 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 2916
 Authors : A. Babu Karuppiah, Dr. S. Rajaram
 Paper ID : IJERTV1IS3176
 Volume & Issue : Volume 01, Issue 03 (May 2012)
 Published (First Online): 30052012
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Energy Efficient Encryption Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network
A. Babu Karuppiap, Dr. S. Rajaram2
1 Velammal College of Engineering and Technology, Madurai, India
2Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, India
Abstract
Sensor devices have critical resource constraints such as processing speed, memory size and energy supply. Especially, energy consumption affects the network lifetime so that energy efficiency is an important requirement for Wireless Sensor Network s (WSNs). It means that it is a considerable matter to choose the energy and a memory efficient cryptographic algorithm suitable for WSNs. In this paper, an Energy Efficient Encryption Algorithm with 64bit block length and 128bit key length with basic operations like exclusiveOR (XOR) and shifting is implemented. It provides lowresource hardware implementation, which is suitable to sensor devices. It not only consists of simple operations but also has enough security as a good encryption algorithm. The reduction in the hardware resources also decreases the power consumption of the Wireless Sensor Network .
Keywords – Wireless Sensor Network s (WSNs), Encryption algorithm, Energy Efficiency.

Introduction
Wireless Sensor Networks consist of base station and a lot of batterypowered and lowcost devices, called sensor nodes. Distributed Wireless Sensor Network consist of several scattered nodes in a knowledge area. Those sensors have as its only power supplies a pair of batteries that must let them live up to five years without substitution. Thats why it is necessary to develop some power aware algorith ms that could save battery lifetime as much as possible. WSNs have currently been used for a variety of applications such as environment monitoring, health monitoring, military applications, etc. and also WSNs are expected to be used at anywhere in the near future. To support many kinds of applications based on sensor networks, the consideration of security aspects such as Data Confidentia lity, Data Integrity, and Data Authenticity is essential [1]. Since the interest lies in imple menting a security scheme for wire less sensor networks, here it is a must to choose the schemes that meet the limited resources of sensor
nodes. The key issue of designing cryptographic algorith ms is to deal with the tradeoff among security, cost, and performance. A host of cryptographic primit ives that particularly target resourceconstrained smart devices have been published in the past few years and focus will be on lightwe ight symmetric ciphers in this paper. All the previous proposals can be roughly divided into the following three categories. The first category consists of highly optimized and compact hardware imple mentations for standardized bloc k c iphers such as AES. However, the energy consumption of strong encryption is relatively high, whereas the proposals in the second category involve slight modifications of a classical block cipher like DES for lightweight applicat ions. Finally, the third category features new lowcost designs, including lightwe ight block ciphers HIGHT. Thus Public key encryption algorithm is a fundamental and wide ly used technology around the world, since it has hardware limitations like me mory usage and battery life, so it is not applied to the sensor network. Therefo re, Sy mmetric key encryption algorith m with Lo w Energy consumption is used in the sensor networks. In this paper, a new block cipher encryption algorithm is presented which has a 32round iterative structure which is a variant of generalized Fe istel network. The pro minent feature of the algorithm is that it consists of simple operations such as XOR, addit ion mod 28, and le ft bitwise rotation. So, it is hardwareoriented rather than softwareoriented. Moreover, the proposed algorith m is imple mented using verilog language in Xilin x software and the experiment results shows that this algorithm is mo re energy efficient than the e xisting algorith ms, the hardware resources consumption of the existing algorith m such as HIGHT [4] is more than the proposed encryption algorith m in the way as number of gate usage, total CPU time to Xst completion, total me mory usage, number of slices used etc. So these result analyses provides us criterion of selecting Energy Effic ient Encryption Algorith m suitable for WSNs.
This paper is organized as follows: In section II, issues in wireless sensor networks are described. In section III, Security require ments in WSN are e xpla ined. In section IV, the existing encryption algorith m schemes are presented. In section V, the proposed encryption algorithm scheme is analyzed how efficient it can be and whether it can meet the low powe r resource or not. In the fina l section, the e xperimental results are discussed followed by concluding rema rks and refe rences.

Issues in WSNs
A WSN is a network of cheap and simple processing devices (sensor nodes) that are equipped with environ mental sensors for temperature, humid ity, etc. and can communicate with each other using a wireless radio device. Sensor networks need to become autonomous and exhib it responsiveness without explic it user or administrator action. Security has become a significant issue in regards to the violation of individual info rmation security [2, 3]. Encryption is supposed to make a secret document that is functionally diffe rent fro m the orig inal docu ment. As WSNs grow to be more popular and widely used, security becomes a very serious concern. Users do not want to reveal their data to unauthorized people as the disclosed information could be used for malic ious purposes. This concern is even more re levant to wire less environments where anyone can overhear a message sent over the radio. Therefore, even a very useful and convenient system might not be appealing to the users if it is not secure. Security is in general considered to be e xpensive. Its cost is even more noticeable in WSNs due to the limited resources of the sensor nodes. Thus, in order to provide a sufficient level of security while properly utilizing the available resources, it is important to have a good understanding of both the cost and the features of the security algorith ms used. Apart from the security issue, the primary challenges for sensor networks stem fro m t wo facts [2]. First, sensors are e xtre me ly resource constrained. Second, in many applications sensor nodes will be randomly deployed. The resource limitation of sensor networks poses great challenges for security. As sensor nodes are with very limited computing power, it is difficult to provide security in WSN using publickey cryptography.

Security Requirements in WSNs
Recall that the most important network services that should be imple mented by any security mechanis m are : data confidentia lity, data Integrity, and data Authenticity [5]. Since interest lies in imple menting a security scheme for wireless sensor networks, the schemes must be chosen that meet the limited resources of sensor nodes. In this section the reasons for choosing the schemes are discussed. The process by which public key and symmetric key cryptography schemes should be selected is based on the following criteria:
Energy : how much energy is required to e xecute the encryption/decryption functions.
Program memory : the me mory required to store the encryption/decryption program
Temporary memory : the required RAM size or number of registers required temporarily when the encryption/decryption code is being executed.
Execution time : the time required to execute the encryption/decryption code./p>

Existing Algorithms for Encryption

AES Algorithm
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorith m, also known as Rijndael, is a bloc k c ipher adopted as an encryption standard by the US government. AES is a substitution permutation network and is one of the most popular symmetric key cryptography algorithms. AES is fast in both software and hardware and is relatively easy to imple ment. It operates on a 4 by 4 array of bytes and has a fixed bloc k size of 128 b its and a key size of 128, 192, or 256 bits with 10, 12, and 14 number of rounds [3]. For encryption, each round of AES (e xcept the last round) consists of four stages. a) SubBytes – a nonlinear substitution step where each byte is replaced with another according to a lookup table (known as S Bo x). b) Shift Rows – a transposition step where each row of the state is shifted cyclically a certain number of steps. c) MixCo lu mns a mixing operation which operates on the columns of the state, combin ing the four bytes in each column using a linear transformat ion.
d) AddRoundKey – each byte of the state is
combined with the round key; each round key is derived fro m the cipher key using a key schedule. AES a lgorith m co mprises of various rounds depending on the key size and block size . Out of a ll the rounds the Pre round comprises only AddRoundKey whereas the final round omits the MixCo lu mns stage.
Figure. 1 Hardware I/O S pecifications
Figure. 1 shows the encryption process of the AES algorithm. Here the pla inte xt is applied along
with the key and cloc k input to obtain the cipherte xt by applying operations with encryption and decryption module. The round transformation modifies the 128bit state. The init ial state is the input plainte xt and the final state is the output cipherte xt where the state is organised as a 4 X 4 matrix of bytes.
Figure. 2 AES Round Transformation
Figure. 2 shows the round transformation of AES, where it scra mbles the bytes of the state either indiv idually, ro wwise, or co lu mnwise by applying the functions SubBytes, ShiftRows, MixCo lu mns, and AddRoundKey sequentially [7].

RC5 Algorithm
RC5 is a fast symmetric block c ipher suitable for hardwa re or software imple mentations. RC5 has a variable block size (32, 64 or 128b its), key size (0 to 2040 bits) and number of rounds (0 to 255) [6]. The original suggested choices of parameters were a b lock size of 64bits, a 128b it key and 12 rounds. It is fast symmetric block cipher suitable for hardware or software imple mentations. A novel feature of RC5 is the heavy use of datadependent rotations. RC5 has a variable word size , a variable number of rounds, and a variablelength secret key. The encryption and decryption algorithms are e xceptionally simple . RC5 is not intended to be secure for all possible parameter values. On the other hand, choosing the ma ximu m para meter value will be overkill for most applications. RC5 is hard to use in open environments and oneshot communicat ions. 12round RC5 (with 64b it blocks) is susceptible to a differentia l attack using 244 chosen plainte xts. 1820 rounds are suggested as sufficient protection. A distinguishing feature of RC5 is its heavy use of data dependent rotation. The a mount of rotation performed is dependent on the input data and its not predetermined. Word size, nu mber of rounds and key size of RC5 can be varied. The diffe rent combinations of values for these parameters are used to fully understand their
influence on the energy consumption caused by the encryption algorithm:

The usual word size for encryption is 32 bits (4
bytes) to study the impact of the word size on the time it takes to perform key setup, encryption, and decryption.

The number of rounds (4,8,12,16,18) has a proportional effect on the security of RC5 [10].

RC5 a lso uses different key sizes as AES.
Figure. 3 Block Diagram of RC5
Figure. 3 shows the Block Diagra m of RC5 that illustrates the functioning with init ial key addit ion, Mixing Circu lar Sh ift Key Addition blocks to obtain ciphertext by applying the plaintext and keys.


Skip Jack
Skipjac k uses an 80b it key to encrypt or decrypt 64bit data blocks. It is an unbalanced Feistel network with 32 rounds [6]. It has been found that the number of rounds is exponentially proportional to the amount of time required to find a key using a bruteforce attack. So, as the number of rounds increases, the security of the algorithm increases exponentially. Skipjac k uses FBOX which can be stored in either RAM or program me mo ry.
Figure. 4 Skip Jack Round Function
Fro m Figure 4, the output of the Skip jack Round function can be explained with the following e xpressions,
A (a,b,c,d) = (d + Gk(a) + counter, GK (a), b,c);
B (a,b,c,d) = (d;Gk (a); a + b + counter; c):
A1(a,b,c,d) = (G1k (b); c; d; a + b + counter);
B1 (a,b,c,d) = (G1k (b); c + G1k (b) + counter; d; a):
Skipjac k has been extensively crypt analyzed, and has no weaknesses. There are no known shortcut attacks that can break Skip jack. However, the small key size makes this algorith m inferior to the newer candidate algorithms for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) co mpetit ion being held by NIST.

HIGHT
HIGHT has 64bit bloc k length and 128b it key length, which is suitable for lowcost, low power and ultralight imp le mentation. 32round iterative structure which is a variant of generalized Fe istel network [6]. The hardware imp le mentation of HIGHT requires 3048 gates on 0.25 m technology [4]. It has been analyzed for the security against various attacks. The strength of the HIGHT algorith m is evaluated with respect to differential attack, linear attack, truncated differential cryptanalysis, impossible diffe rential cryptanalysis, saturation attack, boomerang attack, interpolation and higher order differentia l attack.


Proposed Method
The existing HIGHT Algorith m utilizes more hardware resource by using large number of X OR gates for all co mputational rounds. By reducing the number of gates, resource utilization is also reduced which in turn reduces power consumption which is achieved by the concept of reusability. Here the concept of reusability in verilog coding is utilized that uses a single output variable for a ll round iterations, which results in only one XOR gate that is used for all round operations instead of as many XORs as rounds. The 64bit p lainte xt and ciphertext are considered as concatenations of 8 bytes and denoted by P = P7P1P0 and C = C7..C1C0, respectively. The 64b it intermediate values are analogously represented, Xi
= Xi,7.Xi,1Xi,0 for i = 0,..,32. The 128b it
master key is considered as a concatenation of 16 bytes and denoted by MK = MK15MK0. The following are notations for mathe matical operations:
WK Whitening Key; SK SubKey
: Addition mod 28
: Subtraction mod 28
: XOR (Exclusive OR)
A<<s : sbit left rotation of a 8bit value A
The detailed process of Encryption of HIGHT Algorith m is depicted in Figure. 5.
Figure. 5 Encryption Process of HIGHT Algorithm
HIGHT Encryption algorithm consists of key schedule, initia l transformation, round function, and final t ransformat ion.
For j = 0 to 7 {
SK16.i+j M K(jim od8) + 8 16.i+j +8 ;
}
}
}
HightEncryption(P,MK)
{
KeySchedule(MK,WK,SK); HightEncryption(P ,WK,SK)
{
InitialT ransfomation(P,X0,WK3,WK2,WK1,WK0); For i = 0 to 31 {
RoundFunction(Xi,Xi+1, SK4i+3, SK4i+2, SK4i+1, SK4i);
}
FinalTransfomation(X32,C,WK7,WK6,WK5,WK4);
}
}

Whitening Key Generation
It uses 8 whitening key bytes WK0,…..,WK7 for the initia l and final transformations. The algorithm WhiteningKeyGeneration generates them as follow.
WhiteningKeyGeneration {
For i = 0 to 7 {
If (0< i < 3) then WKi MKi+12; Else, WKi MKi4;
}
}
It is observed that Whitening Keys (WK0,.,WK7) are generated fro m the 16 bytes input Master Key. This serves as a Key for the Initia l Transformation Block where the operation is done with plaintext and whitening keys and proceeded further.

Initial Transformation
Initia l Transformation transforms a plainte xt P into the input of the first Round Function, X0 = X0,7X0,6.X0,0 by using the four whiteningkey bytes, WK0, WK1,WK2, and WK3.

Subkey Generation
SubkeyGeneration(M K,SK) {
Run Constant Generation For i = 0 to 7 {
For j= 0 to 7 {
SK16.i+j M Kj im od8 16.i+j ;
}
128 subkeys are used for 1 co mputation of Hight Encryption, 4 subkeys per round. The algorith m Subkey Generation uses the subalgorithm ConstantGeneration to generate 128 7bit constants 0 ,.,127, and then generates the subkeys SK0,,SK127 with the constants. 0 is fixed as 10110102. Th is is also the initial state (s6 ,, s0) of 7bit LFSR and so 0=127.

Round Function
RoundFunction uses two auxiliary functions F0 and F1:
F0(x) = x<<1
F1(x) = x<<3
x<<2
x<<4
x<<7;
x<<6;
For i=0,..,31, RoundFunction transforms Xi=Xi,7,,Xi,0 into Xi+1 =Xi+1,7,Xi+1,0 as follows.
For(i=0;i<=32;i=i+1) {
RoundFunction(Xi,0, Xi+1,SK4i+2,SK4i+1,SK4i) { X1 X0; X3 X2; X5 X4; X7 X6;
X0=X7 X2=X1 X4=X3 X6=X5
}
(F0(X6)
(F1(X0)
(F0(X2)
(F1(X4)
SK4i+3); SK4i+2); SK4i+1); SK4i);
}
The above algorithm is used for generation of a ll
32 round function block. The output of the preceding round is given as the input to the successive round.
WK0; X0,1 P1 ;
WK1;
P0 P2 P3 ; P4 P6
P7 ;
X0,0 X0,2 X0,3 X0,4 X0,6
X0,7

Final Transformation
InitialTransformation(P,X0,WK3,WK2,WK1,WK0){
}
P5 ;
WK2; X0,5
WK3;
FinalTransformation untwists the swap of the last round function and transforms X32 = X32,7X32,6,.,X32,0 into the ciphertext C by using the four whiteningkey bytes WK4, WK5, WK6, and WK7. This step is similar to initia l Transformat ion. It is observed that the XOR and modular arith metic operations are performed to generate 7 byte ciphertext.
FinalTransformation(C,X32,WK7,WK6,WK5,WK4) {
C0 X32,1 WK4; C1 X32,2 ; C2 X32,3
WK5; C3
C4 WK5; C7
}
X32,4; X32,5
WK4; C5 X32,6 ; C6 X32,7
X32,0;

Decryption
The decryption operation is identical in operation to encryption apart from the follo wing two modifications. (1) All addition modular 28 operations are replaced by subtraction modular 28 operations except for the operations connecting SKi and outputs of F0.
(2) The order in wh ich the keys WKi and SKi are applied is reversed.


Experimental Results and Comparison
The structure of HIGHT is generalized Feistellike. This kind of structure reduces restriction of designing inner auxiliary functions. Co mpared to A ES like structure, the round function is light. Since encryption process is simp ly converted into decryption process, imple mentation of the circuit supporting both encryption and decryption processes does not require much more cost than the encryptiononly circuit. Every operation in HIGHT is 8 b itprocessororiented. CPUs embedded into the sensors in USN (Ubiquitous Sensor Network) are based on 8bit processor. So, HIGHT has efficient performance in such environment.
Figure.7 (a) Generation of Plain text (b) A sample Round function block
Figure 7 (a) shows the generation of plaint text and
(b) shows the generation of sample round function block.
Figure.8 Simulation result for Encryption
Figure 8 shows the simulation result of the encryption algorithm for 64bit p lainte xt, 128 Subkeys, 8 Whitening Keys using 32 rounds. The target device chosen was XC3S250E of Spartan3E fa mily. It shows the 64bit encrypted result using Energy Efficient Encryption Algorith m.
Figure.9 Simulation result for Decryption
Figure 9 shows the simulation result of the decryption process where the original 64b it plainte xt is retained, using the same Whitening Keys and SubKeys as in encryption.
Table1: Comparison of Results
S.
No.
Parame ters
Taken
Existing
architecture
Proposed
architecture
1.
Nu mber of Slices
62%
51%
2.
Nu mber of
4 input LUTs
58%
48%
3.
Nu mber of IOs:
4493
2438
Table 1 shows the comparison of results that are obtained from the synthesis report. It can be inferred that the proposed algorithm has an advantage over the existing algorith m by consuming 11% less number of slices, 10% less number of 4 input LUTs and a greater reduction in the number of inputs and outputs.

Conclusion
For any Wireless Sensor Network the battery life time and the energy of the network are limited. In this paper, it is shown that the proposed Energy Efficient Encryption Algorith m which includes the
basic operations of XOR and shift is suitable to overcome the limitations of wireless sensor nodes. The result indicates that the algorithm achieves reduction in hardware resources providing energy efficiency thereby increasing the life span of wireless sensor nodes in the network.

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