Evaluation of Quality Management System of Bridge Construction Projects

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Evaluation of Quality Management System of Bridge Construction Projects

Akshay Navinbhai Chaudhari1

CEM, S.N.P.I.T & RC, Umarakh, CEM,

S.N.P.I.T & RC, Umarakh Surat., India

Prof. Dr. Ujjval Shap

CEM, S.N.P.I.T & RC, Umarakh, CEM,

          1. & RC, Umarakh Surat, India

            Abstract Bridge construction project is an intigral part of modern transportation system and regional transport connectivity. Also, it has a great effect on the development of modern society. Quality management for this type of project has significant implication from an economic view as well as social point of view. Bridge construction project is located mainly on local road networks focus on many problems and complex issues among which can be effectively over run by quality management process. The objective of this research is to identify the best system for quality management in bridge construction project. This study is based on the questionnaire survey and statistical tools using Mean, The Questionairy survey has been carried out in the present study by consulting contractor, Govt. Engineers, Site engineers, labours. Pilot study has been carried for preparing questionaires based on the quality aspect. Standard Deviation and Relative Importance Index (RII) for the quality management system and help to improve the quality system of bridge construction project. It focuses to provide a tool and idea for quality management improvement for the bridge construction faternity.Keywordscomponent; formatting; style; styling; insert

            Key words: Bridge Construction Project, Quality Management System, Quality Analysis, Relative Importance Index

            1. INTRODUCTION

              An efficient transport system is a pre-requisite for the sustainable development of a country. Which plays a very important role in the speedy and economic growth of a country. India has the second largest road network in the world, spanning a total of 5.89 million kilometers (kms). This road network transports 64.5% of all goods in the country and 90% of Indias total passenger traffic uses road network to commute. Road transportation has gradually increased over the years with improvement in connectivity between cities, towns and villages in the country. To avoid physical barriers in transport connectivity bridges play key role for same. So, for this quality become important issue in the bridge construction industry. Quality and quality management systems are the research topics which have been receiving attention in developing countries because govt spending huge amount of public money for construction of bridges for maintining regional connectivity. Modern bridge construction projects are complex in nature and subjected to frequent quality failures or non -conformance to quality resulting in increase in project cost, decrease in the efficiency of the project and affecting the overall performance of the construction industry. In developing countries like India, quality did not reach the sufficient level of acceptance and face many obstacles due to the complex nature of the construction industry.

              1. Problem Statement

                In varies projects the quality of the project mainly affected by the management reasons like individual leadership, less quality awareness, poor inspection lack of technical force investment, violation of construction procedures and bidding system is not perfect, operation is not standardized, lack of engineering supervision system, lack of supervision, violation of laws and regulations, illegal subcontracting.

                Also quality of project is affected due to varies construction issue like improper construction which is not in accordance with the standard norms and design requirements of the construction, use of substandard materials to reduce the cost and employ large number of low quality construction workers for maximize the profits. Hence quality management system in infrastructure projects is required.

              2. Aim of the Study

                To evaluate the suitable Quality management system for the Bridge Construction project.

              3. Objectives of the Study

                Following are the objectives for the fulfillment of this

                study: –

                • To study the quality management system of Infrastructure project.

                • To evaluate the suitable quality management system through pilot study.

                • To give suggestion or recomandation for improve the quality management system based on analystical analysis.

            2. DATA ANALYSIS

              The quality is a key function in all infrastructure development environment like cost and time. It becomes one of the vital factor in any construction project. Quality is one of the important key performance indicators of a construction project which may cause cost overrun and time delays. Quality control (QC) and quality assurance organizations are established only as a result of prescribed requirements. construction sector quality control can be looked upon as client satisfaction, relation with cost, and enough time to obtain anticipated quality. A quality assurance system has been developed by an international standard organization (ISO) for improving quality and overcoming the quality related problems. For quality ISO 9001 series have been availability of construction materials, political environment, site staff experience and proper documentation. For good

              performance in quality of construction projects following factors are necessary, joint working, mutual objective, no blame culture, introducing quality assurance methods, effective management team of contractors, no enforcement of bureaucracy and politics.

              So based on the litature available, the following quality management systems were identified.

              1. Quality Control Measures

              2. Quality Management Tool

              3. Quality Performance

              4. Inspection & Testing of Executed work

              There is are the main quality management method or we can say system. That were taken and finalized by taking pilot study. As per suggestion given by expert in the pilot study. Pilot study also attached in annexure and following table shows the list of expert form who I conduct the pilot study.

              Each Quality management system has theirs sub factors. Based on that sub factors, Quality management system gave performance. So these sub factors are also identified from available litetures and finalized it by taking pilot study.

              So following Table 2-1 give the understanding about the compairiosion of pilot study and questionaries survey. Based on the pilot study the following are the main factors thats are finalized by the expert for taking questionaries survey.As per expert recommendation, some factors are excluded from questionaries survey and expert finalized the questionaries.

              Sr No.

              Pilot Study

              Factor and method finalized by expert for Questionary Survey

              I.

              Quality control measures

              Quality control measures

              1

              Correct sampling and testing

              Correct sampling and testing

              2

              Study duties and responsibilities

              Study duties and responsibilities

              3

              Available quality control lab at site

              Available quality control lab at site

              4

              Coordination with the project purchase department

              Coordination with the project purchase department

              5

              Quality of skill construction movement

              Quality of skill construction movement

              6

              Follow the prescribed treatment and deportation rules

              Follow the prescribed treatment and deportation rules

              7

              Sequence of work in Construction

              Sequence of work in Construction

              8

              Review meeting with staff at site location

              Review meeting with staff at site location

              9

              Daily site observation schedule

              Daily site observation schedule

              10

              Extra component and materials are available for laboratory equipment

              Extra component and materials are available for laboratory equipments

              11

              Regular maintain the schedule

              Regular follow the schedule

              II.

              Quality Management tool

              Quality Management tool

              1

              Pareto analysis(80-20 rule)

              N.A.

              2

              Ishikawa diagrams

              N.A.

              3

              Flow diagram

              Flow diagram

              4

              Check lists

              Check lists

              5

              Histogram

              N.A.

              Sr No.

              Pilot Study

              Factor and method finalized by expert for Questionary Survey

              I.

              Quality control measures

              Quality control measures

              1

              Correct sampling and testing

              Correct sampling and testing

              2

              Study duties and responsibilities

              Study duties and responsibilities

              3

              Available quality control lab at site

              Available quality control lab at site

              4

              Coordination with the project purchase department

              Coordination with the project purchase department

              5

              Quality of skill construction movement

              Quality of skill construction movement

              6

              Follow the prescribed treatment and deportation rules

              Follow the prescribed treatment and deportation rules

              7

              Sequence of work in Construction

              Sequence of work in Construction

              8

              Review meeting with staff at site location

              Review meeting with staff at site location

              9

              Daily site observation schedule

              Daily site observation schedule

              10

              Extra component and materials are available for laboratory equipment

              Extra component and materials are available for laboratory equipments

              11

              Regular maintain the schedule

              Regular follow the schedule

              II.

              Quality Management tool

              Quality Management tool

              1

              Pareto analysis(80-20 rule)

              N.A.

              2

              Ishikawa diagrams

              N.A.

              3

              Flow diagram

              Flow diagram

              4

              Check lists

              Check lists

              5

              Histogram

              N.A.

              Table II-1 Compairiosion of Pilot Study factors and Questionaries sub factors

              Physical Testing

              6

              Tally Sheet

              N.A.

              7

              Statistical analysis

              N.A.

              8

              Control Charts

              N.A.

              9

              Scatter diagram

              N.A.

              10

              Organizational Structure

              N.A.

              III.

              Quality Performance

              Quality Performance

              1

              Management infallibility

              Management infallibility

              2

              Individuals shirking their duties

              Individuals shirking their duties

              3

              Poor leadership performance

              Poor leadership performance

              4

              Lack of customer focus

              lack of visibility of plan

              5

              work load

              work load

              6

              Lack of poor training

              Lack of poor training

              7

              Competitive markets

              Lack of task skill

              8

              Teamwork with all activities

              Teamwork with all activities

              9

              Proper order of construction drawings

              Proper order of construction drawings

              10

              Review meetings

              Review meetings

              11

              Acceptation fulfill of customer

              Acceptation fulfill of customer

              12

              Acceptation fulfill of Clint

              Acceptation fulfill of Clint

              13

              Acceptation fulfill of stakeholders

              Acceptation fulfill of stakeholders

              14

              Human resource

              Human resource

              IV.

              Inspection & Testing of executed work

              Inspection & Testing of executed work

              1

              Physical Testing

              2

              Test reports from supplier

              Test reports from supplier

              3

              Timely Inspection of works

              Timely Inspection of works

              4

              Third Party Inspection

              Third Party Inspection

              On the basis of previous studies on factors influencing quality performance in bridge construction projects 31 factors were identified for questionaries survey by the expert suggestion. To easily compare these factors with international standards and with global construction parameters, the stastical method is used. The first step towards analysis is to evaluate and assess the data, for that reason RII statistical method is used. For application of this statistical method, the three case site or case study selected. Following is the list of cas study for applying these factors and stastical method.

              1. Bridge on Vyara-Kherwada road at chainage 13/150

              2. Bridge on Mandvi-Serulla Road at chainage 18/500

              3. Bridge on Godssamba- Karvalla Road at chainage 0/2 to 0/4

              The queationary survey done from the stockholders, site engineers, consultancy, government engineers working on these three site. The following table 2-2 gives ideas about the percentage of distribution of questionnaire survey form among them. And the table 2-3 gives the idea about their experience in the construction fraternity. About to 37 questionaries form was distributed among them. After that response was analyzed through RII method. This research is based entirely on the responses received from the selected bridge construction contractors, engineering experts and stockholders.

              Table II-2 Distribution of Questionaries Survey Form

              Sr No.

              Occupancy

              No Of Occupanc

              %

              1

              CONTRACTOR

              8

              21.62162162

              2

              SITE ENGINEER

              9

              24.32432432

              3

              CONSULTANT

              2

              5.405405405

              4

              ENGINEER

              9

              24.32432432

              5

              STAKEHOLDERS

              9

              24.32432432

              Total

              37

              Project Purchase Department

              5

              Quality Of Skill Construction Movement

              1

              2

              18

              7

              1

              0

              0.8157894

              74

              5

              6

              Follow The Prescribed Treatment And Deportation Rules

              1

              5

              16

              6

              1

              0

              0.8368421

              05

              3

              7

              Sequence Of Work In Construction

              2

              1

              11

              6

              0

              0

              0.8789473

              68

              1

              8

              Review Meeting With Staff

              At Site Location

              1

              3

              13

              10

              1

              1

              0.7894736

              84

              9

              9

              Daily Site Observation Schedule

              1

              3

              22

              3

              0

              0

              0.8526315

              79

              2

              1

              0

              Extra Component And Materials Are Available For Laboratory Equipments

              2

              3

              23

              8

              2

              0.5736842

              11

              25

              1

              1

              Regular Follow The Schedule

              7

              25

              3

              2

              1

              0.7842105

              26

              10

              I I

              Quality Management Tool

              1

              Flow Diagram

              2

              11

              19

              6

              0

              0.6473684

              21

              20

              2

              Check Lists

              2

              15

              20

              1

              0

              0.6947368

              42

              17

              I I I

              Quality Performance

              1

              Management Infallibility

              0

              24

              13

              1

              0

              0.7210526

              32

              13

              2

              Individuals Shirking Their Duties

              1

              1

              21

              5

              1

              0

              0.8210526

              32

              4

              3

              Poor Leadership Performance

              9

              23

              4

              2

              0

              0.8052631

              58

              7

              4

              Lack Of Visibility Of Plan

              1

              0

              11

              12

              5

              0

              0.7368421

              05

              12

              5

              Work Load

              0

              1

              18

              1

              8

              1

              0.5

              28

              6

              Lack Of Poor Training

              0

              13

              19

              5

              1

              0.6315789

              47

              22

              7

              Lack Of Task Skill

              0

              2

              13

              2

              0

              3

              0.4736842

              11

              29

              8

              Teamwork With All Activities

              0

              21

              16

              1

              0

              0.7052631

              58

              15

              9

              Proper Order Of Construction Drawings

              3

              23

              11

              0

              1

              0.7421052

              63

              11

              1

              0

              Review Meetings

              4

              24

              9

              0

              1

              0.5894736

              84

              24

              1

              1

              Acceptation Fulfill Of Customer

              1

              13

              23

              1

              0

              0.6736842

              11

              18

              1

              2

              Acceptation Fulfill Of Clint

              0

              12

              21

              5

              0

              0.6368421

              05

              21

              1

              3

              Acceptation Fulfill Of Stakeholders

              1

              1

              18

              1

              6

              2

              0.5105263

              16

              27

              1

              4

              Human Resource

              1

              5

              19

              3

              1

              0

              0.8526315

              79

              2

              I

              Inspection & Testing Of Executed Work

              Project Purchase Department

              5

              Quality Of Skill Construction Movement

              1

              2/p>

              18

              7

              1

              0

              0.8157894

              74

              5

              6

              Follow The Prescribed Treatment And Deportation Rules

              1

              5

              16

              6

              1

              0

              0.8368421

              05

              3

              7

              Sequence Of Work In Construction

              2

              1

              11

              6

              0

              0

              0.8789473

              68

              1

              8

              Review Meeting With Staff

              At Site Location

              1

              3

              13

              10

              1

              1

              0.7894736

              84

              9

              9

              Daily Site Observation Schedule

              1

              3

              22

              3

              0

              0

              0.8526315

              79

              2

              1

              0

              Extra Component And Materials Are Available For Laboratory Equipments

              2

              3

              23

              8

              2

              0.5736842

              11

              25

              1

              1

              Regular Follow The Schedule

              7

              25

              3

              2

              1

              0.7842105

              26

              10

              I I

              Quality Management Tool

              1

              Flow Diagram

              2

              11

              19

              6

              0

              0.6473684

              21

              20

              2

              Check Lists

              2

              15

              20

              1

              0

              0.6947368

              42

              17

              I I I

              Quality Performance

              1

              Management Infallibility

              0

              24

              13

              1

              0

              0.7210526

              32

              13

              2

              Individuals Shirking Their Duties

              1

              1

              21

              5

              1

              0

              0.8210526

              32

              4

              3

              Poor Leadership Performance

              9

              23

              4

              2

              0

              0.8052631

              58

              7

              4

              Lack Of Visibility Of Plan

              1

              0

              11

              12

              5

              0

              0.7368421

              05

              12

              5

              Work Load

              0

              1

              18

              1

              8

              1

              0.5

              28

              6

              Lack Of Poor Training

              0

              13

              19

              5

              1

              0.6315789

              47

              22

              7

              Lack Of Task Skill

              0

              2

              13

              2

              0

              3

              0.4736842

              11

              29

              8

              Teamwork With All Activities

              0

              21

              16

              1

              0

              0.7052631

              58

              15

              9

              Proper Order Of Construction Drawings

              3

              23

              11

              0

              1

              0.7421052

              63

              11

              1

              0

              Review Meetings

              4

              24

              9

              0

              1

              0.5894736

              84

              24

              1

              1

              Acceptation Fulfill Of Customer

              1

              13

              23

              1

              0

              0.6736842

              11

              18

              1

              2

              Acceptation Fulfill Of Clint

              0

              12

              21

              5

              0

              0.6368421

              05

              21

              1

              3

              Acceptation Fulfill Of Stakeholders

              1

              1

              18

              1

              6

              2

              0.5105263

              16

              27

              1

              4

              Human Resource

              1

              5

              19

              3

              1

              0

              0.8526315

              79

              2

              I

              Inspection & Testing Of Executed Work

              Table II-3 Experice of Stakholders

              Experience

              5>Year

              5-

              10year

              10-15year

              15-20year

              No Of Experience In Occupancy

              20

              9

              6

              3

              The sampling technique for this study was randomly done but for the purpose of the study, it was limited to professionals engaged by small scale contractors To easily compare the factors with international standards and with global construction parameters, the weighted mean method is used. The first step towards analysis is to evaluate and assess the data, for that reason Relative Response method is used. The study enjoyed a hundred percent responds rate as questionnaires were administered and collected the same day when completed.

              A. Relative Importance Index

              The relative importance index (RII) used to indicate the relative importance of each variable contributing to the poor quality performance of small scale contractors was calculated with the formula below:

              Relative Importance Index =

              Where;

              n1 = number of respondents who answered "Very Strong" n2 = number of respondents who answered "Strong

              n3 = number of respondents who answered "Moderate" n4 = number of respondents who answered "Less"

              n5 = number of respondents who answered "Very less"

              Sr. No.

              FACTORS CAUSING DELAY IN CONSTRU

              CTION PROJECTS

              RELATIVE IMPORTANCE

              R.I.I

              Ranking

              VERY STRONG (N1)

              STRONG (N2)

              MODERATE (N3)

              LESS (N4)

              VERY LESS (N5)

              5

              4

              3

              2

              1

              I

              Quality Control Measures

              1

              Correct Sampling And Testing

              0

              23

              14

              1

              0

              0.7157894

              74

              14

              2

              Study Duties And Responsi bilities

              8

              21

              9

              0

              0

              0.7947368

              42

              8

              3

              Available Quality Control Lab At Site

              1

              0

              7

              12

              9

              0

              0.6947368

              42

              17

              4

              Coordination With The

              1

              0

              21

              6

              1

              0

              0.8105263

              16

              6

              V

              1

              Physical Testing

              0

              3

              26

              9

              0

              0.5684210

              53

              26

              2

              Test Reports From Supplier

              1

              11

              23

              3

              0

              0.6526315

              79

              19

              3

              Timely Inspection Of Works

              2

              9

              13

              1

              4

              0

              0.5947368

              42

              23

              4

              Third Party Inspection

              6

              12

              7

              1

              2

              1

              0.6526315

              79

              19

            3. CONCLUSION

              Good quality performance makes the construction project successful. The performance can be increased by studying and improving the factors that affect the quality significantly. In this research, we have identified these factors and took feedback via questionnaires from construction practitioners.

              To this extent, the paper has identified: Sequence Of Work In Construction, Daily Site Observation Schedule and; Follow The Prescribed Treatment And Deportation Rules as rank as the first three factors that affected the quality of bridge construction project.

              Hence, addressing the research objectives and drawing on the research findings, with it wider implications for the quality practices in thebridge construction project. It is therefore suggested that policy makers, researchers and practitioners look at improving the human resource base through continuous professional and project management skill development.Monitoring systems should be improved and need to draw kind attention of government engineer for the daily site visiting schedule with the aim of ensuring maximum quality achivement .

            4. REFERENCES

  1. China Railway Engineering Group Southern Engineeri, & Yunnan, Kunming. (2017, Apr). Quality Control Measures IN Highway Bridge. World Construction, 6(6), 53-56.

  2. David Arditi, & H. Murat Gunaydin. (1998). Factors That Affect Process Quality In The Life Cycle Of. Journal Of Construction Engineering And Management.

  3. M. Abas, S.B. Khattak, I. Hussain2,, S. Maqsood, & I. Ahmad. (2015). Evaluation OF Factors AFFECTING THE Quality OF Construction Projects. Technical Journal, University OF Engineering AND Technology (Uet) Taxila, Pakistan, 20(3).

  4. P.P. Mane, & J.R. Patil. (2015, March). Quality Management System AT Construction Project: A Questionnaire Survey. Int. Journal OF Engineering Research AND Applications, 5(3), 126-130.

  5. Tengan Callistus, Anzagira Lee Felix, Kissi Ernest, Balaara Stephen, & Anzagira Che Andrew. (2014). FACTORS Affecting Quality Performance OF Construction Firms IN (Vol. 6). Ghana.

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