Green Mobile Market- Challenges and Opportnities

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Green Mobile Market- Challenges and Opportnities

1Samiksha Dixit

Student (MBA)

Dronacharya Group of Institutions, Greater Noida 82797-78427

2 Monika Sinha

Assistant Professor (MBA) Dronacharya Group of Institutions, Greater Noida


Abstract – The explosive development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has significantly enlarged both the energy demands and the CO2 emissions and consequently contributes to make the energy crisis and global warming problems worse. The research is carried by analyzing the awareness of the people about the factors affecting the environment, about their awareness regarding TRAIs recommendation of the maximum value of radiation, carbon emission, and reduction factors. After the analysis, the opportunities are calculated to be in the field of RET (Renewable energy technology) which reduces carbon emission, 4G and 5G technology where there may be LTE and other future technologies.

Keywords: Carbon Emission, CEER, Green Telecom, RET, TRAI, Mobile network.


The rapid growth of energy consumption by the user and network devices has posed serious problems; for instance, the greenhouse effect has become increasingly severe, which is mainly caused by the excessive emission of Carbon dioxide (CO2) since last century. As reported in, human industrial activities emit twice more CO2 than natural processes can absorb at the moment. Among the energy- consuming industries, the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry takes 2% of global total CO2 emissions and 3% of global energy expenditure. In particular, 57% of the energy consumption of the ICT industry is attributed to users and network devices in mobile and wireless networks, the scale of which is still growing explosively.

Adopting green energy sources is required. Renewable Energy Technology (RET) Develop TRAI (Indian Telecom Regulatory Authority) has timely introduced its recommendations on Green Telecom and Green Mobile Networks. A timely initiative of Indian Telecom Regulatory Authority (TRAI) of releasing its "Recommendations on Green Telecom" in consolidating entire telecom sector stakeholders opinion and providing clear direction for achieving green telecom objectives and later transforming them into mandatory operational requirements to Telecom Service Providers (TSP) is a strong step in the direction. (Krishna Sirohi, 2013).Various industries and government have stated their comprehensive efforts for creating new protocols and algorithms, energy efficient architectures etc. they are focusing to create this by using various network types.

Smartphone and increment in internet usage are another reason behind abrupt raise in the emission of carbon because of internet data service functionalities to the user which includes 2G network (GSM, CDMA), 3G (UTMS, CDMA2000), 3G+(HSDPA, EV-DO, Wi-Max) and 4G

networks(LTE-Advanced and Wi Max2).The government will improvise this condition from the present scenario of Diesel Power Generated Energy Sources. All the TSPs must now urgently create and Telecom Carbon Emission Platform that understands the Carbon Emission from all TSPs and provides a Carbon Emission Estimation and Reduction (CEER) planning.


Among the energy-consuming industries, the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry takes 2% of global total CO2 emissions and 3% of global energy expenditure. In particular, 57% of the energy consumption of the ICT industry is attributed to users and network devices in mobile and wireless networks, the scale of which is still growing explosively. According to, the global mobile traffic is expected to reach 6.3 exabytes per month by the year 2015, which is more than 26 times as much as the traffic load per month in 2010.Therefore the government of India has shown a keen interest in regarding this issue.(XiaofeiWang, Athanasios V, Vasilakos, Min Chen, Yunhao Liu , Ted Taekyoung Kwon,2011).The country needs a frame-work that establishes TSPs Carbon emission estimation of Telecom Service Providers which will draw useful intelligence required for the national statistical determination which eventually will help achieve a goal of higher energy efficiency resulting sustainable telecom infrastructure in India. Achieving the energy efficiency in telecom operation and also by converting the present dirty sources of energy (diesel power generated sources) into greener energy sources will be a step ahead in this direction.

A closer view on the study of various network segments suggests that mobile networks are the major portion that emits a high amount of carbon. Statistically, the base stations in the mobile network contribute about 59% of the total carbon emission while the rest of the percentage participation by the entire mobile network is 41%. The Carbon Emission estimates depend on some factors i.e. power consumption and carbon emission factor. The power consumption along with its mandatory cooling system requirements and emission factor associated with power

source being used for powering the telecom equipment plays a major role in carbon contribution. An appropriate method for right measurement of power consumption required by telecom equipment over a cycle of 24hours need be calculated. The accurate power consumption measurement will realize exact Carbon Emission taking place.It is important to note that the average dynamic power consumption of any telecom equipment is significantly lower than the static maximum power consumption.(Krishna Sirohi,2013).The second part deals with the development of Renewable Energy Technology. The problem with this is that the reduction of diesel operated or another expensive power source is not really possible.There are about 5,88,000 Mobile Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) towers in the

country and each BTS is having 1520 KVA diesel generators as power back-up. One liter diesel emits 2.68 kg of CO2. More than two billion liters diesel is being consumed every year in mobile tower stations generating 10 million tons of carbon.( Pratap Kumar Panigrahi,2011)

The estimation of CEER (Carbon Emission Estimation and Reduction) value will lead to understanding the traffic and requirements of the signals. Because it happens that during some peak hours only there is much traffic otherwise the congestion isn't always there but the supply of signals driven by diesel operated power supply is always in the quantity not needed every time. Some of the green mobile network technologies are given in Fig 1 which is currently going on globally:

Fig 1: Summary of green mobile network project


The objectives of the study were:

  1. To know about the green mobile market in India.

  2. Find out or identify awareness of green mobile market in India.

  3. What are the main problems which are influencing the implementation about the green mobile market?

  4. To analyze the factors affecting green mobile market and

  5. To explore the solution and opportunities of the green mobile market.


The green mobile market is a big step for reducing carbon emission and mobile radiation. We have conducted a survey and the method used to analyze the data is Factor Analysis. Factor analysis is used to identify, assumptions underline dimension to reduce the number of a variable by eliminating redundancy.

The main objective is to know the knowledge, awareness and study the issues in the implementation of a green mobile market. The study has been conducted in a short duration of tie from January to March 2016. A self-designed questionnaire was used for analysis. The study mainly

focused on India. The responses were received on email and thorough social networking websites and through google forms. The sample size was 133 respondents. The questionnaire consisting of 12 statements with demographic was used for the study. It resulted with an alpha coefficient of 0.688 in the study. The data was collected from 133 respondents from various IT sector firm employees, bank and financial institutions and other professional institute. The primary data for the research project is collected through a Self-structured questionnaire where respondents' degree of satisfaction is recorded on a scale of 1 to 5. The scale measured from 1 as strongly disagree and 4 as strongly agree and 5 as neutral. The Kaiser- Meyer- Olkin measure of sampling adequacy resulted in 0.698. The collected data is coded, filtered, tabulated using MS-Excel and analyzed with the help of SPSS software using Principal Component Factor Analysis with Varimax rotation.

Data collection: Data was collected from the employees of different organizations through survey questionnaire containing statements on five points like scale. The survey was done through online, email and others. The data collected was summarized and analyzed with the help of IBM SPSS version 20 following inferences were drawn after analyzing data:


Sampling Frame: 140 Respondents.






Renewable energy resource used in green mobile market


Energy efficiency,

Eigen value of 2.519 having 15.242

% of variance


Green telecom technology which leads to minimum energy consumption.






Green Mobile Market








Social group, Eigen value of 1.984 having 11.670 % of variance





Educational qualification



The harmful environment.








Harmful effect of carbon emission, Eigen value of 1.448 having 8.518

% of variance





Carbon emission of mobile network


Overall Network, Eigen value of

1.393 having 8.192 % of variance





Mobile radiation


Radiation, Eigen value of 1.285 having 7.558 % of variance


Side effect of mobile radiation


Side effect of radiation, Eigen value of 1.268 having 7.457 % of variance


Maximum limit of SAR value allowed is below 1.6w/kg.


SAR limit, Eigen value of 1.256 having 7.391 % of variance


Carbon footprint



Green Mobile Market is a new concept and further work is going on in this area. Since the time of the study was limited due to academics, so the further study could not be done and is limited only to India. The further cross-sectional study can be done on judgmental sampling. The study was purely exploratory and further longitudinal and horizontal study can be done on the topic.


In this paper, we have presented a survey of the green mobile market. What all technologies are used in India for making our environment free from carbon? In our paper, we have discussed issues related to carbon emission and mobile radiation from telecom towers and how much it is damaging our environment. We have also conducted a survey about knowing the awareness of people about green mobile and found out that still a lot of work is needed in building new technologies and making people aware and the green network. The current technology used in India for the green mobile network is the use of Renewable Energy Technology (like solar, wind etc) to give power to mobile towers and make it energy efficient hence reducing carbon emission in the environment and technologies like 4G and 5G. However still a lot of work is required to be done in this field and government authorities like TRAI and TSP are working to build a good platform for better implementation of green mobile market in urban and rural parts of India and reducing the carbon emission in environment, and making people aware about the green mobile and its benefits and long-term sustainability in environment and telecom providers.


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