generates secret key K = nA X PB and B also generates the key K = nB X PA.


OPERATIONS ON ECC

Point Addition
To add two distinct points P and Q on an elliptic curve shown below draw a straight line between them. The line will intersect the curve at one more point R. Reflection of R with respect to x axis gives the point R.
Fig2: Point Addition

Point Doubling
To the point P on elliptic curve draw the tangent line to the elliptic curve at P.The line intersects the elliptic curve at the point R. The reflection of the point R with respect to xaxis gives the point R which is the result of doubling of point P.
Fig3: Point Doubling

Abelian Groups

Closure : if a and b belong to G, then a.b is also in G

Associative: a.(b.c) =(a.b).c for all a,b,c in G

Commutative : a.b= b.a for all a.b in G

Identity: a.e=e.a =a for all a in G


Rules of addition

P+O=P ( In case of prime fields)

If P = (xp, yp) then P + (xp, yp)=O. The point (xp, yp) is called negative of point P.

P+O=P ( In case of binary field)


If P = (xp, yp) then P + (xp, xp+yp) = O. The point (xp, xp+yp) is called negative of point P.
Fig4: elliptic curve E23 (1, 1)
Fig5: Points on E23 (1, 1)
Elliptical Curve Cryptography Hierarchical model
Fig6: elliptic curve Diffie Helmann exchange
In figure 6 client and server choose kC and kS. Client computes QC using ECC scalar multiplication (multiplying KC by point P). Server computes QS = (KS X P). Client transfers QC to client and QS to server. Client receives QS and multiplies it by KC. Server multiplies QC by KS.
Hardware implementation of ECC passes through 3 main levels. As shown in figure 6 Galois field arithmetic includes field multiplication, addition, squaring and inversion. Elliptic curve arithmetic includes point addition and point doubling. Elliptical curve main operation is scalar multiplication.
F. Dual field Processor Architecture
The dual field architecture has input/output buffers, control unit register files. Data is fed into the input buffer and read out from the output buffer though I/O interface. Control instructions are stored in the control register and they are decoded by the main controller. Karatsuba multiplier is used to perform point addition and point doubling. All the results of the computation are stored in register files.


FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
Fig7: ECC Modular Multiplier Fig8: Block diagram of ECC Processor chip
ECC Modular Multiplier consists of Control Unit, Arithmetic Unit and output register. Control Unit decodes the 4 256 bit instructions and sends them to the Arithmetic unit which is performing adding and doubling operations.
ECC Processor chip contains AHB interface, Main Controller, Clock Controller, ECC data selector, Input and Output Buffers. Data selector fetches instructions from main controller and decodes them to the multiplier unit. Clock control unit is required to compute the cycles required for scalar multiplication. Modular multiplier performs point addition, point doubling and scalar multiplication. Montgomery unit consists of Montgomery Scheduler and Data selector. Data scheduler fetches instructions input values from input buffer. Input values are prime field or binary field. During the computation we get some intermediate values and they are stored in register files.

IMPLEMENTATION
We have presented the dual field ECC architecture which is scalable for different field sizes (163 bit for binary field, 192 bit for prime field. Dual field multipliers and adders perform arithmetic over both fields (prime and binary field). Coding is done in Verilog HDL.
Multiplication and squaring is done in Vedic Mathematics. Addition is done in normal method. We use Xilinx 12.1 Tool for the design and testing of point addition and point doubling. Code is written and simulation and synthesis results are tested.

SYNTHESIS RESULTS
In this section we are presenting synthesis results for point addition, point doubling, and scalar multiplication (using Mixed
Coordinates) for both 163 bit binary and 192 bit prime field.
No. of Bits
Delay(ns)
192
65.884
163
40.691
No. of Bits
Delay(ns)
192
56.558
163
34.086
Table1: Synthesis Result of point addition Table3: Synthesis Result of Point Doubling
No. of Bits
Delay(ns)
192
48.439
163
21.708
Table2: synthesis result of scalar multiplication

SIMULATION RESULTS
The below results are shown for point addition, point doubling for binary and prime field
Fig9: Point Addition for 163 bits
Fig10: Point doubling for 163 bits
Fig11: Point addition for 192 bits (prime field)
Fig12: Point doubling for 192 bits (prime field)
Fig13: Scalar Multiplication for 192 bits (prime field)
Fig14: Scalar Multiplication for 163 bits (binary field)

CONCLUSION

We have presented dual field coprocessor with mixed coordinates. Our processor can be used for both binary field and prime field. In order to speed up the time required for multiplication we have adopted Karatsuba multiplier and
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