Flexible Congestion Control Routing Protocol

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV4IS27017

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Flexible Congestion Control Routing Protocol

Puja Sarda,

MSc. (I.T) Final Year Student, Jain Univeristy,

Bangalore -69, India

Prof. Hari Priya,

Assistant Professor, MSc. (I.T) Department, Jain Univeristy,

Bangalore -69, India

Abstract – In Mobile Ad hoc Networks blockage happens because of substantial load on system which causes the bundle misfortune. In this paper, we are utilizing versatile steering with clogging control strategy for portable impromptu systems. In this procedure prescient blockage file of a hub is utilized. As we expand the quantity of associations there will be increment in limit of hubs to associate with more quantities of asked for hubs in a given area. As the necessity of all hubs will satisfy, there will be no deferral and no blockage so no clogging will be happen. We have actualize this method utilizing AODV steering convention with expanded length of Gate Size of hubs to evade blockage in Ad hoc Networks. By re-enactment results, we have demonstrated that our proposed method achieves high conveyance proportion and superior, low control overhead and diminished postponement with relative rate when contrasted and the current AODV convention. Execution of the proposed convention is executed on OMNET++ Simulator

Keywords – AODV Routing Protocol, Flexible Congestion Control Routing Protocol, OmNet++, Gate Size.



      Mobile Ad-hoc system is a gathering of remote versatile hubs rapidly shaping a provisional system without the utilization of any current system base or concentrated organization. The hubs are allowed to move haphazardly and arrange themselves self-assertively. As opposed to base remote system, which uses base station to oversee hubs in its region, MANET does not oblige any altered framework. Therefore, the system's remote topology may change quickly and capriciously. Such a system may be associated with web. Hubs in multi bounce MANET help one another to forward bundles from jump to jump such that two hubs that can't hear one another can transmit information to one another. Thusly, the integration of a MANET is incredibly upgraded.


      Ad hoc networks have several salient characteristics:

      1. Infrastructure Less, Decentralized Operation

        Not at all like a settled remote system, are Wireless Ad hoc systems portrayed by the absence of framework that is self-arranging and self-overseeing systems.

      2. Mobility

        Portability reasons incessant change in system topology, Nodes in a Mobile Ad hoc systems are allowed to move and sorting out themselves in a self-assertive design. Every client is allowed to meander while corresponding with others.

      3. Power-Constrained Operation

        Since hubs can be versatile, they need to depend on battery power, which is a constrained asset.

      4. Heterogeneity

        Every hub may have diverse capacities. At times, to have the capacity to join with a framework based system (to frame a half and half system), a few hubs can speak with more than one sort of system.

      5. Link Asymmetry

        In a remote domain, correspondence between two hubs may not work similarly well in both bearings. As such, regardless of the possibility that hub n is inside the transmission scope of hub m, the opposite may not be valid.

      6. Multi-Hop Routing

        A hub may need to join with a far off hub that is out of its transmission range. The way between every pair of clients may have different connections can be heterogeneous. Since every hub in impromptu systems can course activity for the others, multi-jumping is conceivable.


      Dynamic topology: The hubs are portable and henceforth the system is self-sorting out. Due to this, the topology of the system continues changing after some time. Subsequently, the steering conventions intended for such systems should likewise be versatile to the topology changes.

      1. Addressing Scheme

        The system topology continues changing powerfully and henceforth the tending to plan utilized is very huge. A dynamic system topology obliges a pervasive tending to plan, which stays away from any copy addresses. In remote WAN situations, Mobile IP is being utilized.

      2. Mobility

        The versatility of hubs results in regular way brakes, bundle impacts, transient circles and trouble in asset reservation. A decent directing convention ought to have the capacity to effectively fathom all the above issues.

      3. Security and Privacy

        The directing convention in specially appointed remote systems must be strong to dangers and vulnerabilities. Security in an impromptu system is greatly essential in situations, for example, a combat zone.

      4. Congestion

        In these systems, blockage happens in any middle hub when information bundles head out from source to destination and they bring about high bundle misfortune and long postpone, which cause the execution debasements of a system.


    When the requirements become greater than the capability of the communication link particularly multiple hosts attempting to access a shared media, congestion occurs in the network at any intermediate node when data packets travel from source to destination and they incur high packet loss and long delay, which cause the performance degradations of a network. Congestion may also be caused during the following conditions.

    • When the load in the link goes beyond the carrying capacity.

    • When the broadcasting packets are surplus in nature

    • When more number of packets field has becomes time out and retransmitted.

    • When the number of node increases.


    The fundamental target of clogging control is to breaking point the postponement and cushion flood created by system blockage and give better execution of the system. To keep up and assign system assets successfully and decently among an accumulation of clients is a real issue. The assets imparted for the most part are the data transfer capacity of the connections and the lines on the switches or switches. Bundles are lined in these lines anticipating transmission. At the point when an excess of bundles are fighting for the same connection, the line floods and parcels must be dropped. At the point when such drops get to be regular occasions, the system is said to be congested. In Ad-hoc systems, since there is no altered foundation there are no different system components called switches and thus the portable hubs themselves go about as the switches (i.e. they are in charge of directing the bundles).

    Blockage control systems can be switch driven or host/ hub driven. In existing clogging control strategies, the source is educated about the blockage in the system so that

    possibly it may ease off the parcel transmission rate or locate a backup course of action which may not so much be an ideal course


    Ad-hoc Impromptu systems are described by a need of foundation, and by an arbitrary and rapidly shifting system topology; consequently the requirement for a powerful element steering convention that can oblige such a situation. Presentation correlation between two steering calculations, AODV, from the quick family and DSDV, from the proactive crew. Both conventions were recreated utilizing the ns-2 and were looked at regarding normal throughput, parcel misfortune proportion, and steering overhead, while alterable number of hubs, speed and delay time. Re-enactment uncovered that despite the fact that DSDV totally scales to little systems with low hub speeds, AODV is supported because of its more proficient utilization of data transfer capacity.

    In wire line systems, clogging control is executed at the vehicle layer and is frequently composed independently from elements of different layers. Nonetheless, these outcomes don't make a difference straightforwardly to Ad hoc systems on the grounds that the Ad hoc systems bring about vast measure of bundle misfortune, high postpone, unreasonable situations and low throughputs. In Ad hoc systems, every versatile hub has restricted transmission limit and support and they for the most part intercommunicate by multi-jump transfer. The arbitrary conduct of Ad-hoc systems cause the topology of remote system to be changed quickly and capriciously. Therefore, customary blockage control component, connected by the Transport Control Protocol (TCP) is not able to make up for lost time the system progress of impromptu systems.

    In case of ad hoc networks packet losses are due to congestion in the network and due to frequent link failures or the instance of a timeout, backing-off its Retransmission Timeout (RTO). This outcomes in pointless lessening of transmission rate on account of which throughput of the entire system corrupts. On-interest Steering Protocols, for example, AODV is utilized for this execution investigation. This kind of steering convention makes courses just when asked for by a source hub. At the point when a hub needs to create a course to a destination, it launches a course revelation transform inside the system. When the course has been secured, it is kept up until either destination gets to be distant or the course is no more wanted. We will dissect the execution of on-interest steering conventions for specially appointed systems, name Ad Hoc On-interest Separation Vector (AODV) steering convention with proposed adaptable blockage control directing convention in light of movement streams.


    There is an agent based congestion control technique for MANETs. They have used agent based congestion control technique in which the information about network congestion is collected and distributed by Mobile Agents

    (MA). With support of Mobile Agents, the nodes can get dynamic network topology in time. By simulation result they have shown their proposed technique attained high delivery ratio and throughput with reduced delay when compared with different existing techniques.

    A congestion adaptive multi path routing protocol for load balancing in MANET. Their protocol assists in avoiding congestion control with the reactive route discovery technique, where the multiple paths are established using multi path Dijkstra algorithm. When any node detects congestion has occurred, it intimates source with Congestion Notice (CN) message. By Simulation results they have shown that their proposed approach alleviates the network congestion.

    The Congestion Free Routing in Ad-hoc networks (CFR), based on dynamically estimated mechanism to monitor network congestion by calculating the average queue length at the node level. They have used a novel way called the dynamic congestion estimation technique, which analysed the traffic fluctuation and categorized the congestion perfectly. After estimating the congestion status at the node level along a path, the CFR controls the congestion by alternative path. By simulation they have shown that CFR mechanism outperforms the AODV in terms of decreasing End to End delay, reduced routing overhead and increased packet delivery ratio.


    Congestion adaptive routing has been examined in several studies. Estimating the level of the intermediate nodes using load or delay measurement, is the common approach. The favourable path is established based upon the collected information, which helps in avoiding the existing and developing congested nodes. The performance of routing protocols is affected by the service type of the traffic carried by the intermediate nodes. But no research has stated this so far. Before presenting themselves as aspirant to route traffic to the destination, the MANETs do not take the status of the load on network into account, for the route discovery process. AODV is a reactive and stateless protocol that establishes routes only as desired by a source node using route request (RREQ) and route reply (RREP) messages. Because of the newly arriving traffic face packet loss, long delays, and fail to transmit packets to the already queuing traffic. The mobile ad hoc networks performance degrades due to the congestion problem. A routing algorithm and a flow control scheme, includes the congestion control scheme can enhanced performance and give better solution to the problem of congestion.


    1. Initialize the MANET module, having 20 random mobility nodes approximately.

    2. In this, we have implemented AODV routing approach, where Source node S wants to send a message to Destination node D, S searches its route table for a route to

      D. If there is no route, S initiates a RREQ message.

    3. The overhead packets in AODV are due to RREQ, RREP and RERR messages (which Create Congestion).

    4. Traffic Calculation:

    Active Phase: Movement of any mobile node < 50m (in range) to any neighbour node, Add the link into the routing table of every node within range and Increase the Gate Size by 1.

    At the beginning of session in state portable hubs (10,20,30,40,60,80,100). After instatement give pace to versatile hubs and invigorate interim. At that point development of portable hubs will be begin. In the wake of moving count of separation secured by every portable hub will be begin. Amid versatility, when a versatile hub comes in reach (within 50 meters) of the portable hub then entryway size will be expanded by 1 to make 1 jump extent connection. Gates are the information and yield interfaces of modules.


    1. Simulation Model and Parameters

      We have use OMNET++ Version 4.1 to simulate our proposed technique. OMNeT++ is an object-oriented modular discrete event simulator. In the simulation, mobile nodes move in 800 meter x 600 meter region. The number of nodes can be 10, 20, 40, and 50 according to need. Initial locations and movements of the nodes are obtained using random waypoint (RWP) model. It is assumed that each node moves independently with the same average speed.

      All nodes have same transmission range of 50 meters.

      The node speed is 5 m/s.

    2. Performance Metrics

    In simulation the different types of scenarios are considered based upon traffic density. The proposed work involves the measurement of control overhead, relative speed, event density. In this paper a comparison between flexible congestion control routing protocol

    Table 1: Simulation Parameters

    No. of Nodes


    Area Size

    800 X 600



    Radio Range

    50 m

    Simulation Time

    50 sec

    Routing Protocol


    Mobility Model

    Random Way Point


    5 m/s

    Simulation Run

    1100 Events

    1. Performance: Events processed per second

    2. Relative Speed: Simulated seconds processed per second

    3. Event Density: Events per Simulated Seconds

    4. Control Overhead: ratio of the control information sent to the actual data

    The results show the Performance of Flexible Congestion control routing in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks.

    The Performance of this routing protocol is improving as the session going on one after another. (Session 1=1100Events). The same improvement is going on in case of Relative Speed and Event Density. When no. of nodes is increasing we can say that the traffic is increasing.


    The principle reason for this paper, to keep away from blockage in Mobile Ad-hoc systems. In this paper we examine how the proposed procedure influence the high conveyance proportion and superior and lessened deferral with relative speed and low control overhead when contrasted and the current AODV convention. As per the Performance of Predictive Congestion control and Flexible AODV Routing in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks the conclusion is: as the session going on in a steady progression, we are expanding the no of hubs in the event of Performance, Relative Speed and Event Density. It implies we are expanding the message overhead and activity too however our new convention, is taking less time in each of the three cases.


In future work, we can likewise include the vitality parameter, for example, the amount of vitality is devoured by proposed convention when it expands the entryway size furthermore we can figure the control overhead means number of course demand or course answer bundle can be taken care of by the proposed convention. Topology control in impromptu systems is the issue of modifying the transmission power at system hubs to attain to the ideal topology that expands system execution. A few related works have demonstrated that the ideal throughput every unit vitality execution can be attained to when the system topology is negligibly joined.


This research paper is made possible through the help and support from my parents, teachers and my friends. Especially please allow me to dedicate my acknowledgment of gratitude to thank Prof.Hari Priya V for her encouragement.


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