 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 273
 Authors : G. Chandrababu, K. V. Bhargav, Ch. Rambabu
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS10828
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 01 (January 2014)
 Published (First Online): 27012014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Fuzzy Logic Control of APF for Harmonic Voltage Suppression in Distribution System
G. Chandrababu1, K. V. Bhargav2, Ch. Rambabu (Ph.d) 3
1 M.Tech Student in Power Electronics, 2 Assistant Professor, 3 Professor & HOD, Department of EEE at Sri Vasavi Engineering College, Tadepalligudem, A.P, India
Abstract–Active power filter can prevent harmonic current from injecting into power system, but harmonic propagation cannot damp in distribution system where as voltage detection can do. This paper proposes an APF based on detection load current and harmonic voltage at the point of installation by using fuzzy control method. In addition, based on the relationship between the rated Voltampere of APF and the load Volt ampere, the conductance value could adjust automatically. The objective of the shunt active filter is not only to compensate the harmonic compensation. Fuzzy controller gives the accurate values to pi controller. The input data will be split into the number of membership functions. Through those functions we would develop rules. By that rules it will give the more efficient output than conventional controllers. And the simulation results are performed to verify the validity and effectiveness of the shunt active filter equipped with the Fuzzy control.
Index TermsActive power filter, active power line conditioner, harmonic distortion, power quality, fuzzy logic

Introduction:
A number of power electronic based appliances such as diode, thyristor, rectifiers & Industrial electric power source generate a large amount of harmonic current in power systems [1]. A parallel active filter is to be placed in parallel with the load to inject a harmonic current with the same amplitude as that of the load [2]. The load impedance, ZL will become very low for harmonics when a parallel filter is connected on the side of the thyristor rectifier. In case of parallel active filter for a harmonic voltage source, a large series reactor must be placed on the load side to enhance the load impedance [3]. To compensate this minimum of 6% of series Inductance should be placed on the load side. The objective of the APF is not only to compensate the harmonic but also to damp the harmonics using voltage harmonic detection [4]. When the rated volt ampere is limit the harmonic compensation is less considered. Harmonic resonance between the line inductors and shunt capacitors for power factor correction made the harmonic voltage has become a serious problem [5]. When a parallel active filter is installed in a power system network, such as at a point of common coupling, the network impedance and main harmonic sources downstream from the installation point should be placed near the load to get good performance and to minimize the influence to the loads [6].
Installation of active filter at the end of the bus makes the required current rating of the active filter smaller than the installation on the begging bus due to installation at end of the bus it subjected to harmonic propagation [67]. Based on the relationship between the rated voltampere of the APF and the voltampere needed to compensate the non linear load, the conductance value could auto adjustment compared with the fixed gain G is determined by the active filter and mainly dominated by the detection circuit of the harmonics, delay time of the control circuit and current response of the PWM inverter of the active filter [8]. It has two problems mainly due to high capacity nonlinear loads and the second is load current detection cannot damp voltage harmonic in distribution system using pi controller [9]. This paper proposes a fuzzy logic controller of a compound control method on the detection of load current and harmonic voltage. Computer simulations are performed to verify the validity and effectiveness of the shunt active filter equipped with the compound control.

The Principle of Compound Control:
Fig.1 shows the principle of compound control, each harmonic voltage amplifying by a gain G add to the load current amplifying by a gain K2 produces each current reference in Eq.(1).
i*c=GVTh + K2.iL (1)
Assume the rated voltampere of APF is W APF , the volt ampere needed to compensate the nonlinear load is W LOAD, the voltampere needed to damp harmonic voltage in power system is W COM, G is the equivalent harmonic conductance, and K2 is the compensation coefficient of load current detection. In reality practice there are three conditions
WapfWload+Wcom,
Wload< Wapf< Wload+Wcom , Wapf < Wload
than, G adjusts normally, otherwise, decrease G until is less
WapfWload+Wcom
In this condition, G is less , the current limitation outer loop does not work, G adjusts normally.
Fig.1: Principle diagram of compound control
Fig.2 shows the principle of auto gain adjustment under constrained voltampere with compound control and is the ac components of three phase voltages under the synchronization reference frame. The square of harmonic voltage is calculated in Eq.(2), and the typical value is defined in Eq.(3), if is more than , the counter counts up to Get a bigger G in the auto gain adjustment block[7], adjust G to a stable value until is lower than .
Fig.2: Auto gain adjustment under constrained voltampere
H S.
dh qh
Vp = v 2 + v 2 (2) V *2=3 (V THD)*2 (3)
In order to promise the voltampere of APF operates under rated voltampere, its necessary to limit G less than a certain value. The voltampere of APF relies on the rms value of voltage in the installation bus and the rms value of compensation current, as in Eq. (4).
7 n
Dh =3VI=3V ( I52 +I 2++I 2) (4)
There are two feasible methods to limit the voltampere of APF under rated voltampere. The first is cutoff method; the second is scalingdown method. The former is simple but it will draw into new harmonic, we use the latter here. In Fig.2, a current limitation outer loop is added into current reference calculation block. Compared the rms value of current limitation with the compensation current, if is less
Wload< Wapf< W load + Wcom ,
The current reference scalingdown under the rated volt ampere can be achieved by reducing G, as shown in Fig.2, the current limitation outer loop work. In this condition, decrease G to a certain value until is less .
Wapf < Wload
Decrease G to zero and keep G zero, and then, decrease K2 from 1 to a certain value until the APF is working on rated voltampere, the APF cannot keep the THD at the installation bus within a specified range, there are parts of nonlinear load current injecting into the distribution system.

Simulation Result of Traditional Line And Active Power Filter Using PI Controller:
Fig.3 depicts the simulation diagram, Us is pure grid voltage, a seventh harmonic current source of 1.4A (1.4%) is connected downstream of bus 2, a nonlinear load is installed on bus 3. The most serious harmonic propagation occurs around 350Hz. The parameters in the simulation are given as follows:
Grid voltage is 220V (linetoline), 50Hz. The transmission line parameters are L=0.33mH, C=150uF; a diode rectifier with filter (2mH) inductor and load resistor (10 ) is installed on bus 3; APF is installed on bus 3, the ac inductor is 0.4mH, DC capacitor is 400uF, switch frequency is 10 kHz.
Fig.3: Simulation diagram

Results of Traditional Distribution Line:
The output results of traditional distribution line are shown in fig.4, fig.5, fig.6 at WapfWload+Wcom, Wload< Wapf< Wload+Wcom , apf < Wload respectively.

Active Power Filter Using PI Control Output Results:
The output results of compound controlled apf using PI controller of distribution lines are shown in fig 7 ,fig 8 ,fig 9 at WapfWload+Wcom, Wload< Wapf< Wload+Wcom , Wapf < Wload respectively.
FFT window: 1 of 600 cycles of selected signal
100
0
FFT window: 1 of 600 cycles of selected signal
100
100
0
100
2.1 2.102 2.104 2.106 2.108 2.11 2.112 2.114 2.116 2.118
Time (s)
2.1 2.102 2.104 2.106 2.108 2.11 2.112 2.114 2.116 2.118
Time (s)
Fundamental (50Hz) = 180 , THD= 18.75%
12
Mag (% of Fundamental)
10
8
6
4
2
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Frequency (Hz)
Fundamental (50Hz) = 180 , THD= 8.29%
6
Mag (% of Fundamental)
5
4
3
2
1
Fig.4: Output of traditional distribution line at time (2.1sec)
Fig.4: Shows the output voltage waveform at WapfWload+Wcom and total harmonic distortion at time 2.1 sec is 18.75%
FFT window: 1 of 600 cycles of selected signal
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Frequency (Hz)
Fig.7: Output of active power filter in distribution line using pi
controller (2.1sec)
Fig.7 shows the output voltage waveform at WapfWload+Wcom and total harmonic distortion at time 2.1sec is 8.29%
100
0
100
7.1 7.102 7.104 7.106 7.108 7.11 7.112 7.114 7.116 7.118
Time (s)
FFT window: 1 of 600 cycles of selected signal
100
0
100
Fundamental (50Hz) = 180 , THD= 22.62%
16
Mag (% of Fundamental)
14
12
7.1 7.102 7.104 7.106 7.108 7.11 7.112 7.114 7.116 7.118
Time (s)
10
8
6
4 Fundamental (50Hz) = 180 , THD= 15.82%
2
Mag (% of Fundamental)
0 10
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Frequency (Hz) 8
6
4
Fig.5: Output of traditional distribution line at (7.1sec)
The output voltage waveform at Wload< Wapf< Wload+Wcom, is shown in the figure 5 and total harmonic distortion at time 7.1 sec is 22.62%
2
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Frequency (Hz)
Fig.8: Output of active power filter in distribution line using pi
controller (7.1sec)
The output voltage waveform at Wload< Wapf< Wload+Wcom, is shown in the fig.8 and total harmonic distortion is 15.82%
FFT window: 1 of 600 cycles of selected signal
100
0
100
10.1 10.10210.10410.10610.108 10.11 10.11210.11410.11610.118
Time (s)
FFT window: 1 of 600 cycles of selected signal
100
0
100
10.1 10.10210.10410.10610.108 10.11 10.11210.11410.11610.118
Time (s)
Fundamental (50Hz) = 180 , THD= 27.11%
20
Mag (% of Fundamental)
15
10
5
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Frequency (Hz)
Fundamental (50Hz) = 180 , THD= 21.09%
15
Mag (% of Fundamental)
10
Fig. 6: Output of traditional distribution line (10.1)
The output voltage waveform and total harmonic distortion of the load at Wapf < Wload is shown in the fig.6 the THD is around 27.11%
5
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Frequency (Hz)
Fig.9: Output of active power filter in distribution line using pi
controller (10.1sec)
The output voltage waveform and total harmonic distortion of the load at Wapf < Wload is shown in the fig.9 the THD is around 21.09%
Disadvantages of PI Controller
The Convention PI Controller require precise linear mathematical model of the system, which is difficult to obtain under parameter variation and nonlinear load disturbances and the Proportional and Integral gains are chosen approximately.


Principle of Compound Control Using Fuzzy Logic Controller:
The active power filter is implemented with Pulse Width Modulation current controlled VSI Inverter. The APF consists of an six IGBTs or diode with a freewheeling diode, a d.c. capacitorL filter, compensation controller(fuzzy logic) and gate signal generator (hysteresis current controller) is shown in figure. The hysteresis current controller is employed to generate switching signals for driving switches in the VSI. The current wave shape is limited by switching frequency of the voltage source Inverter.
Fig.10: Block diagram of fuzzy logic controller
In a Control system, error between the reference and output can be labeled as Zero (z), positive small (PS), negative small (NS), Positive Medium (PM), negative medium (NM). The process involves converting a numerical variable to a linguistic variable; triangular or sine membership functions are developed for the fuzzufication
Defuzzification
The rules of FLC generate required output in a linguistic variable format (fuzzy number) according to real world requirements, linguistic variable have to be transformed to crisp output (real number).
Database
It stores the definition of the membership function required by fuzzifier & defuzzifier.
Rule Base
sa , sb , sc
sa ,
sb ,
sc
The rule base stores the linguistic control rules required by the rule evaluator. The reference currents (i * i * i *) are compare with actual source currents (i * i * i *) to generate switching signals for PWM inverter suing hysteresis current controller.
For faster current controllability and easy implementation the hysteresis current control method scores over other current control techniques. In this method, the PWM inverter, hysteresis current controller directly generates the switching signal of the three phases. In the case of Positive input current, if the error current e(t) between the desired reference current iref(t) and the actual current ia(t) exceeds the upper hysteresis band limit, the upper switch of the inverter arm is become OFF and the lower is become ON than the current starts to decrease. If the error current e (t) crossed the lower limit of the hysteresis band, the lower switch of the inverter arm is become OFF and the upper switch is become ON. As a result, the current gets back into the hysteresis band and the cycle repeats as shown in fig.10 and the fuzzy logic controller results are shown in below in fig.11,fig12,fig13 at different loads WapfWload+Wcom, Wload< Wapf< Wload+Wcom , Wapf < Wload respectively.

Active Power Filter Using Fuzzy Control Output Results:
FFT window: 1 of 600 cycles of selected signal
100
0
100
2.1 2.102 2.104 2.106 2.108 2.11 2.112 2.114 2.116 2.118
Time (s)
Rule Elevator
The basic fuzzy set operations needed for evaluation of fuzzy rules are AND (), OR () and NOT ()
AND Intersection : Âµ AB= min [ÂµA(x), ÂµB(x)]
1
Mag (% of Fundamental)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
Fundamental (50Hz) = 180 , THD= 1.39%
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Frequency (Hz)
OR Intersection : Âµ AB= max [ÂµA(x), ÂµB(x)] NOT Intersection : Âµ A = 1 ÂµA(x)
Fig.11: Output of active power filter in distribution line using fuzzy controller (2.1sec)
Fig.11 shows the output voltage waveform at WapfWload+Wcom and total harmonic distortion is about 1.39%
FFT window: 1 of 600 cycles of selected signal
100
0
100
7.1 7.102 7.104 7.106 7.108 7.11 7.112 7.114 7.116 7.118
Time (s)
Fundamental (50Hz) = 180 , THD= 2.69%
0
400
600 800 100
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION
LOAD CONDITION
AT LOAD 1
AT LOAD 2
AT LOAD 3
Without PI Controller
18.75%
22.62%
27.11%
With PI
Controller
08.29%
15.82%
21.09%
With FUZZY Controller
01.39%
2.9%
10.25%
The total harmonic distortion of the distribution line is observed under PI Controller and FUZZY logic controller. By using PI Controller, the total harmonic distortion in the line about 8% and by using Fuzzy logic control, the total harmonic distortion is reduced to 1.98%., which is about 5% less than the PI controller.
By observing the above table it is clear that APF with FUZZY CONTROL will give less total harmonic distortion when compared with and without PI Controller.

Conclusion:
In this paper, the fuzzy logic control of active power filter based detection of load current and voltage to solve the problem that the load current detection apf cannot change the harmonic impedance in distribution system. In this the rated voltampere and the load volt ampere, the conductance value could be adjusted automatically. computer simulation is constructed to verify the validity and effectiveness of the pi controller and fuzzy logic controller for the functioning of apf. The fuzzy logic controller provides superior performance in harmonic distortion with the PI controller. The fuzzy logic based apf system is expected with the IEEE standard harmonics.

References:

Hirofumi Akagi, Hideaki Fujita, Keiji Wada.: A Shunt Active Filter Based on Voltage Detection for Harmonic Termination of a Radial Power Distribution Line, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl, 1999, 35, (3), pp. 638644.

Grady, W.M, Samotyj, M.J and Noyola A.H: Survey of Active power line conditioning methodologies, IEEE Trans. Power Deli, 1990, 5, (3), pp. 15361542.821

Akagi, H.: New trends in active power line conditioning,
IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl, 1996, 32, (6), pp. 13121322

Peng, F.Z.: Application experience with active power filters, IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., 1998, 4, (5), pp. 2130

Green, T.C., and Marks, J.H.: Control techniques for active power filters, IEE Proc. Elect. Power Appl., 2005,152, (2), pp. 369381

Akagi, H.: Control strategy and site selection of a shunt active filter for damping of harmonic propagation in power distribution systems, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 1997, 12, (1), pp. 354363

P. Jintakosonwit, H. Akagi, H. Fujita, and S.O gasawara. Implementation and performance of automatic gain adjustment in a shunt active filter for harmonic damping throughout a power distribution system, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 438447, Mar. 2002.

Yang Zhenyu, Zhao Jianfeng, Tang Guoqing.: Research on current limiting compensation scheme of shunt APF, Electric Power Automation Equipment, vol.26, no.3, pp.2124, Mar.2006.

xiaofeng sun, jian zeng, Zhe Chen ; active power filter for harmonic voltage suppression in distribution systems 2010 2nd IEEE international symposium on power electronics for distributed generation systems pp818821


Authors Profile:
G.CHANDRABABU1 has received his B.Tech degree in EEE from ASR College of Engineering, Tanuku in 2009. At present he is pursuing his M.Tech degree with the specialization of power electronics from Sri Vasavi Engineering College, Tadepalligudem, A.P. His areas of interest are power electronics & drives.
K.V.BHARGAV2 has received the B.Tech degree in Electrical & Electronics Engineering from Sri Vasavi Engineering College, Tadepalligudem in 2007 and Masters degree from Nova College of Engg. & Technology, Jangareddigudem 2009. Currently, he is an Assistant Professor at Sri Vasavi Engineering College, Tadepalligudem, A.P. His interests are in power system, power electronics and FACTS.
CH.RAMBABU3 received the Bachelor of Engineering degree in Electrical & Electronics Engineering from Madras University, in 2000 and Masters degree from JNTU Anantapur in 2005. He is a research student of JNTU Kakinada. Currently, he is an Professor & HOD at Sri Vasavi Engineering College, Tadepalligudem, A.P. His interests are in power system control and FACTS..