 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 311
 Authors : Uzma Amin, Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi, Fariha Durrani
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS10410
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 01 (January 2014)
 Published (First Online): 25012014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Energy Conservation Techniques to Mitigate the Power Shortage Problem in Pakistan (Case Studies)
Uzma Amin1
Lecturer, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, 50700, Pakistan.
Professor Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi 2
Head of Electrical Engineering Department, UET, Lahore, Pakistan.
Fariha Durrani3
Lab Engineer, Electrical Engineering Department, University of South Asia.
Abstract
The main objective of this research paper is to show benefits of different energy conservation techniques. As a first case study, I performed analysis on University of Gujrat, electrical power system. This case study involves analysis of motors and tube lights installed at the pumping stations and in Engineering Block of UOG respectively, with the help of energy analyzer before and after the installation of required rating capacitors. Power system analysis also done which includes power distribution system losses for example line losses and copper losses of different rating transformers of UOG. Cost and payback period calculation had been done. Second case study is performed on 11 KV Ali Park and Rachna Town feeders to show fruitful results obtained by implementing rehabilitation techniques on the above said feeders. The results showed by adopting energy conservation techniques not only energy is conserved, it also brings other benefits.
1.0 Introduction
As we know Power shortage is a greatest problem in Pakistan due to different reasons; as a result our nation facing the problem of load shedding. So we as a nation come together towards the solution of this problem and immediate solution lies in the conservation of energy. Our highest priority should be to conserve the energy. The specialty of electrical energy is that it is most convenient form of energy, as it can be transmitted, distributed and utilized over a very large area. The major portion of electricity generated is consumed by the industrial and then residential sector. They have to not only pay the high cost of electricity but also compel to purchase the costly equipment to use in the load shedding hours.
These effects altogether provide strong basis for reducing the electricity consumption. The development of technology will take considerable time as it has many basic problems, technical as well as economical. Thus immediate solution lies in the conservation of energy. As per WAPDA statistics cost of complete installation/ generation of a power house generating one KW of energy is approximately comes out to be US $ 4,50,000 and in Pak. Rupees it id Rs. 43,200,000 (W=where 1 US $ = @Rs. 96). From this statistics report it is cleared that investment made in the field of energy conservation yield in net overall saving along with other benefits. [1,2].
Improving energy efficiency in an electrical system has become the major issue. Because in recent years the nature of load has been changed drastically and large portions of electric machinery i.e. mercury lamps, transformers, motors, switchgears are used to run inherently low power factors which means power supply authorities have to generate much more current that is theoretically required So, in order to accommodate this increasing trend of low power factor & every day increasing load the current level on our system is needed to be reduced and every effort should be made to make this system more energy handling with minimum cost involved.
It may involve different techniques such as improving power factor, changing conductor size, substituting cables with conductor etc. this will lead to reduce copper loss as well as damp the heavy currents with out increasing system size in an efficient way [3].

Energy Analysis of UOG Power System (Case StudyI)

Analysis of (L.T Side of Transformers)
The calculations were performed by improving the power factor of each transformer installed in the UOG network from 0.7 to 0.95 at full load. Results were observed in the shape of % saving both in terms of KW and KVA. Total KVARs are required to achieve power factor were calculated at the end. Transformers Installed in the UOG Network are as under:
1. 25 KVA = 01 No. 2. 50 KVA = 01 No.
3. 100KVA = 05 Nos. 4. 200 KVA = 20 Nos.

Saving of Transformer at Full Load (200 KVA) Improving Power Factor From 0.7 to 0.9

KVA Saving Calculation (200 KVA Transformer)
KVA1 = 200
Cos1 = 0.7
P = 200 x 0.7 = 140 KW KVAR1 = Sin (Cos1 0.7) x 200
= Sin ( 45.57) x 200
= 142.65 KVAR
Figure 1 shows the improvement in power factor by providing leading reactive power (KVARs). Practically this can be done by installing an adjustable capacitor in parallel with an inductive load. The load can be adjusted in such a way that the leading current to the capacitor is exactly equal in magnitude to the component of the current in the inductive load which in fact is lagging the voltage by 900. Thus the resultant current is in phase with the voltage.
140 KW
25.840
155.5KVA 67.8
KVAR
45.570 142.65
KVAR
KVAR2 = Sin (Cos 1 0.9) x 155. = 67.80 KVAR
KVA1 KVA2 x 100
Saving in KVA = KVA1
(200 155.5) x 100
= 200 = 22.2%

KW Saving Calculation (200 KVA Transformer)
Figure 2 shows the saving in terms of KW by installing required rating capacitor in parallel with the inductive load. We can save 40 KW by improving power factor from 0.7 to 0.9.
180 KW
140 K W 40KW
25.84
200 KVA
Figure 2. Phasor diagram showing saving in KW by installing capacitors of required rating [5].
For Active Power (KW)
KW = KVA Cos
PI = 200 x Cos2
= 200 x Cos2
= 200 x 0.9
= 180 KW
Saving in KW = 180 140
= 40KW
180 140
%Age saving = 140 x100 = 28.57% Similarly calculations were done to improve the power factor from 0.9 to 0.95. As WAPDA is planning to impose low power factor penalty charges on 0.95 power factor instead of 0.9.

Total KVAR required


200 KVA
74.84
KVAR
KVAR required improving PF from 0.7 to 0.9= 74.84 KVAR for improving PF from 0.9 to 0.95 = 27.84 Total KVAR required for 20 Nos. Transformer
Figure 1. Phasor diagram showing improvement of PF by providing leading KVARs [5].
Cos2 = 0.9
KVA = KW / Cos KVA2 = 140/ 0.9 = 155.5
=102.69×20=2053.8 KVAR
At present there are 20 Nos. of 200 KVA transformers in the UOG network. So for twenty 200KVA transformers in UOG distribution system KVARS required are 2053.8.

Cost of Power Factor Improvement Capacitors
The cost calculation is done for the installation of capacitors required in improving the power factor to desired level to avoid low power factor penalty charges. Table 1 & 2 shows the market price of both automatic and static capacitors available in different ratings [4].
Table 1. Market Price of Static Capacitors
Sr #
KVAR
440 VAC
1
5 KVAR Capacitor
Rs. 8000/
2
7.5 KVAR Capacitor
Rs. 10,000/
3
10 KVAR Capacitor
Rs. 16,000/
4
12.5 KVAR Capacitor
Rs. 19,500/
5
25 KVAR Capacitor
Rs. 32,000/
6
50 KVAR Capacitor
Rs.50,000/
7
100 KVAR Capacitor
Rs. 90,000/
Table 2. Market Price of Automatic Capacitors
Sr #
KVAR
440 VAC
1
25 KVAR Capacitor
Rs. 51,080/
2
50 KVAR Capacitor
Rs. 91,200/
3
100 KVAR Capacitor
Rs. 149,680/

Cost of Capacitors Required for (200 KVA) Transformers at Full Load
Required KVARS for 1 # 200 KVA Transformer
= 103 KVAR
Total KVARS for twenty #200 KVA Transformers
= 2060 KVAR
Whereas
Cost for 100 KVARS 440 VAC Static Capacitor
= 90,000 Rs/
Total cost of static capacitors for 20 Nos. transformers is: = Rs. 20x 90,000
= Rs. 1,800,000/
Whereas
Cost for 100KVAR 440VAC Automatic Capacitor
= 149,680 Rs/
Total cost of automatic capacitors for 20 Nos. transformers is: = 20 x 149,680
= Rs. 2,993,600 /

Cost of Capacitors Required for (100 KVA) Transformers at Full Load
Required KVARS for 01# 100 KVA Transformer
= 51 KVAR
Total KVARS for 05 # 100 KVA Transformers
= 255 KVAR
Whereas
Cost for 50 KVAR 440 VAC Static Capacitor
= Rs. 50,000/
Total cost of static capacitors for 05 Nos. transformers is: = 05 x 50,000 = Rs. 250,000/ Whereas
Cost for 50 KVAR 440 VAC Automatic Capacitor
=Rs. 91,280
Total cost of automatic capacitors for 05 Nos. transformers are: = 05 x 91.28 = Rs. 456,400/
= Rs. 2,993,600 /
Similarly calculations were done for 50 and 25 KVA Transformers respectively.
Hence Total Cost for all the Static Capacitors:

01 x 25 KVA Transformer =Rs. 19,500/

01 x 50 KVA Transformer=Rs. 32,000/

05×100 KVA Transformers=Rs. 250,000/

20x200KVATransformers=Rs. 1,800,000/
Grand Total = Rs. 2,101,500/
Hence Total Cost for all the Automatic Capacitors:

01 x 50 KVA Transformer = Rs. 50,070/

05×100 KVA Transformers=Rs. 456,400/

20x 200 KVA Transformers = Rs. 2,993,600/
Grand Total = Rs. 3,500,070/



Energy Analysis of Motors
For the comprehensive and complete analysis of motors installed at the pumping stations of the UOG, energy analyzer equipment was used. In the analysis procedure energy analyzer was attached with the motor installed while keeping the load on the motor ON and complete set of data was obtained showing the frequency, current in each phase, line current, line voltage in each phase, power factor, active power, apparent power, reactive power, distortion factor, KWH, KVARH etc. This analysis was done to calculate what ratings of capacitors are required for the power factor improvement in addition to other outputs.
The complete set of analysis, which was done with the energy analyzer of all the motors installed in the pumping station, has been shown below in the tabular form. The final analysis after the installation of the required capacitors was done again to check the
power factor improvement and what effects does this procedure has on the improvement of power factor. It was observe that power factor of the motors has been increased remarkably moreover other factor like voltage increase, current drawn decreases, decrease of KVA rating etc. Results of the analysis before and after the installation of capacitors have been shown below in Table 3.
So net % age difference in current decrease.
= x 100
= x100 = 16.14 %
Step III
Voltage before the installation of capacitor = 378.8V Voltage after the installation of 20 KVAR capacitor
=384.18V
Comparison of Different Parameters of Water Supply Motors before and after the Installation of Capacitors by Computerized Energy Analysis
1. Water Supply Motors
P = 40 HP, V = 415 Volts, I = 60 Amps.
Phase
Current
(Amps)
Voltage
(Volts)
Power
Factor
Before
After
Before
After
Before
After
L1
59.3
49.9
380.2
385.8
0.843
0.971
L2
57.6
48.1
378.7
384.0
0.841
0.981
L3
60.2
50.5
377.5
382.7
0.846
0.984
Mean
59.03
49.50
378.8
384.1
0.843
0.979
Table 3. Showing Energy Analysis of Water Supply Motor
Phase
Active Power (KW)
Reactive Power (KVAR)
Apparent Power (KVA)
Before
After
Before
After
Before
After
L1
10.97
10.79
7.06
2.66
13.02
11.12
L2
10.95
10.46
6.83
2.55
12.59
10.67
L3
11.10
10.98
7.11
2.67
13.12
11.16
Total
32.67
32.24
20.99
7.87
38.73
32.94
Calculations:
Step I
P.F before the installation of capacitor = 0.843
P.F after the installation of 20 KVAR capacitor
= 0.979
So net % age increase of power factor = x 100
= x 100
= 16.13 %
Step II
Current before the installation of capacitor = 59.03 A Current after the installation of 20 KVAR capacitor
= 49.50A
So net % age difference in voltage increase
= x 100
= x 100 = 1.42%
Step IV
KVA before the installation of capacitor
= 38.73 KVA
KVA after the installation of 20 KVAR capacitor
= 32.94 KVA
So net % age difference in KVA decrease
= x 100
= x 100 =14.94%
There are three 40 HP water supply motors in University of Gujrat. Preceding analysis describes the energy analysis of one 40 HP motor. Other two 40 HP motors have the same energy analysis.

Energy Analysis of Different Loads Installed in Engineering Block Building of UOG
In order to implement the power factor improvement technique, analysis was made on the engineering block building with the help of energy analyzer after putting the entire load in ON condition at different time intervals.
Although building and effects were calculated with the help of energy analyzer. analysis is quite tricky because of variety of electrical equipment (different loads) has been installed in the engineering block building moreover due to large usage, load conditions vary from time to time. As an exercise, analysis was also made of the tube lights (inductive loads) installed in the engineering
Observations were taken after the installation of 4.5uF capacitor. As a sample case capacitor was installed on tubelights at three to four different locations in the engineering block building. These observations were taken individually on each floor and effects were examined individually on each tube
light. It was obsrved that tubelights fitted with 4.5uF shows improvement in power factor. If this procedure is repeated on all the installed tube lights in the engineering block building, it will bring a worth value improvement in the system capacity. The results taken have been placed in the tabular form below. It was observed that power factor of the total system has been increased, other factors like voltage increase, decrease of KVA rating etc. Results of the analysis before and the installation of capacitors have been shown in the table 4 below.
Total no of tube lights in engineering block = 247 The detail is as under:
Ground Floor: Total no of tube lights = 89 First Floor: Total no of tube lights = 89 Second Floor: Total no of tube lights = 89
2.3.1. Computerized Energy Analysis & Comparison of Engineering Block Building Before and After the Installation of Capacitors
1. First Floor Analysis
P = 40 x 247 = 7.88 KW, Vp = 221.63 Volts
I = 74.1 Amps (0.3 Amps each)
Table 4. Showing Energy Analysis of First Floor of Engineering Block Building
Calculations:
Step I
P.F before the installation of capacitor = 0.810
P.F after the installation of 35 KVARs capacitor
= 0.971
So net % age increase of power factor
= x 100
= x100 = 19.87 %
Step II
Current before the installation of capacitor = 85.23 A Current after the installation of 35 KVAR Capacitors
= 75.70 A
So net % age difference in current decrease.
= x 100
= x 100 = 12.58 %
Step III
Voltage before the installation of capacitor = 379.9V Voltage after the installation of 35 KVAR capacitors
=385.35V
So net % age difference in voltage increase
= x 100
= x 100 = 1.40%
Phase 
Current (Amps) 
Voltage (Volts) 
Power Factor 

Before 
After 
Before 
After 
Before 
After 

L1 
85.2 
75.8 
368.5 
374.1 
0.795 
0.974 
L2 
70.3 
60.8 
395.1 
400.4 
0.825 
0.987 
L3 
100.2 
90.5 
376.3 
381.5 
0.811 
0.951 
Mean 
85.23 
75.70 
379.9 
385.4 
0.810 
0.971 
Step IV
KVA before the installation of capacitor = 55.93 KVA after the installation of 35 KVAR capacitors
= 50.36 KVA
So net % age difference in KVA decrease
= x 100
Phase 
Active Power (KW) 
Reactive Power (KVAR) 
Apparent Power (KVA) 

Before 
After 
Before 
After 
Before 
After 

L1 
14.41 
15.59 
13.02 
3.70 
18.13 
16.37 
L2 
13.23 
13.87 
12.59 
2.25 
16.04 
14.06 
L3 
17.76 
18.96 
13.12 
6.16 
21.77 
19.93 
Total 
45.30 
48.78 
38.73 
12.11 
55.93 
50.36 
= x 100 = 9.95%
Similarly analysis was done for tube lights installed in 2nd and third floor. For above analysis we can see that improvement in PF has been done just after installing the 4.5uF capacitor on each tube light but it is difficult to analyze the total load

Energy Analysis Calculations of
U.O.G Power System
Low power factor results in the form of penalty by the WAPDA. Investments in the power factor improvement are made to avoid the low factor
penalty charges. However, in WAPDA and KESCO where the electric utilities have a penalty based rate structure, power factor correction capacitor and systems can generate a oneyear or less payback.

Analysis of U.O.G Power System
Due to the power factor UOG pays huge amount as penalty charges to WAPDA. By proper adopting a technique for power factor improvement, penalty charges can be avoided. WAPDA has fixed 0.90 power factor for the consumers and any consumer having power factor less than the prescribed value has to pay the penalty and WAPDA is planning to increase its power factor to 0.95. As per WAPDA tariff structure is concerned, UOG electricity load falls in the C2 (A) type, (Tariff 28) category whose formula for finding the low power factor LPF is as under.
Penalty = Energy Charges * (0.9 – Power Factor)
Energy Charges = KWh Units * Unit Rate
(Rs. 8.65 from Tariff Table)
Hence the penalty along with the cost of capacitors to avoid penalty charges is calculated. Then the tentative recovery payback period is also calculated. For energy analysis of U.O.G distribution system detail drawing showing all electrical equipment like transformers, motors etc with ratings along with their respective distances from the source were drawn that will facilitate in the calculation work. Results like current drawn, KVAR required to achieve this power factor and saving in KVA and saving in terms of cost due to power factor penalty will be calculated at the end.

Analysis of U.O.G Electricity Bills
For calculating the reduction / saving in the bills of UOG, complete energy analysis of UOG distribution system was essential and for this purpose electricity bills of UOG for the twelve months from July, 2010 to June, 2011 were analyzed. Table 5 shows the detail of data available from electricity bill of UOG for the year (2010/11).
Table 5. Showing various Units Consumed / Year (2010/11)
Month
/ Year
KW
KWH
KVARH
P.F1
31.07. 10
640
175040
113066
0.84
31.08. 10
640
162560
105000
0.84
30.09. 10
640
133360
103499
0.79
30.10. 10
640
134880
111765
0.77
30.11. 10
480
110560
109657
0.71
30.12. 10
480
130480
111582
0.76
27.01. 11
480
140960
124315
0.75
26.02. 11
640
110080
65318
0.86
28.03. 10
2400
125200
80871
0.84
27.04. 10
160
120560
109580
0.74
27.05. 10
640
176800
95427
0.88
25.06. 10
16352
197280
158274
0.78
1. Data Available (From Electricity Bill) of January, 2011.
Year/Month = 1 / 2011
KW = 480
KWH = 140960
KVARH = 125600
Load factor = KWH ( 730 x KW )
= 140960 / ( 730 x 480)
= 0.40
P.F1 = Cos(Tan1(KVARH/KWH)
= Cos(Tan1(125600/140960)
= 0.75
KVA Load
=
=
KW / P.F1 480 / 0.75
=
640
PF2
=
0.95
KVAR1
=
=
KW(Tan(Cos10.75))
480(Tan(Cos10.75))
KVAR2
=
=
=
423.32
KW(Tan(Cos10.95))
480(Tan(Cos1 0.95))
=
157.77
KVAR required
=
=
KVAR1 – KVAR2
423.32 – 157.77
=
265.55
KVA Saving
=
=
KW(1/P.F1 – 1 / P.F2 )
480 (1/ 0.75 – 1 / 0.95)
=
134.74
WAPDA imposes penalty on the consumer having power factor less than 0.9 and for that WAPDA has divided its tariff as per load type and UOG tariff type C2 (A) 28 of which unit rate penalty is 8.65.
TF4 = 172M
TF5 = 140M
TF6 = 201M
TF7 = 157M
TF8= 050M
TF9=091M
TF10= 44M
TF11 = 52M
TF12 = 151M
TF13= 038M
TF14= 93M
TF15=425M
TF16 = 302M
TF19 = 265M
TF17= 261M
TF20 = 94M
TF18 = 389M
Penalty Charges = Total Energy charges x P.F [7].
Whereas
Penalty Charges=KWH Units x8.65 x (0.9 – P.F)
= 140960 x 8.65 x (0.9 – 0.84)
= Rs. 182,895.60/
Similarly all the Calculation were made for different monthly data obtained from Bill.
Total Penalty=Rs1,461,151.08/(for 12months)

Cost and Payback Period Calculations Maximum KVARs were observed in March, 2011 = 761.41
Static Capacitors required to Provide 761.41 KVARS
= 7×100 KVARs +1×50 KVAR +1×25 KVAR.
Cost of 100 KVAR Static Capacitor=Rs.90,000/ Cost of 50 KVAR Static Capacitor= Rs.50,000/ Cost of 12.5 KVAR Static Capacitor= Rs.9,500/ Total Cost = 630,000 + 50,000 + 19,500
= Rs. 699,500/
Pay Back Period for the Static Capacitors are five months.
3.3.2 Automatic Capacitors Requirement and Pay Back Period Calculation
Automatic Capacitors required to Provide 761.41 KVARS = 7×100 KVARs + 1x 50 KVAR + 1x 25 KVAR.
Cost of 100 KVAR Automatic Capacitor
= Rs 149,680/
Cost of 50 KVAR Automatic Capacitor
=Rs. 91,280/
Cost of 25 KVAR Automatic Capacitor
=Rs. 50, 070/
Total Cost = 149,680 + 91,280+ 50,070
=Rs. 1,189,110/
Pay Back Period for the Automatic Capacitors are eight months.

Power Distribution System Losses of University of Gujrat
For calculating HT line losses in the distribution system of UOG, exact length of the HT line from the source to the transformer is measured from the electrical design map of the UOG.

Overall Reduction H.T Line losses Connected to 200 KVA Transformers
Length of HT Cable from the source
TF1 = 82M TF2 = 123M TF3 =139M
Resistivity of dog conductor=0.000391 / Meter
4.1.1 Reduction in HT line losses Connected to TF1 (200 KVA)
Power losses at P.F1 (0.7) = (I1)2 xR x Length
=(10.497)2×0.000391x 82
= 3.533 Watts
Power losses at P.F2 (0.95)= (I2)2 x R x Length
= (7.735)2 x 0.000391x 82
= 1.918 Watts Reduction in HT line losses= 3.533 – 1.918
= 1.615 Watts
% Age Reduction in HT Line Losses = (3.533 1.918)
1.746
= 45.69%
Similarly Calculation were done for all 200, 100, 50 and 25 KVA Transformers.

Transformer Copper Losses
Distribution transformers generally have two types of losses

Copper losses (I2.R Losses)

Iron losses (Fixed losses)
Copper losses are proportional to the square of the load currents [6].
Standard Distribution Transformer losses at different loading are given in the table 6 below.
Table 6. Standard Distribution Transformer Losses at Different Loading
T/F Capacity (KVA)
Max Current
(Amps)
%Age Load vs. Losses in Watts
25%
50%
75%
100%
125 %
150%
25
50
36
72
130
248
234
468
425
833
71
1345
1001
2003
1403
2807
100
144
436
815
1346
2330
3466
4855
200
288
708
1320
2413
3905
5823
8167


Reduction is Copper losses of 200 KVA Transformer
KVA before P.F improvement at 0.75 = 200 KVA KVA after P.F improvement at 0.95=157.89 KVA Reduction in KVA after improvement = (200 157)
47
= 26.3 %
Standard losses at 100% load =3905 Watts (From table)
Standard losses at 75% load =2413Watts Reduction in copper losses = (3905 2413)
= 1492Watts (3905 2413) x 100
%Age reduction = 3905
= 38.2%
Total reduction for 20 x 200 KVA transformers = 20 x 1492 = 29840 Watts.
5.1.1 Overall Reduction in Copper Losses
(i) Total reduction of Copper Losses for 1 x 25 KVA transformer = 1×285 Watts.

Total reduction of Copper Losses for 1 x 50 KVA transformer = 1 x 512 Watts.

Total reduction of Copper Losses for 5 x 100 KVA transformer = 5×984=4920 Watts.

Total reduction of Copper Losses for 20 x 200KVA transformer=20×1492= 29840 W.
Total saving in Copper losses of all transformers = 285+512+4920+29840 = 35,557Watts
Units saving per day = (35.55 x24)
= 853.6 KWH
Units saving per month = (35.55 x 24 x 30)
= 25,601.04 KWH
Units saving per year = 311,479.32 KWH
6.0 Total Saving Analysis of Transformers
Following are the overall results of the above mentioned calculations. Table 7 shows the saving in terms of kW and kVA by improving power factor.
Table 7. Saving in terms of kW & kVA by power factor improvement.
KVA 
Power (KW) 
Power Factor (Cos) 
KVAR Required at 0.95 PF 

Before 
After 
Before 
After 
Before 
After 

25 
19.74 
18.75 
23.75 
0.75 
0.95 
13 
50 
39.47 
37.5 
47.50 
0.75 
0.95 
25 
100 
78.95 
75 
95 
0.75 
0.95 
50 
200 
157.89 
150 
190 
0.75 
0.95 
100 
Total KW before power factor improvement (0.75 P.F) = 2401.7
Total KW After power factor improvement (0.95 P.F)
=3259. 45
Total savings =(32592401) =857 KW
(3259 2401)
Total Saving in KW(%age) = 2401x 100
= 35.7 %
Total cost of installation /generation of power house
=US Dollars 450/KW
So Total cost for generation of 857KW of energy = 857x 450 = US $ 405,000 = Rs. 96 x 405,000
Total saving in terms of Pak Rupee
= Rs.38,800,000/
Total KVA before power factor improvement (0.75 P.F) = 3431
Total KVA after power factor improvement (0.95 P.F) = 2528
(3431 2528) x 100
Total Saving in KVA =
3431
= 26.3%
Total HT line losses of all transformers at 0.75 P.F1=
175.90 Watts.
Total HT line losses of all transformers at 0.95 PF2 =

Watts.
Reduction in HT line losses = 175.90 95.39
= 80.509 Watts.
(175.90 95.39) x 100

25 KVA Transformer = 01 No.

50 KVA transformers = 01 Nos

100 KVA transformers = 5 Nos

200 KVA transformers = 20 Nos

%Age reduction =
= 45.76%
175.90
6 .1 Overall saving Analysis by Power Factor improvement on L.T Side of Transformers
Case I: (As Per General Analysis)

Unit saving/year due to transmission line losses = 705.2 KWH

Units saving/year due to transformers copper losses = 9,344,380 KWH
Total saving/year in units due to power factor improvement =9,345,085 KWH.
Whereas rate/unit = Rs.8.69/
Total saving/year = 9,345,085×8.69
= Rs. 81,208,790.39
Case II (As per Actual Consumption During Year 20102011)
Total penalty charges due to low power factor for 12 months = Rs. 1,461,151.08/

Energy Loss Reduction and Cost Benefit Analysis by Implementation of Rehabilitation Technique (CaseII)
This part of paper includes the area planning and bifurcation of 11KV Ali Park and 11 KV Rachna town feeder emanating from 132 KV Shamkey Grid Station. The main purpose of this case study is to give relief to the subject feeders by implementing rehabilitation techniques which may not withstand the heavy load in the summer season. This case study shows that by implementing rehabilitation techniques how much energy can be conserved by reducing power losses. The strategy is to minimize technical losses which in turn minimize total losses in an electrical distribution network.
Increasing energy costs and environmentalists actions to protect the natural resources force energy supply companies to conserve and reduce energy usage. Therefore the study focused on the reduction of electrical energy losses in distribution networks. Reducing these losses ensure that the cost of electricity to customers will be reduced and in turn improve the efficiency of the distribution network.

Data Collection
The data collected to carry out the analysis for the project is taken from the distribution facility (LESCO). This data covers the High Tension (HT) Line information of 11 KV Ali Park and Rachna
Town Feeders which is required for generating single line diagram. HT Line information includes:

Node to node distance in meter

Conductor Type (PANTHER, DOG, RABBIT etc.)

Transformer Rating in KVA

Capacitor Rating in KVAR


Silent Features/ Technical Parameters
The case study involves following 11 KV feeders for rehabilitation.

11 KV Ali Park Feeder
Its a mixed load feeder having small industrial, commercial and agricultural / rural load on it. The length of the feeder is 30.5 Km having 400 amps load on it.

11 KV Rachna Town Feeder
Its a mixed load feeder having small industries and city load on it. The length of the feeder is 13.3 Km having 330 amps load on it.
The above mentioned feeders have also have deteriorated / off size conductors.

Benefit/ Cost Calculation
For Reconductoring, Bifurcation and Area Planning proposals B/C >= 2 [8,9].

B/C Calculation for Area Planning and Bifurcation of 11 KV Ali Park and Rachna Town Feeder

Without Growth
Saving in Losses due to Bifurcation of Load,S1
= 335.800 KW
Saving in Losses due to Fixed Capacitor Banks S2 = 0 KW
Saving in Losses due to Switched Capacitor Banks,S3=0 KW
Saving in Losses due to Reconductoring, S4
=0 KW
Total Saving in Losses without Growth S5
=335.800 KW
With Growth
Saving in Losses with Growth:
[(((S1+S4)x F)+(S2+S3))], S6 = 401.6168 KWWhere, F = Growth Factor = 1.196 @ 5% growth for 5 years.
Value of benefits with growth: VFxS6 ,S7 = 5714622.8
Where, VF = Valuation Factor = Losefactorx8760xelectricity purchase rate =
Rs.14229.0432 kW/Annum New facility Cost, NFC = Rs. 10070711 Replaced Facility Cost, RFC = Rs. 299151
Benefit Cost Ratio
B/C Ratio = Benefit Cost Ratio = 3.7
So the proposal is technical and economical [8,9].

Proposed 11 KV Industrial Feeder
A new feeder namely 11 kV industrial (P) feeder is proposed from 132 kV Shamkey Grid Station which will cater 3.13 km & 4500 connected kVA of 11 kV Ali Park Feeder and 4.54 km & 3320 connected kVA of 11 kV Rachna Town Feeder.
The new proposed feeder will be mix load feeder with mostly small industries like flour mills, marriage hall etc. the rural / agricultural load of 11 kV Ali Park feeder is proposed to be separated from the industrial load by shifting the later on new proposed 11 kV industrial feeder. Table below describes the technical parameters detail containing existing, existing modified and proposed position of feeders and overall savings / improvement

Existing Position of Feeders
Table 8 shows technical parameter detail of 11 kV Ali Park and Rachna Town feeders before applying rehabilitation technique.
Table 8. Existing position of 11 KV Ali Park and Rachna Town Feeder
Feeder
Grid Station
Length
Connected
Peak
Load
Voltage
Drop
(KM)
(KVA)
(A)
(%)
Ali Park
(Ext)
132 kV
Shamkey
30.539
15465
400
10.8%
Rachna Town
(Ext)
132 kV
Shamkey
13.326
9325
330
8.2%
Total
43.865
24790
730

Proposed Position of Feeders
Table 9 shows the position of feeders after proposing new feeder namely Industrial Feeder emanating from 132 kV Shamkey Grid Station which will cater 4500 & 3320 connected kVA of 11 kV Ali Park & Rachna Town feeders respectively. The table shows technical parameter detail and overall saving or improvements
Table 9. Proposed positions of 11 KV Ali Park, Rachna Town and Industrial Feeder
Feeder 
Grid Station 
Line / Load / Connected KVA Shifted From 

Feeder 
Length (KM) 
Connected (KVA) 
Load (A) 

Ali Park (Ext) 
132 kV Shamkey 
Ali Park 
27.41 
10965 
226 
New Line 
2.16 

S/Total 
29.57 
10965 
226 

Rachna Town (Ext) 
132 kV Shamkey 
Rachna Town 
8.79 
6005 
213 
S/Total 
8.79 
6005 
213 

Industrial (P) 
132 kV Shamkey 
Ali Park 
3.13 
4500 
93 
Rachna Town 
4.54 
3320 
117 

New Line 
6.66 

Idle Line 
0.22 

S/Total 
14.55 
7820 
210 

Total 
Total 
43.865 
24790 
730 
Feeder 
Grid Station 
Voltage Drop 
Power Loss 
Annual Energy Loss 
Loss 
Loss 
% 
% 
% 
KW 
KWh 

Ali Park (Ext) 
132 kV Shamkey 
5.4 
2.57 
1.85 
94.1 
356065 
Rachna Town (Ext) 
132 kV Shamkey 
2.7 
1.66 
1.20 
57.4 
217140 
Industrial (P) 
132 kV Shamkey 
4 
2.67 
1.92 
90.7 
343140 
Total 
2.30 
1.66 
242 
916345 
Feeder 
Grid Station 
Power Loss 
Annual Energy Loss 
Loss 
Loss 
(%) 
(%) 
(KW) 
(KWH) 

Ali Park (Ext) 
132 kV Shamkey 
5.8 
4.2 
376.3 
1424091 
Rachna Town (Ext) 
132 kV Shamkey 
3.8 
2.7 
201.7 
763358 
Total 
578 
2187449 

Analysis of 11 KV Ali Park Feeder

At Actual (400 A) Load Existing Position
The technical losses at this actual load on the feeder are calculated as:
i. Technical losses at this load without bifurcation, reconductoring and capacitor bank installed are
376.1 kW.

At Proposed (226 A) Load Existing Modified Position
The technical losses at this proposed load on the feeder are calculated as:

Technical losses at this load without re conductoring and capacitor bank installed are 124.1 kW

Technical losses at this load with reconductoring at N38 & N115 and with a capacitor bank of 450kVAr installed at N75, N125 & N148 are
94.0 kW.


Analysis of 11 kV Rachna Town Feeder

At Actual (330 A) Load Existing Position The technical losses at this actual load on the feeder are calculated as:
i. Technical losses at this load without bifurcation, reconductoring and capacitor bank installed are
201.6 kW.

At Proposed (213 A) Load Existing Modified Position


The technical losses at this proposed load on the feeder are calculated as:

Technical losses at this load without capacitor bank installed are 71.0 kW

Technical losses at this load with a capacitor bank of 450kVAr installed at N54 & N128 are 57.3 kW.
7.6.4 Analysis of 11 kV Industrial Feeder Proposed
7.6.4.1 At Proposed (210 A) Load
The technical losses at this proposed load on the feeder are calculated as:

Technical losses at this load without re conductoring and capacitor bank installed are 139.4 kW.

Technical losses at this load with reconductoring at N1.0, N176, N177, N178, N180, N181, N 183, N188, N189, N211 & N229231 and with a capacitor bank of 450kVAr installed at N208, N229 & N234 are 89.4 kW.
7.6.5 Reduction in the Technical Losses (11 KV Ali Park Feeder)
Reduction in the technical losses due to re conductoring and installation of capacitor banks are described as under:
7.6.5.1 At Proposed (226 A) Load

Loss without reconductoring and without any capacitor bank installed is 124.1 kW.

Loss with reconductoring and a capacitor
banks of 450kVAr installed are 94.0 kW. Reduction in losses is:
124.1KW 94.0 kW = 30.1 kW = 30.1 kW x 100
124.1 kW
7.6.6 Reduction in the Technical Losses (11 KV Rachna Town Feeder)
Reduction in the technical losses due to installation of capacitor banks are described as under:
7.6.6.1 At Proposed (213 A) Load

Loss without any capacitor bank installed is 71.0 KW.

Loss with a capacitor banks of 450kVAr installed are 57.3 kW, Reduction in losses is:
71.0 kW 57.3 kW = 13.7 kW = 13.7 kW x 100
71.0kW
= 19.26%
7.6.8 Reduction in the Technical Losses (11 KV Industrial Feeder Proposed)
Reduction in the technical losses due to installation of capacitor banks are described as under:
7.6.8.2 At Proposed (210 A) Load

Loss without reconductoring and any capacitor bank installed are 139.4 KW.

Loss with reconductoring and capacitor banks of 450 kVAr installed are 89.4 kW.
Reduction in losses is:
139.4 kW 89.4 kW = 50 kW = 50.0 kW x 100
139.4 kW
= 35.86%

Conclusion
From the preceding analysis (first case study) one can conclude that by adopting P.F improvement technique on the L.T side of the transformer not only relieved the UOG power system from the lower power factor penalty charges imposed by WAPDA but can brings the following advantages:

Reduction in KVA demand (27.48%)

Reduction in energy losses of transmission lines (45.70%)

Total saving in KW (27.46%)

Saving is terms of Units (KWH) is 9,345,085 KWH

The best technique to conserve energy in UOG power system is by power factor improvement. Implementation of Rehabilitation Techniques is not necessary because voltage drop across H.T Line is within WAPDAs standard up to 3%.
Second case study shows the best technique to conserve energy in LESCO system is by implementation of rehabilitation techniques.
By applying rehabilitation techniques (second case study) on 11 kV Ali Park and Rachna Town feeders gives a healthy benefit cost ratio 3.7.
LESCO can save 336 kW active power and 1,271,104 KWH energy units annually. Voltage drop, power losses and annual energy loss reduces from 10.8% to 5%, 3.5% to 2.3% and 4.9% to 1.6%
respectively.
Hence power factor improvement and rehabilitation techniques are both useful to conserve the energy depending on the power system requirement.
Recommendations
Work related to this thesis can be preceded, if the software were further enhanced in the direction to make it more dynamic. Graphical representation of power losses, current, voltage, power factor and cable network can be incorporated moreover it could be intelligent enough to show at which point analysis has been done.
11 KV Ali Park and Rachna Town Feeders, emanating from 12 kV Shamkey Grid Station are not capable to withstand the heavy load in summer. Therefore a new feeder namely, 11kV Industrial feeder is proposed to shift load from 11 kV Ali Park and Rachna Town Feeders.
Itis also recommended that all DISCOS may rehabilitate its existing system to achieve fruitful results and there is also need to identify and promote the policies that can motivate and create awareness of energy conservation policies on sustainable basis.
9.0 References

Ather Jamil Dar, Energy Conservation Techniques and Economy Analysis for U.E.T Electrical system, MSc Thesis, U.E.T Lahore, 1999.

Dr. Suhail. A. Qureshi, U.E.T Lahore, Efficient Power Factor Improvement Technique & Energy Conservation of Power system, published by IEEE (USA) Singapore, 1996.

Dr. Suhail. A. Qureshi, M.Kamran, Farhan Mahmood, Energy Conservation Techniques and Implementation of Power Factor Improvement Program, Published in new Horizon, Journal of the Institution of Electrical & Electronics Engineer Pakistan, Vol # 5051 October 2005 to March 2006, (P42).

Data from Various Local and Foreign Manufacturers of Capacitors.

Van Valkenbuegh Nooger & Neville Inc Basic Electricity Part one to part five Combined, 3rd Edition, Publication by Universal Publication Corporation, India.

Dr. Suhail. A. Qureshi, Abdul Sattar Malik, Zahid J Paracha, Impact of Power Factor Improvement Program on Motors in U.E.T Distribution System Published in UET Research Journal, Vol # 15, Lahore Pakistan, Nos (12) January 2004 to December 2004, (P39).

Dr. Suhail. A. Qureshi, M.Kamran, Farhan Mahmood, Role of Masses of Conserve Energy by Power Factor Improvement & Formation of GovtPolicy Presented in UCP IEEP, Multi Topic Conference, May2, 2009, Lahore, (P191).

ENERCON, Improving Energy Efficiency In Electrical System, National Energy Conservation Center, Islamabad, 2003.

Muhammad Amin, Evaluation by Implementation of Distribution System Planning for Energy Loss Reduction , MSc Thesis, 2006.