Evolution Of 5g Technology And Potential Applications

DOI : 10.17577/NCRTCA-PID-070

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Evolution Of 5g Technology And Potential Applications

Evolution of 5G Technology and potential Applications

Ankita Sharma

Pg scholar Department of MCA

Dayananda Sagar College of engineering Bengaluru, Affiliated to VTU 1ds21mc017@dsce.edu.in

Dr. Srinivasan V Associate professor Department of MCA

Dayananda Sagar College of engineering Bengaluru, Affiliated to VTU


Abstract- The fifth-generation (5G) wireless communication technology has emerged as a groundbreaking development in the field of telecommunications, offering significant advancements over its predecessors. This research paper presents a comprehensive review of the evolution of 5G technology, from its initial conceptualization to its current state, and explores its potential applications across various sectors. The paper highlights the key technological advancement, standardization efforts, and infrastructure requirements that have shaped the evolution of 5G.[1] Furthermore, it discusses the potential impact of 5G on industries such as healthcare, transportation , manufacture ,smart cities, and entertainment. The findings from this research aim to provide a clear understanding of the transformative potential of 5G technology in shaping the future of communication and technology-driven ecosystems.

KEY CONCEPT: Evolution from 1G-5G, 5G Network Architecture, Need of 5G,Potential Applications.


    The evolution of 5G (fifth generation) technology has paved the way for a new era of connectivity and communication, promising to transform industries and revolutionize the way we live, work, and interact. With its significant advancements over previous generations, 5G technology offers unparalleled speed, capacity, and reliability, enabling a multitude of potential applications across various sectors. This research paper aims to explore the evolution of 5G technology and delve into its potential applications, shedding light on the transformative impact it can have on society.

    The rapid growth of mobile data traffic, coupled with the increasing demand for seamless connectivity, has driven the need for a next-generation wireless technology that can support massive data transfer, ultra-low latency, and a vast number of connected devices. In response to these challenges, 5G technology has emerged as a revolutionary solution, promising to meet the demands of the digital age.


    These literature surveys provide valuable insights into the evolution of 5G technology and its potential applications across various sectors. They discuss the key features of 5G networks, explore potential use cases, and address the

    challenges and research directions in the development and deployment of 5G networks. Researchers and professionals can refer to these surveys to gain a comprehensive understanding of the advancements and potential of 5G technology.

    1."Evolution of 5G Networks: A Survey" (Authors: Muhammad Ali Imran, et al., 2017)

    This survey paper provides a comprehensive overview of the evolution of 5G networks, covering the key technological advancements, standardization efforts, and potential applications. It discusses the evolution from 4G to 5G, highlighting the key features of 5G networks, such as enhanced mobile broadband, ultra-reliable low-latency communications, and massive machine-type communications. The paper also explores the potential applications of 5G in areas such as healthcare, transportation, smart cities, and Internet of Things (IoT).

    1. "5G Wireless Communication Systems: Potential and Challenges – A Review" (Authors: Zhiqing Wei, et al., 2017)

      This review paper focuses on the potential and challenges of 5G wireless communication systems. It discusses the technical requirements of 5G networks, including higher data rates, lower latency, and improved energy efficiency. The paper also explores the potential applications of 5G in areas such as smart cities, healthcare, vehicular communication, and industrial automation. It highlights the challenges and research directions in the development and deployment of 5G networks.

    2. "5G Mobile Networks: A Review" (Authors: Noman Islam, et al., 2019)

      This review paper provides an in-depth analysis of 5G mobile networks, discussing the evolution of 5G technology, including the key features and requirements. It explores the

      potential applications of 5G in various sectors, such as healthcare, education, smart cities, and agriculture. The paper also discusses the challenges in the deployment of 5G networks, such as spectrum management, infrastructure requirements, and security concerns. It concludes with future research directions and recommendations for the successful implementation of 5G networks.

    3. "5G Wireless Networks: Potential Applications and Research Challenges" (Authors: Saad Ahmed, et al., 2020)

      This paper reviews the potential applications and research challenges of 5G wireless networks. It discusses the key features of 5G technology and explores its potential applications in areas such as autonomous vehicles, smart grid, e-health, and virtual reality. The paper also highlights the research challenges in the development and deployment of 5G networks, including network densification, energy efficiency, security, and privacy. It provides insights into the future prospects and research directions of 5G technology.

    4. "5G Technology: A Review of Potential Applications, Challenges, and Future Directions" (Authors: Adnan Ahmad, et al., 2020)

    This review paper presents an overview of 5G technology, its potential applications, challenges, and future directions. It discusses the key features and requirements of 5G networks and explores it's potential applications in areas such as healthcare, education, transportation, and smart cities. The paper also addresses the challenges in the deployment of 5G networks, including spectrum allocation, infrastructure requirements, security concerns, and regulatory frameworks. It concludes with future research directions and recommendations for the successful implementation of 5G networks.


    Overview of Previous Generations:

    The evolution of 5G technology builds upon the advancements made in previous generations of wireless networks. Here's a summary of the previous generations in the evolution of 5G technology.

    1G (First Generation): Introduced in the 1980s, 1G enabled analog voice communication and featured large and bulky mobile phones.

    2G (Second Generation): Introduced in the early 1990s, 2G brought digital communication, improved voice quality, higher capacity, and the introduction of text messaging (SMS). The prominent standard was GSM, enabling global roaming and interoperability.

    3G (Third Generation): Introduced in the early 2000s, 3G brought faster data transmission, mobile internet, and multimedia applications. Standards like CDMA2000 and UMTS provided higher data rates and improved voice quality.

    4G (Fourth Generation): Introduced in the late 2000s, 4G aimed to provide broadband-like speeds on mobile devices. It offered significant improvements in data rates, reduced latency, and enhanced multimedia capabilities. The LTE standard became prominent, enabling high-speed data transfer and rich multimedia applications.

    These previous generations laid the foundation for the advancements and capabilities of 5G technology, which aims to provide even faster speeds, ultra-low latency, massive connectivity, and revolutionary applications in various industries.

    Need Of 5G-

    From the user's perspective, the differences between current generations and anticipated 5G technologies go beyond mere increases in maximum data throughput. Users expect additional features such as:

    1. Improved reliability and wider coverage, ensuring high data rates even at the edges of cell coverage.

    2. Reduced power consumption for devices, prolonging battery life.

    3. Support for simultaneous multiple data transfer paths.

    4. Achieving a data rate of approximately 1Gbps while on the move.

    5. Enhanced security measures, employing advanced cognitive radio/SDR techniques.

    6. Enhanced efficiency at the system level, leading to improved overall performance.

    7. A worldwide wireless web (WWWW) connecting users globally.

    8. Integration of more applications powered by artificial intelligence (AI), allowing seamless communication with mobile phones through ubiquitous artificial sensors, all while ensuring user safety.

    9. Reduced traffic fees as a result of the cost-efficient development of infrastructure.


    1. Standardization:

      Standardization plays a pivotal role in the advancement and implementation of 5G technology, guaranteeing seamless communication, compatibility, and synchronization of 5G networks and devices among various vendors and operators. The following are the principal organizations engaged in 5G technology standardization:

      1. 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP):

        3GPP is a global consortium of telecommunications standards organizations responsible for developing the technical specifications for 5G. It brings together industry stakeholders to define the standards that govern the operation of 5G

        radio access technologies, the user terminal requires separate radio interfaces dedicated to each specific technology, known as RAT.

        The lower layers of the OSI model play a crucial role in defining the various access technologies and their ability to support Quality of Service (QoS). At the network layer, IP


        (either IPv4 or IPv6) is used

        for packet routing and

        establishing reliable session connections between client

      2. International Telecommunication Union (ITU):

      applications and Internet servers.

      The routing process is

      ITU, as a specialized agency of the United Nations, holds the responsibility for coordinating and allocating radio spectrum on a global scale, as well as formulating telecommunications standards. Within ITU, the Radio communication Sector (ITU-R) has played a vital role in shaping the technical and regulatory dimensions of 5G technology..

      governed by user-defined policies, ensuring that data is directed appropriately according to predefined rules and conditions.

    2. Spectrum Allocation:

    Spectrum allocation refers to the process

    of assigning

    frequency bands to be used by 5G networks. Adequate spectrum resources are essential to support the increased data rates and capacity requirements of 5G. The spectrum for 5G is allocated in several frequency ranges, including:

    1. Sub-6 GHz Bands:

      These frequency bands offer a good balance between coverage and capacity. They provide wider coverage and are suitable for delivering enhanced mobile broadband services.

    2. (mmWave (millimeter-wave) Bands:

    These high-frequency bands, typically above 24 GHz, offer significantly higher data rates but have shorter range limitations. They are suitable for providing high-capacity and low-latency communications in densely populated areas. Spectrum allocation is regulated by national regulatory


    authorities in coordination with international


    such as ITU. Governments and regulatory bodies allocate and auction spectrum licenses to operators, ensuring fair and efficient use of the limited spectrum resources.

    To facilitate the global deployment of 5G, harmonization of spectrum allocation is crucial. International agreements and

    coordination efforts among countries aim to

    ensure that

    similar frequency bands are allocated for 5G across different regions, enabling roaming and global interoperability.


    The proposed system model for 5G mobile systems is built on

    Fig 2


    The heterogeneity of wireless networks allows the user

    an IP-based architecture, with the objective

    of facilitating

    terminal to choose from a variety of access technologies based

    seamless connectivity and collaboration between wireless and

    mobile networks. It comprises a user terminal and multiple independent radio access technologies, each functioning as an IP link to the Internet. To enable concurrent access to multiple

    on their preferences.

    The proposed new architecture incorporates a virtual network layer that serves multiple functions related to connectivity,

    security, and the uninterrupted continuity of


    channel coding, modulation schemes, or antenna design.

    application sessions. Recognizing these functions, the virtual network layer is logically divided into several cooperative software modules, each performing distinct functionalities. Formulas which are all essential in understanding and optimizing the performance of 5G networks are:

    1. Shannon Capacity Formula:


    1. Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB):

      The Shannon Capacity formula is used to maximum achievable data rate (in bits per communication channel:

      C = B * log2 (1 + S/N)

      calculate the second) in a

      Where: C is the capacity (data rate) B is the bandwidth S is the received signal power N is the noise power.

    2. Path Loss Formula:

      The path loss formula is used to estimate the attenuation of a wireless signal as it propagates through the environment:

      PL = 20 * log10 (d) + 20 * log10 (f) + K

      Fig 3

      5G enables significantly faster download and upload speeds, providing an enhanced mobile broadband experience. Users can stream high-definition videos, download large files, and enjoy immersive gaming with minimal latency.

      Where: PL is the path loss (in decibels) d is the distance between the transmitter and receiver f is the frequency of the signal K is a constant that depends on the environment and antenna characteristics.

    3. Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) Formula: The SNR formula is used to calculate the ratio of the received signal power to the noise power:

      SNR = S / N

      Where: SNR is the signal-to-noise ratio S is the received signal power N is the noise power.

    4. Bit Error Rate (BER) Formula:

    The BER formula is used to estimate the probability of bit errors in a digital communication system:

    BER = 0.5 * erfc(sqrt(Eb / N0))

    Where: BER is the bit error rate Eb is the energy per bit N0 is the noise spectral density.

    The specific equations and formulas used can vary depending on the particular aspect of 5G being considered, such as

    1. Internet of Things (IoT):

      Fig 4

      5G's massive connectivity and low latency make it ideal for powering IoT applications. It can support a vast number of interconnected devices, enabling smart homes, smart cities, industrial automation, and applications in sectors such as healthcare, transportation, agriculture, and more.

    2. Autonomous Vehicles:

      Fig 5

      5G enables reliable and low-latency communication, crucial for autonomous vehicles to exchange data with each other and with infrastructure systems. It facilitates real-time navigation, collision avoidance, and remote monitoring, enhancing safety and efficiency on the roads.

    3. Remote Surgery and Telemedicine:

      Fig 6

      With its ultra-low latency and high reliability, 5G enables remote surgery and telemedicine. Surgeons can perform complex procedures remotely with the help of haptic feedback and real-time video streaming. Patients in remote areas can receive high-quality medical consultations and access specialized care.

    4. Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR/AR):

      Fig 7

      5G's high bandwidth and low latency support seamless VR/AR experiences. Users can enjoy immersive virtual reality gaming, training simulations, remote collaboration, and interactive AR applications that overlay digital information in the real world.

      AR uses can control their presence in real world where as VR Users are controlled by the systems.

    5. Smart Cities:

    Fig 8

    5G technology enables the development of smart cities by connecting various infrastructure components, such as smart grids, intelligent transportation systems, environmental monitoring, and public safety networks. It enhances efficiency, sustainability, and quality of life for urban residents.


    In assessing the performance and capabilities of 5G technology, several key factors are considered. Throughput is measured to determine data transfer rates compared to previous generations. Latency is quantified to assess the delay in data packet transmission compared to earlier wireless technologies. Connection density is evaluated to determine the number of devices a 5G network can support simultaneously without performance degradation. Energy efficiency is measured by comparing the energy consumption of 5G networks to previous generations. Coverage is evaluated by analyzing signal strength and stability across different locations. Qualitative results include user feedback on factors like speed, reliability, and satisfaction, as well as the performance of specific applications and use cases. Network resilience is assessed under various scenarios, and the quality of service parameters, such as bandwidth and service availability, are analyzed. Additionally, scalability is evaluated regarding the network's ability to handle increasing demand and accommodate a growing number of connected devices. With the help of methodologies like standardization and spectrum allocation 5g networks worth is increased and formulas and equations like Shannon capacity, path loss , signal to noise ratio and bit error formulas helped in removing the barriers in 5g network technology which were faced before.


    5G technologys evolution is a major breakthrough in wireless communication, meeting the need for faster speeds and greater capacity. By incorporating advanced technologies like beam forming and massive MIMO, it enables groundbreaking applications across various industries. Enhanced Mobile Broadband ensures seamless streaming and gaming, while IoT empowers smart homes and cities. The low latency of 5G benefits autonomous vehicles, telemedicine, and immersive experiences. Implementation of 5G can revolutionize transportation, healthcare, and media sectors. However, challenges related to standardization and infrastructure must be overcome for successful deployment. In summary, 5G holds tremendous potential to transform communication and collaboration, necessitating ongoing research and cooperation for a connected future.


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