 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 288
 Authors : Arun Kumar.V., D. Prakash, Dr. R. Mahalakshmi
 Paper ID : IJERTV2IS2597
 Volume & Issue : Volume 02, Issue 02 (February 2013)
 Published (First Online): 28022013
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Hardware Realization Of Single Stage Rectifier
Arun kumar.V
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department (P.G)
Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College Coimbatore, India
Prof. D. Prakash Asst. Professor (SR.G)
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department(U.G)
Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College Coimbatore, India
Dr.R.Mahalakshmi, Professor &Head
Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Technology, Coimbatore, India
Abstract This paper describes a single stage ACDC converter with high power factor. The diodecapacitor type of rectifier cause low power factor because of its nonlinearity. PFC serves to smooth out power drawn and regulates the output voltage. High power factor at the input is assured by operating the buckboost converter at discontinuous conduction mode of operation. With same operation on both cycle and detailed designed circuit parameter, zero voltage switching on all the active switches of the converter can be retained to achieve good efficiency. This gives soft switching condition which increases the efficiency of the system and reduces the switching power losses. The buck boost converter and the filter circuit are used to reshape the input current waveform so as to be in phase with input voltage waveform. The design, analysis, simulation and hardware realization of the ACDC converter with soft switching.
KeywordsBuckboost converter, fullbridge resonant converter, power factor correction (PFC), zerovoltage switching(ZVS).

INTRODUCTION
Power factor (PF) is the cosine of the angular difference between voltage and current. It is calculated as PF = cos = cos (Vs^Is). It can vary between zero and one depending on the type of load. If the supply voltage and current are inphase with each other, then the power factor of the circuit (cos) is unity. The power electronic switching devices introduce distortion into the system. As a result, the power factor gets lowered.
The diode bridge rectifier with capacitive filter is used as the fundamental block of many power electronics converters. Due to its nonlinear nature, nonsinusoidal current is drawn
from the utility and harmonics are injected into the utility lines. The injected current has lower order of harmonics and causes voltage distortion and poor power factor at input AC mains. This causes slow varying ripples at DC output load resulting in lower efficiency and larger size of AC and DC filters [2]. These converters are required to operate with high switching frequencies due to demand for small filter size and high power density. Highswitching frequency operation results in higher switching losses, increased electromagnetic interference (EMI), noise and reduced converter efficiency [3]. To overcome these drawbacks, the switches of buckboost converter are operated with zero voltage and zero current switching. Highswitching frequency with SS provides low switching stress and losses, highpower density, less volume and lowered ratings for the components, high reliability and efficiency.
To improve the efficiency, a large number of soft switching technique including resonant circuits have been proposed [4] [7]. But these converters increase the number of switches and stages in power conversion circuit thus complicating the sequence of switching operation, excessive voltage and current stresses, and also narrower line and load ranges[8],[9].
This paper describes a single stage ACDC converter with high power factor. For high power application power handling capacity is increased so full bridge resonant converter is adopted which is combined with two Buckboost type PFC circuits. Two active power switches act as a PFC circuits Therefore, power handing capacity increased. A high power factor at the input line is achieved by operating the PFCs at discontinuous conduction mode. The output voltage is regulated by controlling the ON/OFF time of switches present in buckboost converter. The higher order harmonics are eliminated by using low pass filter, which reduce the size of filter and increases the power factor. Here soft switching can be obtained by using a new partial resonant converter. The higher order harmonics are eliminated by using low pass filter, which reduce the size of filter and increases the power factor.
Here soft switching can be obtained by using a full bridge resonant converter. The proposed system has the advantage of less components and less switching losses.

PROPOSED CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION
A single stage acdc converter is integrated with PFCs as
gating signal are given to MOSFETs (M1 and M4) but there are still in off condition. The voltage in the reactive component L1 is equal to the line voltage. The inductor current Ip1 increases linearly from zero. Then M1 is turned on at zero voltage.
D3 L2
D1
shown in the figure 1.The diodes (D9D12) represents the intrinsic body diodes of the MOSFETs. A series resonant
Pulse genertor
L1
M1 D9
M3 D11 C3
circuit and a transformer T1
form the load resonant circuits.
L4 C2
(PFC1 and PFC2) to make the sine wave sinusoidal and inAC phase with the input line voltage. PFC1 and PFC2 operating simultaneously at both positive half cycle and negative half
cycle of the input line. A small low pass filter is used to remove the high frequency component at the input.
D3 L2
C1
Pulse
D2 genertor
L3
D4
T
M2 D10
C4
M4 D12
100mH
D5 D6
L1
2.81mH
AC 100 ÂµF
D1
PULSE GENE RTOR 1
C1
PULSE GENE RTOR 2
D2
M1 M3
C3
C3
100ÂµF
L4 C2
2.81mH 100ÂµF
T
C4
100ÂµF
M2 M4
B. MODE II
D3
D7 C5 D8
LOAD
L3 L2
100mH
D4 D1
Pulse
D11
D5 D6
C5
Genertor
L1
M1 D9
L4 C2
M3 C3
D7 D8
100ÂµF
1ÂµH
AC C1 T
LOAD
Figure 1: Single stage high power factor converter

CIRCUIT OPERATION
There are four switches, namely M1., M2,M3,and M4 are
Pulse genertor
D2
L3
M2 D10
C4
M4 D12
controlled by four gating signals,namely,V
1,V 2,V
3, and D4
gs gs gs
D5 D6
Vgs4 respectively. Gating signal Vgs1and Vgs4 and gating signals Vgs2 and Vgs3 forms two voltage waveforms. The gated signals have equal and same waveform. M1 and M4 is turned on, M2 and M3 is turned off simultaneously and vice versa, each gated signals has a duty ratio of 0.5.
Since the circuit operates equally, the operation of the negative half cycle of the line voltage are equal to positive half cycle, except for inductor and power factor correction circuit
.Hence the circuit is analyzed for positive half cycle only. The circuit operation divided into seven modes of operation with respect to conducting switches. Each modes are explained below.
A. MODE I
This mode begins at when turning off the MOSFETs (M2 and M3), since the load current ir is negative at the switching off time. The diodes (D9 and D12) are forced to freewheel ir.The drain to sources voltage (Vds2 and Vds3) of M2 and M3 are combined to 0.7 v. The voltage across the resonant circuit is equal to dclink voltage Vdc3 and Vdc4.After some time
D7 C5 D8
LOAD
During this mode, ir is still negative.small part of IP1 flow through M1, but it is equal to ir which flows to D12. This mode will end at when Ir passes zero and becomes positive,hen M4 turned on approximately at zero voltage
C. MODE III
D3 L2
E. MODE V
D3 L2
D1
Pulse genertor
M1 D9
D11
D1
D1
M3 C3
L1
L4 C2
Pulse
genertor
L1
M1 D9
M3 D11 C3
AC C1
T
Pulse
C4 AC
L4 C2
C1
T
D2 genertor
L3
M2 D10
M4 D12
Pulse
D2genertor
M2 D10
C4
M4 D12
D4 L3
D5 D6
D7 C5 D8
LOAD
D4
D5 D6
During this mode, M1 and M4 are kept at ON state. Since the line voltage keeps applying on inductor L1, ip1 increases continuously and flows through switch M1, current ir is positive and flows through switches M1 and M4.
D7 C5 D8
LOAD
When the rectified input voltage is at high level, the peak value of ip1 is high. On this condition, ir declines to zero before
D. MODE IV
D3 L2
D1
Pulse
genertor
D9 D11
M1 M3 C3
ip1 does. When ir resonates to pass zero, the circuit operation enters mode 5. At this instant, D2 and D 3 turn off naturally ,and M2 and M3 are turned on at nearly zero voltage to carry ir.

MODE VI
When the rectified input voltage is at low level, the peak of ip1 is small and declines to zero before ir resonates to zero.
L1
L4 C2
The circuit operation will enter mode 6 when ip1 decreases to zero. In this mode ends D3 is off and ir keep flowing through
AC C1
T
D10 and D11. This mode ends at the time when ir resonates to zero. Then,M2 andM4 are turned at zero voltage to carry ir .
C4
Pulse
D2genertor
L3
M2 D10 D3
M4 D12
L2
D4
D5 D6
D1
Pulse
genertor
L1
D9
M1 M3 C3
L4 C2
D7 C5 D8
LOAD
AC C1 T
C4
This mode begins when M1 and M4 are turned off. At the
Pulse
D2 genertor
M2 D10
M4 D12
switching off instant ,ip1
reaches its peak and ir
is positive. L3
Current ir will freewheel through D10 and D11 to charge the
D4
capacitor. Then diode D5 is reverse biased and ip1 will flow
through diode D7 to charge the capacitor. The voltage across L1 is Vdc1, therefore,ip1 starts to decrease linearly.
Since the peak of ip1 is proportional to the rectifier input voltage, the duration for ip1.
D5 D6
D7 C5 D8
LOAD
3
4
3
4

MODE VII
VOLTAGE (V)
VOLTAGE (V)
D3 1
L2
L1
AC C1
D1
Pulse
genertor
D9
M1 M3
L4 C2
T
D11 C
C
0.5
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
Pulse
D2 genertor
M2 D10
M4 D12
Time (S)
Fig. 2 Gate pulses for switches M1 & M4
x 104
L3
D4
VOLTAGE(V)
VOLTAGE(V)
1
1
D5 D6
C5
D7 D8
LOAD
During this mode,ir is negative and flows through M2 and M3. The capacitor supply energy to the load resonant circuit, then both the switching devices are turned off.
0.5
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
IV. RESULTS
The simulation result of proposed converter was analysed by MATLAB/Simulink Software. Fig. 1 shows the input voltage and current waveform of the proposed converter
Voltage and Current waveform
Voltage and Current waveform
400
200
400
output voltage (v)
output voltage (v)
300
200
100
0
Time(S)
Fig. 3 Gate pulses for switches M2 & M3
x 104
0 0 5
Time(s)
10 15
200
400
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
Time(s)
Fig. 1 Input voltage and current waveform
Fig. 4 output voltage of the proposed converter
Output Current(A)
Output Current(A)
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
0 5 10 15
Time(s)
Fig. 5 Output current of the proposed converter
Fig. 1 shows the input voltage is sinusoidal and the input current is also in phase with each other and the power factor the proposed circuit is 0.99 for the given inductive load.
Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 shows the gate pulses for the switches whenever the gate pulses is given switches will in the on condition whenever the gate pulses is not given the switches will in the off condition.
Fig 4 shows the output voltage of the proposed converter. The output voltage of the proposed converter is 300V for the given switching sequence. The output voltage waveform stabilizes after 10 seconds
Fig 5 shows the output current of the proposed converter.The output current of the proposed converter is 1A the output current waveform stabilizes after 10 seconds.
Fig .6 Output voltage waveform
Fig .6 shows the pratical output voltage waveform of the proposed converter for the given load

CONCLUSION
The power factor of the ACDC converter has been improved by using power factor correction circuit and filter. In this project, comparative results of voltage regulation of AC DC converter with load conditions and the power factor correction also realized in MATLAB environment. The switching power losses and stresses has been minimized due to soft switching technique.

REFERENCES

HungLiang cheng, YaoChing Hsieh, and ChiSean Lin, A Novel SingleStage HighPower Factor AC/DC Converter Featuring High Circuit Efficiency, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.58, no.2, pp.524532, Feb.2011.

Burak Akin and Haci Bodur, A New SinglePhase SoftSwitching Power Factor Correction Converter, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol.26, no.2, pp. 436443, Feb.2011.

circuits, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol.21,no.2, pp.370 379,Mar.2006.
 W. Guo, and P. K. Jain, A low frequency ac to high frequency ac inverter with buildin power factor correction and softswitching, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 430442, March 2004.

W. J. Lee, S. W. Choi, C. E. kim, and G. W. Moon, A new PWMcontrolled quasiresonant converter for a high efficiency PDP sustaining power module, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 2837, Jan. 2007.

Singh B, Singh B.N, Chandra A, AlHaddad K, Pandey A, and Kothari D.P, A review of singlephase improved power quality AC DC converters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 962982, Oct. 2003.

JungGoo Cho, ChangYong Jeong, HongSik Lee, and GeunHie Rim, Novel ZeroVoltageTransition CurrentFed FullBridge PWM Converter for SingleStage Power Factor Correction, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol.13, no.6, pp. 10051012, Nov1998.

G.Hua, E.X.Yang, y.Jiang, and F.C.Lee, Novel Zero currenttransition PWM Converters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol.9, pp.601606, Nov.1994.

Singh K, AlHaddad K, and Chandra A, A review of active filters for power quality improvement, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 960971, Oct. 1999.

Singh B, Singh B.N, Chandra A, AlHaddad K, Pandey A, and Kothari D.P, A review of singlephase improved power quality AC DC converters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 962982, Oct. 2003.

JongJae Lee, JungMin Kwon, EungHo Kim, Woo Young Choi, and Bong Hwan Kwon, SingleStage SingleSwitch PFC Flyback Convert Using a Synchronous Rectifier, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.55, no.3, pp 1352 1365, Mar.2008.

E. H. Kim and B. H. Kwon, Zerovoltage and zero currentswitching fullbridge converter with secondary resonance, IEEE Trans. Ind Electron., vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 10171025, Mar. 2010.