Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Aluminium, Borassus Flabellifer Fiber and Polyester Composites

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV4IS080096

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Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Aluminium, Borassus Flabellifer Fiber and Polyester Composites

U. Ramesh

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

SRK Institute Of Technology, Vijayawada, India.

  1. Venkata Dinesh

    Department of Mechanical Engineering,

    Debre Tabor University Debre Tabor, Ethiopia.

    1. Durga Prasad

      Department of Mechanical Engineering

      SRK Institute Of Technology Vijayawada, India.

      Abstract: The use of natural fibres like borassus flabellifer fiber, flax, sisal, jute, kenaf, etc. as replacement to manmade fibres in fibre-reinforced composites have increased now a days due to advantages like low density, low cost and biodegradability. But the natural fibres have poor compatibility with the matrix and they have relatively high moisture sorption. In this research, the standard test method of ASTM D638M-89is used to prepare specimens as per the dimensions for testing tensile properties of fiber-resin composites. The test specimen has a constant cross section with tabs bonded at the ends. The specimens were incorporated with borassus flabellifer fiber. Five identical specimens were prepared for each weight by varying fiber content in grams i.e. 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5. Tensile strength of fabricated composites increases with increase in weight of fiber. The tensile properties of pure polyesters are also determined experimentally. The tensile strength of pure polyester is 35.2 N/mm².The tensile strength of a fibered composite is 64.51 N/mm2 (for maximum loading fiber that is at 2.5 grams).

      Keywords: Composite, Natural Fibre, Tensile strength


With the increased trend for sustainable and environmentally friendly materials, polymer composites industries has lead towards bio degradable polymers from renewable resources such as PVA (polyvinyl alcohol).Biopolymers offer environmental benefits such as biodegradability, greenhouse gas emissions, and renewability of the base material. Bio-composites are usually fabricated with biodegradable/ non-biodegradable polymers as matrix and natural fibers as reinforcement. Many lignocellulosic fibers, such as jute, hemp, sisal, abaca etc. are used as reinforcement for biodegradable bio- composites because of their good mechanical properties and low specific mass. has received much attention of biodegradable polymers. PVA is linear aliphatic thermoplastic polyester, produced from renewable agricultural resources. PVA has properties that are competitive to many commodity polymers (e.g. PP, PE, PLA, PS) such as high stiffness, clarity, gloss, and UV stability. A way to improve the mechanical and thermal

properties of PVA is the addition of fibers or filler materials. Combining PVA with natural fibers which are abundantly, readily available such as kenaf, jute, sisal etc. can lead to a totally bio degradable composite made only from renewable resources.

  1. Bast or Stem fibres (jute, mesta, banana etc.)

  2. Leaf fibres (Palmyra palms, Elephant grass, sisal, pineapple, screw pine etc.)

  3. Fruit fibres (cotton, coir, oil palm etc.).


        1. Materials:

          Palmyra palms are economically useful and widely cultivated in tropical regions. The Palmyra palm has long been one of the most important trees of Cambodia and India where it has over 800 uses. The leaves are used for thatching, mats, baskets, fans, hats, umbrellas, and as writing material and PVA (polyvinyl alcohol).

          • Aluminum

          • Borassus flabellifer fiber

          • Polyester

        2. Extraction of Fiber

          Fiber is available in the form of bract on a Palmyra tree

          .First collect dried bracts from the Palmyra tree then after segregate fibers from the bract then after Fibers are cleaned and dried under sun for two days to remove moisture content. Further, the fibers were kept in oven for 2 hours at 700 C to ensure that maximum moisture was removed. The above fibers extracted by different methods are used for making composite specimens. In this work I took Palmyra bract fiber these are generally 40 cm long.

        3. Composite Fabrication

      The test specimen has a constant cross section with tabs bonded at the ends. The specimen is prepared by hand layup process in the form of a rectangular strip of 160x13x3 mm thick and ground to conform to the dimensions. The mould is prepared on smooth ceramic tile

      with rubber shoe sole to the required dimension. Initially the ceramic tile is cleaned with shellac (NC thinner) a spirituous product to ensure clean surface on the tile. Then mould is prepared keeping the rubber sole on the tile. The gap between the rubber and the tile is filled with mansion hygienic wax. A thin coating of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) is applied on the contact surface of specimen, using a brush. The resulting mould is cured for one hour.

      2.3 Tensile Test

      Tensile Tests were conducted according to ASTM D638 using a 2 ton capacity – Electronic Tensometer, METM 2000 ER-I model, supplied by M/S Microtech Pune, with a cross head speed of 2mm/min.

    2. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The Tensile strength and modulus of borassus

      flabellifer fiber /PVA as a function of the borassus

      flabellifer fiber content are presented in figure 3.1&3.2.

      Table 3.1:Variation of Tensile strength of borassus flabellifer fiber /PVA composite with fiber loading.

      Figure 3.1: Variation of Tensile strength of borassus flabellifer fiber /PVA composite with fiber loading.

      Table 3.2: Variation of Tensile modulus of borassus flabellifer fiber /PVA composite with fiber loading

      Figure 3.2: Variation of Tensile modulus of borassus flabellifer fiber

      /PVA composite with fiber loading.

      From figures 3.1&3.2, it was observed that the Tensile strength of composite increased with increase in the fibre loading up to 2.5 grams weight and the Modulus is given maximum at 2grams of borassus flabellifer fiber/PVA composites.


  1. By using chemical treatment we can increase the Tensile, flexural and impact strengths.

  2. It can be seen that by varying volume of fiber the mechanical properties of the composite also change. by increase in volume of fiber in composite mechanical properties also increased up to maximum loading.

  3. It can be seen that there is an appreciable increase in Tensile properties of chemically treated composite when compared to un treated fibered composites which can be observed from the results below

    • The tensile strength of a untreated fibered composite is 53.75 N/mm² (for maximum loading fiber) and tensile strength of Treated fibered composite is 55.59 N/mm²(for maximum loading fiber).

    • The tensile module of a untreated fibered composite is 1030.6 N/mm2(for maximum loading fiber) and tensile module of a Treated fibered composite is 1244.4 N/mm2 (for maximum loading fiber).


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