Flexural behavior of pairs of laminated unequal channel beams with different interfacial connections in corner-supported modular steel buildings Using ANSYS

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV11IS02033

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Flexural behavior of pairs of laminated unequal channel beams with different interfacial connections in corner-supported modular steel buildings Using ANSYS

Febinmon Baby1

M.Tech student

Dept. of civil engineering Mangalam college of engineeringKottayam India

Ms.Anila Mary Jacob Assistant professor Dept. of civil engineering‌‌

Mangalam college of engineering Kottayam India

Abstract:- In the construction sector, modular building systems (MSBs) have grown at an exponential rate due to possible benefits such quicker construction times, increased energy efficiency, and less reliance on favourable weather conditions. Increased embedded component production at MSB and size selection for each component would be advantageous for the modular joint design process. To evaluate the bending behaviour of channel beams with the proper size, MSB must take into account the necessity for light materials, a broader access area, transit facilities, fire safety regulations, and energy requirements associated to their use. Run a more thorough stability investigation to see how well the belts are positioned and opened. Analyse the effectiveness of various web ripple settings. The finite element method (FEM) is a well-liked method for the numerical solution of differential equations that arise in engineering and mathematical modelling. To compare bending performance, channel sections of various lengths are positioned. the development and assessment of five models The outcomes are contrasted. The channel segment is then examined, paying particular attention to the corrugation and web holes. Four models with various diameters and two models with various corrugations are constructed and tested for this. Next, the model-derived load and deflection values are evaluated.


Modular building systems (MBS) have experienced accelerated expansion in the construction sector due to their potential benefits, which include quick construction, better energy efficiency, and decreased reliance on

favourable weather conditions compared to traditional construction processes. A deeper understanding of MBS performance in various contexts and scales is a goal shared by researchers and the building industry. Modular steel buildings are high-end prefabricated construction solutions that are frequently employed in urban development because they have the benefits of quicker construction, less environmental disruption, significantly cheaper prices, and superior quality. Corner modular steel buildings are becoming more and more popular because of their capacity to provide open spaces and transparent load transfer in the structural system, particularly for hospital and educational purposes. ONE. The corners of corner modular steel buildings are typically bolted and also welded by several 3D modules in order for a group of modules to bear external loads as an integrated system. In this modular design, independent double beams are created by building a short corner post at the connecting point and using the space between the floor and ceiling beams for a simpler post-to- post connection. Due to the distinctions between modular steel frames and traditional steel frames, corner modular steel buildings exhibit more complex structural behaviour than normal steel buildings, particularly as the number of building levels rises. Three pairs of layered non-uniform trough beams with various phase connections were employed in the corner-supported MSBLB-C, LB-C with four extra shear bolt connections, and LB-C-8B. Each pair had a unique interface. To better comprehend the flexural behaviour of laminated beams with an unequal channel, beam finite element models were created and validated using experimental results. Significantly superior to the

insulated flex channel beam are 4B and LB-C-8B. The failure mechanisms of laminated beams are also significantly impacted by the stiffness of the interfacial connection between floor and ceiling beams.. The bending behaviour of channel beams with adequate widths is examined in this work. For a more thorough analysis of stability, site placement and opening efficacy are looked at. The channel girders' arrangement and form are changed for the buckling analysis. Channel beams with a web opening are effectively numerically and parametrically analysed using the ansys programme.


Analyze how well properly dimensioned channel beams bend when bent.

  • FEMs were created using ANSYS to analyze various web hole diameters of C-profile steel beams. Circular web holes are supplied.

  • To determine the analysis of the maximum resistance to buckling load, the diameters of the web section are taken into account

  • Analyze the bending properties of channel beams with

    PARAMETRIC STUDY OF CHANNEL SECTIONS To investigate the effectiveness of strip opening to perform a more thorough stability analysis.

  • ANSYS was used to develop FEM for analyzing various web hole diameters of C-profile steel beams.

  • Circular web holes are available.

  • Web diameters are considered.

  • Assess the modification of the configuration and shape of the

    providing holes in webs to reduce buckling failure.


    Project validation using ANSYS2022. Modeling other models in ANSYS2022. Model analysis using ANSYS 2022.

    Result and interpretation.


    A common technique for numerically resolving differential equations that appear in engineering and mathematical modelling is the finite element method (FEM). The classic fields of structural analysis, heat transfer, fluid flow, mass transport, and electromagnetic potential are typical areas of interest. FEM is a general numerical method for addressing boundary value problems involving partial differential equations in two or three spatial variables. FEM breaks down a complex system into smaller, simpler components known as finite elements in order to solve the issue. To do this, the space is concretely discretized in its dimensions by creating an object's repute, which is a region of numerical solution with a finite number of points. The end result is an algebraic equations. The technique makes a domain-wide approximation of an unknown function. The small system of equations that describes these finite elements is then combined with other equations to model the full issue. The corresponding error function is then minimised using FEM, using the calculus of variations to approximate the solution. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is the study or examination of a phenomenon using FEM.


    John Swanson established Ansys in 1970; in 1993, he sold a portion of the business to venture capitalists. In 1996, Ansys made its stock market debut on the NASDAQ. The corporation added new technology and a number of other engineering design firms in 2000 for the analysis of physical data, fluid dynamics, and electronic design. On December 23, 2019, it was admitted to the NASDAQ-100 index. Software for engineering simulation is produced and sold by Ansys for use at all stages of the product life cycle. Ansys The use of mechanical finite element analysis software allows for the examination of strength, toughness, elasticity, temperature distribution, electromagnetism, fluid flow, and other properties of computer models of structures, electronics, or machine components.Without evaluating products or conducting crash tests, Ansys is used to predict how a product would perform under certain

    channel girders and

    conditions. For instance, Ansys software can model how well a bridge will hold up after a year of use, the most efficient way to process salmon at a plant to minimise waste, or the safest way to design a slide without using any materials. One of the company's main products, Ansys Workbench, is used for the majority of Ansys simulations. Most Ansys users break down big structures into smaller parts that may be modelled and tested separately. The user can first specify the size of the object before adding mass, pressure, temperature, and other physical characteristics. The software Ansys simulates and analyses motion, fatigue, fracture, fluid flow, temperature distribution, and electromagnetic efficiency., and additional results over time. Ansys also creates software for academic research, education, and data management and backup. Ansys software is available through annual subscriptions.

    By integrating CAD connection modules, Ansys may be coupled with other desktop engineering programmes. FEAANSYS can import CAD data and also allow you to build geometry using its preprocessing features. The finite element model required for the computations is also produced and run in the same preprocessor when the analysis and graphical output are loaded. Using a range of contact methods, time-based load functions, and nonlinear material models, ANSYS is able to carry out sophisticated engineering analyses rapidly, safely, and practically.

    Ansys Workbench is a platform with unequalled automation and performance that combines simulation technologies and a parametric CAD system. The powerful ANSYS solver algorithm, which has years of experience, is what gives ANSYS Workbench its power. ANSYS Workbench also emphasises product validation and advancement in a virtual setting. The fidelity of the results is achieved by the wide variety of material models available, the excellence of the element library, the robustness of the solution algorithms, and the ability to model every problem from a single component to very complex assemblies with hundreds of components interacting through contacts or relative movements. All designers and researchers can benefit from ANSYS software.ELEMENT TYPE


    For the investigation of thin to medium-thick shell

    structures, SHELL181 is appropriate. It is a four-node element with rotation around the x, y, and z axes and displacement in the x, y, and z directions as its six degrees of freedom in each node. The element only has translational degrees of freedom when the diaphragm option is selected. When creating the mesh, the degenerate triangle alternatives should only be used as fill elements. Applications requiring linear, high-speed, or non-linear high voltage can benefit from the SHELL181. The non-linear analyses account for the variation in shell thickness. The element domain supports both full and partial integration techniques. The following effects (load stiffness) of dispersed pressures are considered by SHELL181.

    Layered uses of SHELL181 can be used to simulate composite shells or sandwich structures. First-order shear strain theory, often known as Mindlin-Reissner shell theory, governs the accuracy of modelling composite shells. Based on actual stress and logarithmic strain measurements, the element formulation Finite membrane stresses (extension) are possible due to the kinematics of the elements. While the curvature may change during the increment, it is thought to be minimal. The geometry, node positions, and feature coordinate system for this feature are displayed in the following figure. The shell's cross section in the formation and its four nodes (I, J, K, and L) define the element.


    For consideration, the article "Flexural Behaviour of Layered Unequal Pairs of Gutter Beams with Different Interface Connections in Corner Modular Steel Buildings" is presented. The three layered beams that were the subject of this article were the LB-C, the LB-C-4B, and the LB-8B. A channel beam called LB-C has straightforward interfacial contact interactions. The failure mechanism of laminated beams is significantly influenced by the stiffness of the interplane connection between floor and ceiling beams, according to the journal. For validation, ANSYS WORKBENCH is utilised. Test of compressive strength.


    Meshing is considered the most important part of any computer simulation; as it may show significant changes in the results obtained. Meshing means creating some grid points called

    "nodes". This is done using various tools and options available in the software. The pattern and relative location of the nodes

    m m 3




    also affects the solution, 25 computational efficiency and time. 3 1 2



    This is why good meshing is very important for sound computer 0 0 4

    simulation to give good results. m m

    A rectangular mesh was made in the model. The total number 3 1 2

    7 5 .

    of nodes is 1141 and the total number of elements is 1002. 5 0 5

    m m

    m m

    Boundary condition

    The boundary condition is that one end is a hinged support and the other end is a roller support, a fixed support along the bottom and the load is given from the top edge. The displacement is provided in the Y direction.

    AnalysisNon-linearanalysis iscarriedoutintheselectedbeamunder twopointloading.


    In the publication, the analytical model's findings are contrasted with those from the experimental model. The study produces a load deformation curve that is shown. The load- deformation curves of the analysed model and the experimental model are shown in Figure 5.7. Table 5.6 displays the displacement load values obtained from the Ansys analysis. It was discovered that the maximum load was 234 kN.


    DifferentmodelsarecreatedandanalysedinANSYS.Channelsectio nsareusedforparametric study. The webs dimensioning of channel sections are considered. For this, fivemodelsarepreparedandtheresults obtainedarecompared


    ANSYSWorkbenchisusedforthemodeling.Followingarethe fivemodels


    Theboundaryconditionisbothendhinged.Theloadingisgivenfromth etopedge.Theboundaryconditionofall the modelsare


    B R E A D T H(





    We analyse each of the five models separately. We obtain comparable stress diagrams and the associated strain diagrams. Figures 5.12 to 5.16 display the strain

    and equivalent stress diagrams for the models.




    m m




    m m


    . 1




    m m




    m m


    . 2












    All five models are analyzed and their behavior under load deflection is studied. From this, we have to choose the optimal model with a higher load capacity. The carrying capacity is a symmetrical wave. Load capacity increases with increasing aspect ratio. But the stress values are out of order. According to stress failure theory, lower stress is better.

    Section c with an aspect ratio of 2.5 shows the smallest stress value with 337.71 kn. The difference in stress between the cross-section with aspect ratio

    2.1 and 2.3 is minimal, but a large difference in stress is obtained for the cross-section with aspect ratio 2.2 and 2.5. Also section c with an aspect ratio of 2.2 has a higher stress value of 357.12 kn. Therefore, section c with an aspect ratio of 2.5 is the optimal model.


    In ANSYS, many models are developed and examined. Different web opening diameters for channel sections are taken into consideration. Four models are created for this, and the outcomes are compared.

    The four various models are all examined as a result. It is possible to acquire the resulting strain diagrams and equivalent stress diagrams. Figures 5.21 to 5.28 illustrate diagrams of strain and equivalent stress of web openings with diameters of 197.37mm and 201.24mm and two holes and four holes, respectively.


    ModelsarecreatedandanalysedinANSYS.Differentcorrugationsof channelsectionsareconsidered.For this,twomodels are preparedand the resultsobtainedare compared


    ANSYSwasusedtodevelopFEMstoanalyseCsectionwithcorrugation. Csectionareprovidedwith two types ofcorrugation.

    1. Sinusoidalcorrugationwitp0mmradius

    2. Trapezoidalcorrugationwitp0mmradius Results

    Sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated beam sare analysed. The resultant deformation diagram sand equivalen tstress diagrams are obtained.The deformation and equivalent stress diagrams of the corrugated beams are shown in figures below


    Different lengths of channel sections are arranged to compare the bending performance. Development and analysis of five models. The results are contrasting. The following is an analysis of the channel section, including openings and corrugations. For this, two models with different corrugations and four models with different diameters are produced and tested. The obtained load and deflection values of the models are then compared.

    The conclusions are as follows:

    As the aspect ratio of the beam web increases, so does the load capacity.

    Section C with a higher aspect ratio has a lower voltage value.

    Compared to C-sections with lower aspect ratios, larger- proportion C-sections exhibit greater bending performance.

  • As the diameter of the C-profile web opening decreases, the load-bearing capacity increases.

  • A buckling study shows that C-profiles with small web hole diameters are more susceptible to buckling loads. When the beam web is corrugated, sinusoidal corrugated beams can support more weight than trapezoidal corrugated beams.

  • Compared to corrugated web beams, C-profiles with holes in the webs have a greater potential to absorb energy and carry a range of loads.


(Journal Papers)

  1. Jiaopeng Fang, Lingyu Zhou (2023), "Experimental Study on Flexural Behavior of Modular Precast Concrete Channel Beams with Dry Joints", Journal of buildingEngineering, Vol. 68, No. 9, pp.


  2. Feng Wei Shi, Yang Ding (2023), Axial mechanical behavior of an innovative inter-module connection for modular steel structures, Journal of building engg, vol. 65, No. 7, pp. 357- 362.

  3. Bo Xua, RenweiMaa, LihaiZhangd (2022), Investigation on Interface Slip Response of Laminated Channel Beams with Bolted Connections in Modular Steel Buildings, Journal ofbuilding Engineering, Vol. 63, No. 12, pp. 260-287.

  4. Si Yuan Zhai, Yi Fan Lyu, Ke Cao (2022), Seismic Behavior of Innovative Double Hole Bolted Connection for Modular Steel Buildings, Engineering Structures, Vol. 279, No. 8, pp. 160-178

5.M.Farajian,P.Sharafi(2022),Effectsofboltedconnectionsprop ertiesonnaturaldynamic characteristics of corner-supported modular steel buildings, Engineering Structures,Vol.45, No. 9, pp. 198-212

  1. Bo Xu, Junwa Xia, Hongfei Chang (2022), Evaluation of superimposed bending behaviourof laminated channel beams in modular steel buildings subjected to lateral load, Thin WalledStructures,Vol. 175, No.8, pp. 231-251.

  2. Chau Yang, Hao Chen, Jinping Ou(2022), Experimental study on seismic performance ofmodularsteelconstructionbeam-to- beamcombinedsidecolumnjointwithblindboltedconnection,Thi nWalledStructures , Vol.66, No.12, pp. 249-260.

  3. T. Tafsirojjaman, AttiqUr Rahman Dogar (2022), Performance and design of steelstructuresreinforced with FRP composites, Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol. 138, No. 23,pp. 167-198

  4. Bo Xua, RenweiMaa, LihaiZhangd (2021), A comprehensive experimental- numericalinvestigationonthebendingresponseoflaminateddoubl echannelbeamsinmodularbuildings, EngineeringStructures, Vol.200, No. 3, pp. 145-156.

  5. Bo Xua, RenweiMaa, LihaiZhangd (2021), Experimental and numericalinvestigationonthelateralforceresistanceofmodularst eelsub-frameswithlaminateddoublebeam,Journalof buildingengg , Vol. 46, No.9, pp. 312-333

11.JiahaoPeng,ChaoHou(2021),Numericalanalysisofcorner- supportedcompositemodular buildings under wind actions, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 187, No.12, pp.256-289.

12.MAlembagheri,P.Sharafi(2020),Collapsecapacityofmodularste elbuildingssubjectto module loss scenarios: The role of inter- module connections, Engineeting Structures, Vol.210,No. 24, pp. 190-230

  1. JiewenHou, Xiaodum Wang (2020), Study on the stability bearing capacity of multi- columnwallinmodularsteelbuilding,EngineeringStructures,Vol.21 4,No.32,pp.198-230.

  2. PerampalamGatheeshgar, KeerthanPoolaganathana (2020), Optimised cold-formedsteel beams in modular building applications, Journal ofbuilding engg, Vol. 32, No. 7, pp.357-362.

  3. Samadhan G. Morkhade, Laxmikant M. Gupta (2019), An experimental and parametricstudy on steel beams with web openings, Case Studies in Structural Engineering, Vol. 7, No.12, pp.249-260.

  4. Bo Xu, Junwa Xia (2019), Flexural behaviour of pairs of laminated unequal channelbeams with different interfacial connections in corner-supported modular steel buildings, Thinwalledstructures, Vol. 154, No.2, pp. 145-160