Gsm Based Transformer Monitoring And Control

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV11IS05003

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Gsm Based Transformer Monitoring And Control

Sushmita Deb

Dept.,ofE&E SJMIT,Chitradurga

Maruthi Naik R K

Dept.,ofE&E SJMIT,Chitradurga




Sanjay Kumar.K Ashritha T R

Dept.,ofE&E Dept., of E&E SJMIT,Chitradurga SJMIT,Chitradurga

Abstract: An essential component of electrical energy transmission in electrical power systems is

mer from the system, this system uses a microcontroller called Arduino.

the distribution transformer. In order to prevent overloaded currents, oil overheating, and high voltage spikes from damaging the distribution transformer. Therefore, proper transformer protection is crucial for maintaining a steady supply of power. This defensive approach uses an Arduino controller, which is inexpensive and capable of operating at a high rate of speed and accuracy. The controller continuously measures the load's current and transformer temperature. The protection scheme activates and trips the load if the rating of voltage and current exceeds its pre- set values. A fan would turn on to cool the heated transformer as soon as the temperature exceeded the threshold value set in the system. By using bulbs to increase load, we can cause the over current issue. When an emergency or unusual circumstance arises, the system uses a GSM modem to deliver data via SMS to mobile phones.

Keywords: Distribution transformer, Arduino, GSM, Relay


    Electrical equipment known as a distribution transformer is used to step down voltage without changing frequency and distribute to the consumer.In this study, a protective system has been designed so that it continuously monitors the trans former's realtime, adjustable operational variables and displ ays them on an LCD screen.

    The continuous transformer parametric data is displayed on an LCD screen.A current transformer serves as a current sen sor in this research project.The transformer and C.T. are con nected in series.Transformer oil temperature is determined u sing sensor.In order to implement the tripping mechanism, r elays are used.if temperature rises over predetermined level s utilising relay1, a fan would be turned on.On the LCD, the values for voltage, temperature, and current are displayed.It Significant cost savings, lower power usage, and more relia bility are further benefits.To track instances of electrical pro blems and communicate with a switch to isolate the transfor


    Various E-medias, IEEE journals, national and international conference

    literaturesurvey.Authored by Prof. R. B. Pandhare, Mr. Parmanand Waghmare, MS Ashvini Gawande, and Mr. Gopal Bahekar and publi shed in IJIREEICE Paperas Transformer Protection by Using Ardui no with GSM ModemTransformers are crucial components of the tr ansmission and distribution network.The design and construction of a system for tracking the load current, voltage level, transformer oil l evel, and outside temperature are presented in this work.

    We used a GSMbased solution to protect the transformer from the af orementioned factors.The transformers benefit from this system's sm ooth operation and early fault detection.The above parameters are m onitored after being placed at the transformer site[1].

    [2] Satya Kumar Behera's paper "A Review of Transformer Protection by Using PLC System" was published in the International Journal of Digital Application & Contemporary research.The suggested online monitoring system incorporates sensor packages and a solid state device known as a PLC (programmable lo gic controller).The suggested plc monitoring system will assist in ide ntifying both internal and exterior failures of the transformer as well as in diagnosing these faults using the desired range of parameters th at are programmed.


  • To create an embedded transformer protection system utilising the Arduino-uno controller.

  • To configure the SPI protocol for sensor and Arduino controller communication.

  • To use a fan to rectify an unsuitable situation.

  • Using GSM, communicate information about correcti ve action to the authorised individual.

  • To implement emergency cut-

off conduct in extreme circumstances.


The realtime electrical parameters are sent by SMS using a GS M modem.When the parameters (Voltage, Current, and T1e5mpe rature) go beyond the predefined limitations, the system is desi

bgyn, wedwwto.ijseernt.dorSgMS notifications to the designateISdSiNn:d2i2v7id8-u0a1l8.1In

Volume 11, Issue 05


This system, "Transformer safety and monitoring using GS M," offers transformer safety & monitoring while also takin g corrective measures to stop additional transformer damag e.The embedded system in the proposed system is integrate d with a temperature sensor and a humidity sensor to sense t he status of the transformer in terms of the temperature outs ide and humidity.

A transformer must be isolated from the supply if its temper ature rises beyond the first threshold level, at which point th e fan and alarm will automatically turn on. If the temperatur e rises above the second threshold level, which is higher tha n the first, the transformer is considered to be overheated.

In light of the fact that emergency LCD is utilised to display the current sensor data, power will be switched off at thresh old 2.

Figure 1:Block Diagram Representation


Arduino controller:

Figure 2: Arduino Controller

The freely available digital system Arduino features user- friendly hardware and software.These have the capacity to r

ead inputslight on a sensorand convert them into outputs.The Arduino board is an Atmega 328based microcontroller.There a re 14 input/output pins, of which 6 can be utilised as PWM out puts.The Arduino carries out specific tasks.It has a serial monit or that enables straightforward text data to be delivered to and received from the Arduino boards.It interfaces with the GSM model system's parameters.In arduino, a common form factor s eparates the microcontroller's functionalities into a more usabl e packaging.


Figure 3: GSM

GSM was designed to be a safe wireless network.GSM is how ever susceptible to various attack types, each of which targets a different area of the network.In contrast to GSM, which only authenticates the user to the network (and not the other way ar ound), UMTS includes an optional USIM that employs a longe r authentication key to provide more security as well as mutual ly authenticating the network and the user.As a result, the secu rity model provides confidentiality and authentication, but has limited permission options and does not support nonrepudiatio n.If there is an issue with the specified parameters in the syste m, a message will be sent to the user immediately.Sending a m essage is crucial to fixing the transformer problem.

Temperature Sensor:

Figure 4: LM35

The output voltage of the LM35 series precision integrate1d6- circuit temperature sensors is linearly proportional to the temp

erature in degrees Celsius.In comparison to linear temperatu re sensors calibrated in Kelvin, the LM35 device has an adv antage because it does not require the user to deduct a signif icant constant voltage from the outpu in order to gain conv enient Centigrade scaling.The LM35 gadget provides typica l accuracies of 14°C at room temperature and 34° Cover a c omplete 55°C to 150°C temperature range without the need for any extra calibration or trimming


Figure 5: LCD

The proposed setup uses a 16×2 LCD to display the current sensor values for the temperature and humidity sensors. A flat-panel display or other electronically manipulated optical device that makes advantage of liquid crystals' light- modulating abilities is known as a liquid crystal display (LCD). Liquid crystals don't directly emit light; instead, they create images in either colour or monochrome via a backlight or reflector. There are LCDs that can show arbitrary graphics (like those on a general-purpose computer display) or fixed images with little information that can be seen or hidden, such pre-programmed text, digits, and 7-segment displays, like those on a digital clock.

Humidity Sensor:

Figure 6: DHT11

A composite sensor, the DHT11 digital temperature and humidity sensorA sensor's calibrated digital signal outp ut for temperature and humidity is present.To ensure that th e product has great dependability and outstanding longterm stability, temperature and humidity monitoring technology i s applied along with a specific digital module collection tec hnology.


Figure 7: Relay

An electrically controlled switch is a relay. Solid-state relays are one type of working principle, although many relays employ an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch.Relays are employed when multiple circuits need to be controlled by a single signal or when a separate low-power signal is required to control each circuit separately


Figure 8:Flowchart


Software requirement:

ARDUINO 1.8.5: Writing code and uploading it to the boar d are both made simple by the free and open-

source Arduino Software (IDE).It is compatible with Windo ws, Mac OS X, and Linux.The environment is created using Processing and other opensource technologies and is written in Java.Any Arduino board can be used with this software.

VI Result

Figure 9:LCD Displaying the results If 180>voltage>260—voltage fault

Temperature >150C temperature fault Power >125W—over load

Oil level<100ml—oil level fault

If any change occurred in above rating is show in LCD and some data is sent as SMS and at the same time transformer gets disconnected from supply with the help of relay

VI Conclusion

This project is made easier for self-clearing transient faults. It also has the benefit of using net fault amounts as opposed to total fault quantities.Relay is used to safeguard the syste m against harm and disconnect it from the power source in t he event of a breakdown.This method offers a different and simple way to obtain early information about the distributio n transformer's status for fault detection, quick reaction, and potential power response.


[1]Transformer Protection by Using Arduino with GSM Modem authored by Prof. R. B. Pandhare, Mr Parmanand Waghmare, MS Ashvini Gawande, and Mr. Gopal Bahekar published in IJIREEICE

[2] A Review of Transformer Protection by Using PLC System authored by Satya Kumar Behera published in International Journal of Digital Application & Contemporary research Volume2,

[3] Thermal Overload Protection of Distribution Transformer authored by Chetan S.Patil, Prashant A. Gite,

Pooja B. Pawar published in International Journal of Machine Learning and Computing, Vol. 2, No. 1, February 2015

[4] Sathyakumar Behera, Ravi Masand, Dr.S.P.Shukla, A Review of Transformer Protection by using PLC System, International Journal of Digital Application and Contemporary Research (Volume 3, ISSUE 2, September 2014)