Exclusion and Inclusion: Regenerating The Inner City in Dessau, Germany

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV2IS70774

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Exclusion and Inclusion: Regenerating The Inner City in Dessau, Germany

Zishan Fuad Choudhury Lecturer, Dept. of Architecture

Ahsanullah University of Science & Technology Dhaka, Bangladesh


Over the past 100 years Dessau has changed radically due to industrialization, war damage, socialist reconstruction and unoccupied buildings, which result from the shrinking of the city. Two third of the city were destroyed beyond recognition. Many historical buildings were ruined. The situation arose with the fact from the consequence with the effect of former GDR style and subsequent radical changes in all sphere of the society. This upheaval was accompanied by a loss of identity. The beginning of deindustrialization in the city caused mass unemployment and a devaluation of the city. The proposals/scenarios to overcome the situation comes up with the fact that architecture and city planning influence each other and are mutually dependent, much concern with organic and functional. These various elements should tied together and give it a historical legitimization, tracing its root back to the tradition of medieval, renaissance and baroque architecture and to the nineteenth century technological development. The proposed scenario is intended to realize the objective potentials of the domains from their esortic forms.

Keywords: Post Industrialization, Shrinking city, Dessau, GDR Style, City Palace, Concept

  1. Introduction.

    In recent decades, cities in East- Central Europe have been evolved through serious transition, trying to grab the modernization through contemporary structures and build form. Urban changes are therefore to cope with the continuous growth in terms of population, economic stability, commercial activities, infrastructure and amenities. In this vein post socialist urban development had been assigned to the special case category and was considered to be hardly comparable with the rest of the Europe.1 Researchers have been made so far on capital cities that show the image of the above criteria and development analysis, whereas other pathways remain out of the sight. This is true for the second order cities, where the development curves are declining. They are featured by demographic loss, inner city migration, fall of birth rate and demographic changes towards the senior citizens. Research has shown that 40% of the all European cities with more than 2, 00,000 people are as shrinking or losing

    1 Urban Shrinkage in East Central Europe? Benefits and limits of a Cross-National Transfer of Research Approaches. By Katrin GRO MANN, Annegret HASSE, Dieter RINK, Annett STEINFÃœHRER

    population for over short-medium or long term period. (Turok and Mykhnenko 2007)

    Urban shrinkage in East German context is often refers to post reunification of the two states, population loses due to migration to the west Germany, sub urbanization and negative population growth. This transformation has change the face of the Europe in an upheaval manner. The Bauhaus City Dessau is not out of this system. Once a promising city, Dessau has changed radically due to industrialization, war damage, socialist reconstruction and unoccupied buildings, which result from the shrinking of the city. The urbanization process in city Dessau during the industrialization process has led to the integration of several historical cores. Massive destruction during the war, wiping off the historical significant land masses and depletion of population since 1990 led the city became a question of identity and become too big for the number of its inhabitants. The starting point of this upheaval event is due to the rise of GDR styles in 1989/90 and radical changes in all sphere of the society. Even this city lacks a proper town center which can hold its true form!

    In the cont. paper, a research has taken through historical context, carefully analysis the changes in the city that has transformed today and finally proposes scenarios that can regain its identity and get an insight of urban intervention where the city might get out from the circle of shrinkage.

  2. The Stadt (city) Dessau

    Also termed as a Bauhaus city, Dessau is located on the junctions of river Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland of Saxony Anhalt2. The city is situated on a flood plain where the Mulde water floods Elbe. The south of Dessau touches magnificent woodland called

    Mosigkauer Heide. The whole city is surrounded by numerous parks and vegetation and bear a name of a green land of the region.

    Historically Dessau was first mentioned in 1213. The city became an important center in 1570 when the principality of Anhalt was born. Dessau became the capital of the state during the Holy Roman Empire. But Anhalt dissolved in less than two generations and Dessau became a prosperous town. That time Dessau

    2 Saxony-Anhalt is a landlocked state of Germany. Its capital is Magdeburg and it is surrounded by the German states ofLower Saxony, Brandenburg, Saxony, and Thuringia.Saxony-Anhalt covers an area of 20,447.7 square kilometres (7,894.9 sq mi). It has a population of 2.34 million (more than 2.8 million in 1990).

    (www. Wikipedia.org)

    became the capital of the mini state of Anhalt Dessau. Moving ahead of 300 years, Hugo Junkers, a prominent resident in Dessau, first built an airplane made of metal. (Before the invention of metal, the airplanes were made of wood and canvas.)

    That time Junkers & Company was the biggest airline industries in Europe. When the war breaks in, Dessau became one of the main targets of the enemy forces. Throughout the war, the city was damaged beyond recognition. Once a renowned cultural city, the historical promenades were stampede by the war machines.

    Afterwards the city was rebuilt with typical East German DDR slab architecture and became a major industrial hub of the East German state. After the unification, the process of industrialization gets its brand in the west, and people started to move from east to the west which results the shrinkage face of the city.

    However the shrinkage face of the population depletion not only suffered in Dessau but also victimized the other East German states.

    (Note: The city introduction is derived from the office report of Wallraf and Partner- Stadt und Regionalforschung, Stadtplanung und Wohnungswirtschaftliche Beratung, Dessau Germany.)

  3. The Formation & the Shrinkage- A global context

    The formation of shrinkage is the process of urban transformation. Within the context of developed countries, in the past decades some cities and also in present many cities are having experiences through this brunt process. The essential causes so far has been identified due to suburbanization, deindustrialization, post socialist context or the demographic shrinkage. For better understanding, exemplary urban regions can be selected for all these process. To be fairer, Dessau is one of the prominent cities which undergo through the surgeries of formation and the process especially after the World War II.

    From the past decades cities were developed in to uneven, even in the same developed countries or in the 3rd world cities. From a global perspective growth process has been dominated so far. As the uneven distribution of resources occurred, the cities has faced serious population shrinkage and in some context cities become too large for the number of inhabitants. People started to move due to the suburbanization or the deindustrialization and the center became a barren land for the emerging waste lands. The Japanese city of

    Hakodate, the Est German city of Halle and Leipzig3 has seen serious demographic changes in the past few decades, Detroit city in USA is one of the examples due to the suburbanization, and the textile region of Ivanovo (Russian Federation) is another example of shrinkage due to post socialist change.

    The revolving cases occur in many East German cities. Like in Halle-leipzig or even in Bitterfeld/wolfen, Dessau also beards the fate of industry closure. The city is suffering from a vacancy rate due to the deindustrialization and a significant decline of birth rates. In the field of residential areas the city loses significant number of young duelers and in contrast increases the number of senior citizens. There is a contradictory perception of the citys social development within the citys political bodies.

  4. Dessau- City History

    The city area was considered to be a historical core of todays Dessau. In the 12th century, the city was planned by building city gates over the river Mulde which that time considered as an important route for the trades. Dessau was a typical city with a typical central market square, town hall and church. With its curved multiple edges of rich spaces, the multiple room situations and a rhythm of divisiveness, Dessau had a strong side street leadership in a form of central urban ajar.

    Before the dawn of industrialization, the urban life and functions were centralized towards the princes and the kingdoms of Anhalt. For centuries Dessau was the center of administrative and cultural center of the country. This feature formed the cornerstone of local traditions, followed by trade and agricultural production. The northern part of the city of east entrance belongs to the historic village core of Dessau. The planned presentation of the 16th century still clearly shows the defense mechanism of the medieval core to the city. Although after the war, major part of city was the part of destruction and chaos, but the medieval part of the city is still existed in more intact way. It is a precious historical heritage therefore its preservation in any new programs on the city has to respect. From 1530 onwards, the renaissance castle, which in its earlier form was one of the pearls of Elbe Renaissance, was an important feature for an

    3 In spite of enormous problems, not least in its eastern districts and the Grünau estate, Leipzig is seen as a winner of German unification. The city has managed to maintain the high status of its Trade Fair; and even the Book Fair has stood up well to its competitor in Frankfurt. In 2003, Leipzig succeeded in its bid to become Germanys candidate for the Olympic Games in 2012.

    ( source: http://www.shrinkingcities.com/halle_leipzig.0.html?&L=1)

    imagination of a city. Between the castle and river, a park was laid in a strictly geometrical form. At the beginning, the tier garden4 on the right side was clearly divided by avenues and later emerged in a slowly conversion landscape module.

    From the 16th century there were clearly no detailed views of the magnificent castle with the surround park. Only on the fringes of the map shows the city palace.

    The existing drawings from the 19th century of the castle johannbau and its surrounding were apparently the depictions copied from older sources. The drawing by Rudolf Beck (1811-1892) showed the garden with the castle in the background from the northeast perspective, embedded in a thick riverside meadow along the river Mulde. The north wing of the castle is inconspicuous, and thus represented the view a free courtyard.

    This courtyard was operated and maintained conversational social contacts of various kinds.

    In the 18th century the city structure had changed radically. The activities surrounds the garden was not concentrated anymore in one space. The plan from the 1834 shows the new baroque city axis that affects north-south direction to the west edge of the old town center. The museum intersection was fully inserted towards the Askanische Street. Through the city expansion, the Askanische Street no longer becomes the south edge of the city. Rather it became an integral part of stamped structural forms with the cavalier street. This connected structures preserved the city structure to one another and to the core foundation of the city. Along the cavalier street, several other historical monuments including a theater, cultural and education

    4 Tier Garden- Animal garden (a hunting place for kings and dukes)

    inst. have also erected. The focal point of municipal life shifted itself of the medieval stamped old town to the baroque city.

  5. Dessau Garden Kingdom

    Gartenreich- Dessau garden kingdom is an exceptional example of landscape design and planning of the age of enlightenment in the 18th century. Though the city has long lost histories of cultures and traditions, the philosophical principles of the age of the enlightenment to the design of a landscape merged with the principles of city and the palace and integrates with art, education and economy as a harmonious whole.

    Two hundred years ago, Prince Leopold III Friedrich Franz5 from Anhalt-Dessau realized his vision of a society based on a prospering economy, inspired by the spirit of the Enlightenment and the notions of social security, humanism and peace.

    The interplay of landscape gardening and architecture with a comprehensive economic, educational and social reform in accordance with the idea of linking the beautiful with the useful has seldom been so consistently striven for by a state as it was here. And nowhere has it been realized on such as scale as in Anhalt-Dessau at the time of Prince Franz.

    Developments during the last ten years had often been characterized by conflicts between people involved in


    5 German hereditary Prince (he reigned over his Principality from 1758, and from 1807 as Herzog (Duke) from Anhalt-Dessau), he was a patron of architecture and, more importantly, of landscape- architecture. The Anglophile Prince, in 17634, 17689, 1775, and 1785, spent about two and a half years altogether in England, and in 1764 began work to transform a total area of 300 square kilometres of meadow-land along the banks of the River Elbe into a Gartenreich (Garden Kingdom) to evoke the England he so admired by means of landscapes, gardens, and fabriques. (www.answers.com/topic/leopold-iii-friedrich-franz-f-rst-prince-von- anhalt-dessau)

    protecting historical monuments and those engaged in promoting economic development. On this basis of promoting the light of enlightenment, the Dessau Wörlitz Garden Realm become a model, 200 years after it came into being, for a future-oriented society with a holistic orientation.

  6. The Dessau Wörlitz Garden Realm: an example of Enlightenment

    The Dessau Wörlitz Garden Realm was the first large land beautification project on the Continent that aimed at cultivating an entire countryside along the lines of the English ornamented farm. The achievement of the historical significance of the garden kingdom was the economic backwardness of fragmented Germany, which was in a state of deep crisis after fighting the Seven Years War (1756-1763). In England the middle- class forces had already stripped the feudal aristocracy of power after the revolution which has began in 1640.

    In the German territories the restorative forces of feudal absolutism still held their positions of power. Inclined to symbolism, the garden art of the baroque period or even in greater degree of the rococo6 were in many ways didactic. But in Dessau, landscape design did not proceed from them. In accordance with its motto linking the beautiful with the useful, it approached the utilitarian objectives of the philosophy of the Enlightenment. In this fashion, Dessau allowed bourgeois culture to take on a convincing form for the first time, thus propagating enlightened thought within its own region as well as among the countless receptive visitors who spreadit from here throughout Europe.

    The enlightened reforms which the Prince Leopold Friedrich Franz attempted to plant a seed of fruit – a ray of hope lighted in the midst of a dull feudal society in the German provinces. The ambitious reform plans of the Prince were influenced by his passion for England, for bourgeois culture and garden art as well as for economics and technology. It was a reformation inspired by enlightened absolutism and based on a prosperous economy which had been practiced by the predecessors of Prince Franz. Particularly the cultural aspects of his reformatory measures set them clearly apart from Anhalts neighbors – the state of Prussia and a number of other small German states.

    Signs of the proto-industrial, of the age of capitalism could be identified in Anhalt at the end of the 18th and

    6 Rococo less commonly roccoco, also referred to as "Late Baroque", is an 18th-century artistic movement and style, which affected several aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music and theatre.

    beginning of the 19th centuries, esp. due to its close ties with England. After all, the Prince had brought many ideas and economic innovations back from his travels to England, for example new agricultural methods as well as artistic and architectural impulses. Among these were the beginnings of industrially influenced economic methods which were then artistically molded and politically asserted.

    There is a tendency to neglect the fact that modernism and the development of the city towards the city life is inherently also a utopia of prosperity and emancipation and, for this reason, it is not fitting to the concept of

    garden kingdom. Modernism in this sense consistently follows the path set by the Enlightenment. However, with the industrialization in this century, the industrial modernism aims to free the individual from cultural and natural bonds direct itself against its own sources. With the rising consumption of resources, growing inefficiency and the reaching of ecological limits in the region, industry itself is becoming history as this century draws to a close. The major processes of deindustrialization in the nineties are an expression of this new development. As historical remains with all their inherent contradictions, the Garden Realm and renewal of the city are becoming the foundation of a living environment which needs to be redesigned.

  7. GDR invasion

    Focus on the subject of the city marks the beginning of a process of self-reflection by the Bauhaus and its claim to once again be an institution of intervention in social processes and space. Radical changes were made prior to 1989: the slab structure of Soviet model and other Eastern countries came to symbolize these transformations. The Bauhaus was responding to an issue of central social significance at the right time. The cities of the GDR provided insights into the structures of policies which had obviously failed. The plans of the GDR leadership to solve the social housing problem by mass producing apartments not only led to the cultural and physical ruin of the city, but also placed intolerable strains on the national economy. The visions of a socialist city had fallen victim to political will and ruthless pragmatism.

    Dessau is into the ongoing transformation of former GDR styles not only because the Bauhaus activities towards the revival the city from its shrinking state but also due to the fact that Dessau displayed a large number of typical features and conflicts of the concept of garden realm and the ideology of the enlightenment with the modernist movements of the city.

    The followings can be summarized as a typical feature of the city:

    • GDR slab architecture, mass production destroyed city image.

    • The center, destroyed in the war and redeveloped with scattered large blocks, had lost its identity;

    • sprawling development of the periphery (mainly large prefabricated residential units);

    • Inner-city wastelands;

    • Decay of residential areas dating from pre-war times;

    • Large-scale transportation structures;

    • Population migration;

    • Unoccupied apartments.

  8. City Palace and surrounds current structural situation

    At a glance, the city marks a visible emptiness in a certain way. Methodically, the green and the surround palace present itself as a transportation hub with the access of heavy traffic system. The traffic on the highway, bicycles with already separated bike lanes, pedestrians between Schlossplatz and the

    Tiergarten, are intermingling in the whole city structure. In particular the large car parking opposite to the palace dominated the city entrance image and interferes with the experience of entering the city significantly. The city palace (johaanbou) presents itself as a gathering place of historical remains mixed with mandated street furniture and urban technical equipments. (Trash, posters, signs, boards, transformers, light poles, traffic signs and so on.) The rear plantation highlighted some of the edges of the already destroyed historical structures. From the view point of the city palace, the palace has given a design indecisive. Partly paved with dirt floor, uneven plantation with remaining foundation, the palace suggested the territory of the remaining parts but not very consistent and hardly noticeable. The remaining walls of the palace lost in the hedges and the viewing of the true form stops for no apparent reason. The back of the castle, which deserves a better treatment of the entire city context, located in a less satisfactory condition. The backyard of the castle is not presentable. The backyard with technical equipment, garbage containers and shelves are adversely affected by the far-protruding extension of the former administration building of the Baukombinates. Directly in front of the town hall, the living quarters (build in 80s) occupies a significant part of the city castle. Apart from the wrong location of the quarters by the town hall, the best, they made are the industrial housings in Dessau.

    The surround city blocks are contrast to the adjacent of the residential blocks- which has the comfortable subsistence with quality. The moderate height of the

    blocks towards the courtyard gives a varied, yet structured closed city beginning.

    (Note: Existing city situation has derived from the office report of Wallraf and Partner- Stadt und Regionalforschung, Stadtplanung und Wohnungswirtschaftliche Beratung, Dessau Germany and writers field observation on site)

  9. Commercial, industrial and social infrastructure

    With the town hall center and business sub storage along the minor road, Kavalier street, Askanischen street, Ratsgasse, Zerbster street, Schloss platz and Friedrich-Naumann- street are considered as a territory of a high concentration of commercial and service facilities.

    Altogether 85 stores counted (outside the Town Hall Center). For the most part it is the fashion and textile shops, followed by electrical engineering / electronics as well as service providers and specialty shops (Fishing / hunting needs, Military, Russian and African specialties).

    Apart from the strongholds of the commercial activities, few stores remain empty. But those shops are always under constant renovation and relocation of small trading facilities. However, the share of transactions was high, with low cost and appropriate sales culture. The position of small traders and service providers is often precarious. This has been confirmed by random interviews. The permanent stabilization of the trading is still not established. Many expect a further deterioration of the environment and sales from time to time.

    If we see the demography of the city, the city has faced drastic declination of the population esp. the young generation. In the center of the urban area, data recorded in 204 that there were 10,000 inhabitants live in the center of the city.

    Compare to the year 1995, the loss of inhabitants were 27%, which is the alarming for any city.

    The significant change of the population was among the children and adolescents. The same data shows the age of youths in their teen years decreased by 49% to 1,060 people. With a total share of only 11% of total urban population is significantly lower than any other cities. The acquisition of generation decreased significantly by 41%. In the year 2004, people lived in the neighborhood for about 19,470, aged between 18 and 65 years. Also, the percentage of this age group is lower than the overall city figure.

    In contrast, the senior citizens increased by 30% since 1995 and in 2004 it were 38%, far above the average

    Dessau citizens. Today, the data recorded the number of senior citizens in the city are approximately 3,800.

  10. Population age structure and development in the city

    Data recorded on 31.10.2005 shows, the eastern entrance area in the city the number of inhabitants were 3,537. Compared to the year 2000, showed the declined of the population were about 340 inhabitants or the percentage of nine. These are the rough calculation of the loss of total urban population in the city but were significantly lower than in the middle of a whole neighborhood. The biggest loss of the declination of the population was in the north of the residential area and along the road of Askanischen Street and Kavalier Street. So far the largest population recorded in the smaller residential unit esp. around the Kantor street and the Raumer Street.

    The age of residents in the area is different from the average urban situation.

    • The proportion of young people (0-19 years) is at 13% in the citywide and also the average to the periphery.

    • Every fifth person is in the younger working age (19- 39 years), every third person in the advanced age (40-

      64 years). Both age groups are in 5-6% less well represented than in all of Dessau.

    • The ratio of elderly is 34% by 10 percentages higher than the citywide average, but not as high as in the entire center of town.

  11. Sustainability and development prospects:

    Proper location, structural orientation and rational function make the neighborhood more access to the people and attract youths to settle in the community. Balanced trade and service, administration and community housings and form of the center structure are crucial, whose future plays significantly for the overall urban development.

    Sustainability, spatial and functional stabilization of the city area is essential to ensure that it will succeeds in every run and strengthen the loose tissue in the center of Dessau and give clearer contours.

    The striking force of the site is the two big shopping malls (Rathaus center & Dessau center) which create a completion in the trade and commerce market.

    One aspect can be made based on the latest shopping mall construction (Dessau center), to create a cut throat

    job market in the expense of large and small trade business in the site of museum intersection where supply and demand flows. The Town hall has established as a center of the city and can be considered as sustainable. The small shop structures in the surround are largely compatible with the nature of offerings by the center but are highly unattractive to the citizens due to the lack of public space activities. A permanent stabilization can only succeed if the whole city center become more attractive with more commercial and non commercial activities and offers a scope of quality life environment for the citizens of Dessau and also for the outsiders.

    Efforts can be made to revitalize the two energy inefficient and unsustainable build structure to transform them by demolishing the existing ones in to sustainable, functional as well as a reflector of the city heritage from the past.

    In the interest of urbanity and vitality, but also with respect for the next generation, a social mix in the urban space should consider. This goal can be achieved through a greater variety of urban activities with functional space as well as addressing the historical aspect of cultures and tradition. The period of enlightenment with the garden kingdom concept and the idea of modernism should give priority for the development in the urban fabric. In addition the connection with the social spaces and the physical structure of the city is needed. The connection with the strong baroque axis with the medieval market square and the schlossplatz area with the town hall and its neighbors should be addressed in to the new concept. To follow these orders, the consideration of a creative space with the palace Johaanbau shouldnt be ignored. At the end the whole concept can be merged with the Mulde river waterfront development activities.

  12. The City analysis :

    The connection to the different points and dealing with the borders is very much crucial for the schlossplatz area.

    From the 1st figure, shows all the potential connections and can be considered in to design proposals.

    The 2nd figure shows, the creation of borders in different spaces. The borders between the baroque axis and the city park, the medieval square with the schlossplatz. Borders between the schlossplatz area and the city palace and last of all with the river should be considered.

  13. Concept/Proposal

    The proposal/scenario comes up with the fact that architecture and city planning influence each other and are mutually dependent, much concern with the organic and functional. These various elements should be tied together and give it a historical legitimization, tracing its roots back to the tradition of baroque architecture and to nineteenth century technological development. The proposed scenario is intended to realize the objective potentials of the domains from their esoteric forms. The concept of enlightenment will be utilized to accumulate of specialized culture for the enrichment of everyday life- which can be saying, for the rational organization of everyday social life. The concept will reflect the Bauhaus style where protagonists wanted to bridge the gap between the social idealism and the commercial reality and to promote a response to the technological culture.

    The concept would be to shape the shrinking process so that a new green area is formed and nature takes root in the town once more. In accordance with the basic cut and paste concept, two identified (energy inefficient/unsustainable) built structures in the schlossplatz area will be removed for the reshaping the future free zone in to more enlightening and functional build core. The foundation of the inner heart of the city will have the reflection to the other surround area so that the remaining urban core is made more dense, vital and attractive. Conversely, landscape modules will be introduced into the different zones, which allow a new picture of landscape to arise.

    To address the vision of proposing a new module of landscaping, the composition of the gardens in front of the castle is created as a shape of an original form. The circular shape with the pedestrian and garden linkage was the icons of the palace. But due to the facts of reason or no reason (which has addressed in the previous chapters) the module was destroyed. The idea is to revitalize the circular modeling concepts in a larger scale and in a new way by connecting with the free flow of pedestrian with a new and existing bike route networks throughout the city.

    All the ornamentation will be regarded as unacceptable, instead authenticity was required in the use of materials, and the constructional logic of the proposed buildings will be clearly visible. To reflect the idea that, it shouldnt look like a fortress (like in johaanbau) but rather it will reflect the life of historical significance with culture. The design principle should reflect life tha requires plenty of light and wants everything to be spacious and flexible. It will reflect the contemporary mentality that perceives all aspects in the society as interpenetrating. It will reflect of a combination in the use of materials and construction technologies and implemented the artistic discoveries of cubism, futurism and other similar movements. The interplay between these factors combined in a constructional and artistic way- which will open the awareness in the space, which the city has erased long time ago.

    The physical connections are made from the schlossplatz area to the Johaanbau and the castle front which is the core of activities. The activities include public plazas, with surround garden landscape and an amphitheater with light and sound show. The light and sound show will be dramatic zed of the historical context of Princes of Anhalts life style with the spirit of enlightenment.

    The opposite of the palace with the water front landscape gives a dramatic feature and amusement for the visitors. The water taxi route will be introduced to channel through the cities for the ease of accessibility.

    The medieval market square will connect with the baroque axis with the free flow of pedestrian movement without interruption and hence towards the city park.

    The network will be surrounded with detail flow of bike routes with sufficient bike parking.

    The whole network is oriented towards a pedestrian friendly as well as bike friendly with the small pieces of green zones. This is an integral network system where the movement is very much clear, defined and simplistic.

  14. Conclusion

    From the historical analysis the city Dessau had an identity of being itself as holding the traditions and cultures. Its true that the war shakes the whole structure of the city but it was the human and the error of the further planning that put the city in to this grave state. In this new proposal the intention was to address

    those issues and try to revive the city in its true senses. By analyzed the historical context of the prince and dukes the city needs to grow by following the principles of enlightenment and bind with the social bondless which the city loses a long time ago.

    The design principle should be carefully motivated in this manner by not destroying the image further but rather to restore its true form. Many models of proposals by addressing this issue can be also stated and need to handle it very carefully.

  15. Reference

  1. Bosselmann Peter, (2008); Urban Transformation: understanding City Form & Design (Island Press)

  2. Charlesworth Esther, (2005); city edge-case studies in contemporary urbanism (Routledge)

  3. Forman Richard T. T. (2008); Urban regions-ecology and planning beyond the city (Cambridge University Press)

  4. Heynen Hilde, (2000); Architecture and Modernity: A Critique (The MIT Press)

  5. Klemek Christopher (2011); The Transatlantic Collapse of Urban Renewal: Postwar Urbanism from NewYork to Berlin (University of Chicago Press)

  6. Prigge Walter, On the origins of Shrinkage- Shrinking cities Vol-1, Edited by Philipp Oswalt

  7. Rieniets Tim Global Shrinkage- Shrinking cities Vol-1,

    Edited by Philipp Oswalt

  8. Schmidt Rudi Peripherization: Eastern Germany-

    Shrinking cities Vol-1, Edited by Philipp Oswalt

  9. Wallraf & Partner, Office reports from Wallraf and Partner- Stadt und Regionalforschung, Stadtplanung und Wohnungswirtschaftliche Beratung, Dessau Germany

    Online reference

  10. www.bauhaus-dessau.de

  11. www.iba-stadtumbau.de

  12. www.gartenreich.com [13]http://www.pts.amu.edu.pl/en/pliki/menu/Grossmann_et_ al.pdf

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