Formulation Development and Evaluation of Herbal Gel Containing Smilax China L. Extract for Topical Treatment of Acne

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Formulation Development and Evaluation of Herbal Gel Containing Smilax China L. Extract for Topical Treatment of Acne

Anjali Khantal *1 , Dr. S.C. Mahajan1 , Saurabh Sharma*2 , Pranay Sethiya2 , Harshita Sharma*3

M.Pharma , Mahakal Institute of Technology Ujjain, RGPV Bhopal , India

Abstract:- In Present work carried out for Formulation Development and Evaluation of Herbal Gel Containing Smilax China Extract for Topical Treatment of Acne. Smilax China L.use in treatment of Energy tonic, impotency and seminal disorders, chronic arthritis and secondary and tertiary syphilis, schizophrenia and epilepsy, pemphigus and skin diseases, ostero-arthritis, leucorrhea or white discharge, relieving joint numbness, diabetes , antimicrobial activities of Smilax china, a medicinal plant that has traditionally been used as an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent, were investigated against microorganisms commonly involved in acne inflammation, such as Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords : Smilax china , Propionibacterium acnes , Antimicrobial

  1. INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Acne

    Acne is considered as one of the most widespread skin diseases1. Acne vulgaris is the second uppermost reason of suicide among skin diseases. When a person suffering from acne is compared with an individual who is not suffering from acne than it is found that the former has higher level of anxiety, more socio inhibition and has more aggressiveness2. This disease occurs in both male and female; there is no preference among them, but the course is more severe in males3.

  2. PLANT PROFILE :

    Smilax china L., also known as Jin Gang Ten, is a tiny vine that grows in the southern portions of China and has a long history of indigenous usage in China. Fat, saponins, glucosides, gum, starch, flavonoids, tannins, and alkaloids make up S. china. Because it contains beneficial components such as triterpenoid, saponins, flavones, stilbenes, and organic acids, S. china has been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine.Chemical Constitutions S. china consists of fat, saponins, glucosides, gum, starch, flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids Uses : Energy tonic, impotency and seminal disorders, chronic arthritis and secondary and tertiary syphilis, schizophrenia and epilepsy, pemphigus and skin diseases.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL WORK

    1. Procurement of Plant Material: In the month of February 2021, root of Smilax china L. was obtained from a local market in Bhopal. After the plants were harvested, they were cleaned to prevent the phytochemicals found in the plant from deteriorating.Cleaning :Following the

      acquisition of plant material, they were thoroughly cleaned4. The cleaning procedure was broken down into the following phases.Drying :Plant material was maintained for drying in the sun but in the shade shortly after washing5.Powdering :The dried plant material was finely ground with an electric grinder, sieved, and stored in plastic bags until neededExtraction procedure: Extracts from shade dried and powdered herbs were prepared according to the following procedure6. Plant Material Defatting:The maceration technique was used to extract the shade dried root of Smilax china using petroleum ether.Extraction by maceration method .A hydroalcoholic solvent was used to extract the root (ethanol: water: 80:20). The maceration technique was used to extract the powdered root (62.4 gram) (Mukherjee, 2007). To get the dry concentrated extract, the resulting content was filtered using Whatman filter paper no. 1 and retained for solvent evaporation. The extractive yield was calculated by weighing the dried crude concentrated extract, which was then transferred to glass vials (6 2 cm) and kept in a refrigerator (4°C) until needed for analysis7. Determination of extractive value (% yield)

      Weight of extract

      =

      Weight of powdered drug taken

    2. Qualitative phytochemical analysis

      Preliminary phytochemical screening is crucial for determining the profile of a particular extract in terms of the chemical compounds generated by the plant8.

      1. Detection of alkaloids-Hagers Test: Hager's reagent was used to treat the filtrates (saturated picric acid solution). The presence of alkaloids was verified by the appearance of a yellow-colored precipitate.

      2. Detection of carbohydrates-Fehlings Test: Filtrates were hydrolyzed in dilution HCl, neutralized with alkali, and heated in Fehling's A and B solutions. The presence of reducing sugars is shown by the formation of red precipitate.

      3. Detection of glycosides-Legals Test: Sodium nitropruside in pyridine and sodium hydroxide were used to treat the extracts. The presence of cardiac glycosides is indicated by the presence of a pink to blood red color.

      4. Detection of saponins-Froth Test: The extracts were diluted to 20ml with distilled water and agitated for 15 minutes in a graduated cylinder. The presence of saponins is indicated by the formation of a 1 cm layer of foam.

      5. Detection of phenols-Ferric Chloride Test: 3-4 drops of ferric chloride solution were added to the extracts. The

        presence of phenols is indicated by the formation of a blue black color.

      6. Detection of flavonoids-Lead acetate Test: A few drops of lead acetate solution were added to the extracts. The presence of flavonoids is shown by the formation of a yellow-colored precipitate.

      7. Detection of proteins-Xanthoproteic Test: A few drops of concentrated nitric acid were added to the extracts. The presence of proteins is shown by the formation of a yellow color.

      8. Detection of diterpenes-Copper acetate Test: 3-4 drops of copper acetate solution were added to the extracts after they were dissolved in water. The presence of diterpenes is indicated by the formation of emerald green color 66-68.

    3. Formulation development of herbal gel

      1. Method of preparation

        In a beaker, measured amounts of methyl paraben, glycerin, polyethylene glycol, and Smilax china hydroalcoholic extract were dissolved in roughly 35 ml of water and swirled at high speed using a mechanical stirrer (or sonicator)36. Then, while stirring, Carbopol 940 was gently added to the beaker containing the aforementioned liquid9. The solution was neutralized by progressively adding triethanolamine solution while stirring constantly until the gel was formed 7.

        Figure 3.1: Prepared herbal gel of Smilax china extract

      2. Evaluation of herbal gel

Appearance and consistency: The physical appearance of herbal gel formulations was visually examined for texture, and observations10 .Washability: Formulations were applied to the skin, and then the ease and extent of washing with water were physically evaluated, with results. Extrudability determination of formulations The tubes were pushed to extrude the material, and the formulation's extrudability was tested by Benoy7.

Determination of Spreadability

Determination of PH A digital pH meter was used to determine the pH of the herbal gels11.

Media preparation (broth and agar media) Composition of nutrient agar media

Agar

1.5 gms.

Beef extract

0.3 gms.

Peptone

0.5 gms.

Sodium chloride

0.55 gms.

Distilled water

to make 100 ml.

p>pH 7

Method of preparation

This agar media was dissolved in distilled water and then heated in a large conical flask. Dry components are placed in a flask with the necessary amount of distilled water and heated to thoroughly dissolve the medium12. The flask holding the medium was cotton capped and sterilized at 15 lbs/incp (121oC) for 15 minutes in an autoclave. The media in the flask was immediately poured (20 ml/plate) into sterile petri dishes on a level surface after sterilization. The poured plates were allowed to harden at room temperature before being incubated at 37°C overnight to ensure sterility13. Before usage, the plates were dried at 50°C for 30 minutes34.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The goal of this study was to demonstrate preliminary chemical screening, antibacterial activity, gel formulation creation, and Smilax china antimicrobial activity.

    1. Results of Extractive Values:Hydroalcoholic solvent was used to extract the root of Smilax china.

      Table 4.1: Extractive values of extracts of Smilax china

      S.

      No.

      Solvents

      Colour

      Physical nature

      %

      Yield (W/W)

      1

      Pet. ether

      Sticky brown

      Solid

      1.65

      2

      Hydroalcoholic

      Dark brown

      Solid

      3.47

    2. Result of Phytochemical Screening: Phenol, flavonoids, alkaloids, and secondary metabolites are phytochemical components with nutritional and pharmacological properties.

S.

No.

Constituents

Hydroalcoholic extract

1.

Alkaloids

Hagers Test:

+ve

2.

Glycosides

Legals Test:

+ve

3.

Flavonoids Lead acetate Test:

-ve

4.

Diterpenes Copper acetate Test:

-ve

5.

Phenol

Ferric Chloride Test:

+ve

6.

Proteins

Xanthoproteic

+ve

S.

No.

Constituents

Hydroalcoholic extract

1.

Alkaloids

Hagers Test:

+ve

2.

Glycosides

Legals Test:

+ve

3.

Flavonoids Lead acetate Test:

-ve

4.

Diterpenes Copper acetate Test:

-ve

5.

Phenol

Ferric Chloride Test:

+ve

6.

Proteins

Xanthoproteic

+ve

Table 4.2: Result of Phytochemical screening of Smilax china

4.4 Results of evaluation of gel formulation – Colour- Dark Brown , Clogging- Absent , Homogeneity- Good , Texture Smooth. Results of washability and extrudability Good washability and Averange extrudability.Results of spreadability – Spreadability (gcm/sec) 15.63±10.35.Determination of pH Averange PH is 7.0±0.2. Results of Viscosity Averange Viscosity is 2867±15.Results of antiacne activity of extract and herbal gel The herbal gel produced from the plant was diluted to concentrations of 100, 50, and 25 mg per ml before being administered to the test organism through the well diffusion method10. When compared to extract, the formulation HG5 showed greater antiacne efficacy21.

Table 4.3: Antiacne activity of extract and herbal gel formulation (HG5) against Propionibacterium acnes

S.

No.

Extract

/Formulation

Zone of inhibition (mm)

100mg/ml

50 mg/ml

25mg/ml

1.

Extract

18±0.5

15±0.47

13±0.86

2.

Herbal gel

17±0.74

13±0.57

10±0.86

Figure 4.2: Photoplates of Anti-acne activity of extract and herbal gel formulation against P. acnes

As mentioned, zone of inhibition of Smilax china

hydoalcoholic extract (Extract 18±0.5, 15±0.47, and

13±0.86) and (Herbal gel 17±0.74, 13±0.57, 10±0.86)

observed when hydralcoholic extract of Smilax china

incubated with P. acnes respectively.

    1. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION:

      Herbal remedies from nature are well-researched and shown to be effective and safe natural treatments for a wide range of ailments. The goal of this study was to demonstrate preliminary chemical screening, antibacterial activity, gel formulation creation, and Smilax china antimicrobial activity. The dried root was thoroughly cleaned under running tap water before being ground with an electric grinder. The powder was extracted using a hydroalcoholic extract solvent and the maceration technique16. The phytochemical screening of Smilax china extract was one of the standardization criteria that were examined. which clearly indicates the anti-acne action of the herbal gel against the Propionibacterium acnes strain employed in this study. The herbal gel produced from the plant was diluted to concentrations of 100, 50, and 25 mg per ml before being administered to the test organism through the well diffusion method. Due to its minimal

      be used to treat acne without causing harm.

      Test:

      diffusion, high spreadability, neutral pH, and low viscosity,

      7.

      Carbohydrate

      Fehlings Test:

      the produced gel formulation was determined to be suitable

      +ve for topical application15. When compared to extract, the

      8.

      Saponins

      Froth Test:

      +ve formulation HG5 showed greater antiacne efficacy. It can

      Test:

      diffusion, high spreadability, neutral pH, and low viscosity,

      7.

      Carbohydrate

      Fehlings Test:

      the produced gel formulation was determined to be suitable

      +ve for topical application15. When compared to extract, the

      8.

      Saponins

      Froth Test:

      +ve formulation HG5 showed greater antiacne efficacy. It can

    2. REFERENCES

  1. Kaur D, Prasad SB. Anti acne activity of acetone extract of Plumbago indica root. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016; 9(2):285-7.

  2. Gupta MA, Gupta AK. Depression and suicidal ideation in dermatology patients with acne, alopecia areata, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 1998; 139(5):846-50.

  3. Cunliffe WJ. Natural history of acne. In: Cunliffe WJ, editor. Acne. London: Martin Dunitz; 1989. p. 2-10.

  4. Flaynn CL, Bronaugh RL and Maibach HI, Percutaneous absorption, Marcel Dekker,New York, 1985,17-52.

  5. Kasting CB, Smith RL, Andersion BD, Topical and ocular drug delivery, Marcel Dekker, New York,1992,117-61.

  6. Potts RD, Guy RH, Predicting skin permeability, Pharm Res, 1992, 9,663-9.

  7. Scheuplein RJ, Bank IH, Permeability of the skin, Physiol Rev, 1971, 51,702-47.

  8. Scheuplein RJ, Bank IH, Brauner CJ, Macfalrane DJ, Precutaneous absoption of steroids, J Invest Dermatol, 1969, 52,63-70.

  9. Menon CK. New insights into skin structure: scraching the surface, Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 2002, 54, 3-17.

  10. Date AA, Naik B, Nagarsenker MS. Novel drug delivery systems: potential in improving topical delivery of antiacne agents. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 19(1):216 (2006).

  11. Schafer-Korting M, Korting HC, PoncePoschl E. Liposomal tretinoin for uncomplicated acne vulgaris. Clin Investig 72(12):1086-91 (1994 Dec).

  12. Brisaert M, Grabriels M, Matthijs V, et al. Liposomes with tretinoin: a physical and chemical evaluation. J Pharm Biomed Anal 26(5-6):909-17 (2001 Dec).

  13. Huczko A, Lange H. Fullerenes: experimental evidence for a null risk of skin irritation and allergy. Fullerene Sci Technol 7:935-9 (1999).

  14. Pal KS, Shukla Y. Herbal Medicine: Current Status and the Future. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 2003; 4:281-288.

  15. Kashaw V, Nema AK, Agarwal A. Hepatoprotective Prospective of Herbal Drugs and Their Vesicular Carriers A Review. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences 2011; 2(2).

  16. Prabhu TP, Panneerselvam P, kumar RV, Atlee WC, Subramanian SB. Anti-inflammatory, anti arthritis and analgesic effect of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Merremia emarginata Burm.F. Central European Journal of Experimental Biology. 2012; 1(3):94-99.

  17. Patel P, Patel D, Patel N. Experimental investigation of anti- rheumatoid activity of Pleurotus sajorcaju in adjuvant -induced arthritic rats. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines. 2012; 10(4):269-274.

  18. Agarwal P, Fatima A Singh PP. Herbal Medicine Scenario in India and European Countries, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2012; 1(4).

  19. Gautam RK, Singh D, Nainwani R. Medicinal Plants having Anti- arthritic Potential: A Review, Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res. 2013; 19(1):96-102.

  20. Patil RB, Vora SR, Pillai MM. Protective effect of Spermatogenic activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) in galactose stressed mice, Annals of Biological Research. 2012; 3(8):4159- 4165.

  21. Brown HM, Christie AB, Colin EJ. Glycyrrhetinc acid hydrogensuccinate (disodium) salt, a new antiinflammatory compound, Lancet. 1959; 2:492.

  22. Adami E, Marzzi EU, Turba C. Arch Int Pharmaco dyn Tuer 1964: 147:113.

  23. Kamboj VP. Herbal medicine, Current science. 2000; 78(1).

  24. Partap S, Kumar A, Sharma NK, Jha KK. Luffa Cylindrica: An important medicinal plant, J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour 2012; 2 (1):127-134.

  25. Verma S, Singh SP. Current and future status of herbal medicines, Veterinary World. 2008; 1(11):347-350.

  26. Padmawar A, Bhadoria U. Phytochemical investigation and comparative evaluation of in vitro free radical scavenging activity of Triphala & Curcumin. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Medical Science. 2011; 1(1): 9-12.

  27. Ampofo AJ, Andoh A, Tetteh W, Bello M. Microbiological Profile of Some Ghanaian Herbal Preparations-Safety Issues and Implications for the Health Professions, Open Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2012; 2:121-130.

  28. Mosihuzzaman M, Choudhary MI. Protocols on Safety, Efficacy, Standardization, and Documentation of Herbal Medicine, Pure Appl. Chem. 2008; 80(10):21952230.

  29. Rukangira E. The African Herbal Industry: Constraints and Challenges, proc: The natural Products and Cosmeceutcals 2001conference. Africa. 2000: 1-20.

  30. Kamboj A. Analytical Evaluation of Herbal Drugs, Drug Discovery Research in Pharmacognosy, 2012; 3:23- 55.

  31. Kumudhaveni B and Radha R. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical standardization of tuberous root of Smilax china L. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2020; 11(11): 5805-11.

  32. Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian, Wenli Sun and Qi Cheng. Tremendous health benefits and clinical aspects of Smilax china. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2019; 13(16):253-258.

  33. Rida Zainab, Muhammad Akram and Wafa Abbaass. Pharmacological Evaluation, Phytochemical Analysis and Medicinal Properties of Smilax chinensis D.C. Asian Journal of Emerging Research. Volume 1(2): 57-61, 2019.

  34. Mukherjee PK. Quality Control of Herbal Drugs, 2nd Edition, Business Horizons, 2007; 2-14.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *