Empirical Analysis of Clone Detection Mechanism Over Wireless Sensor Networks

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Empirical Analysis of Clone Detection Mechanism Over Wireless Sensor Networks

1Vishakha Jadhav, 2Seema Hanchate

1,2 M.Tech student (ENC) SNDT UMIT Mumbai , Professor SNDT UMIT

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are now used as supporting infrastructure in many applications. As WSN has broadcast approach, there is a need of security. Secure communication in WSNs is very important because information sent through these networks can be easily captured or replaced or altered. Clone attack is node replication attack, which one of the serious attack. In this, An adversary can steal a node from the network and altered data from stolen node and can reprogram that node to create a clone of a stolen node. Proposed clone detection protocol is to protect network from clone attack. In this paper distributed detection mechanism is used to provide high detection probability, Cross Unequal Clustering Routing Algorithm (CUCRA) for routing and clustering while transmission of data which enhanced network lifetime.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, security, clone attack, distributed approach, network lifetime,

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Wireless sensor network is recently enhancing technology due to advancements in Telecommunication field, which has enabled the development of network multitasking sensor nodes. Wireless sensor networks are widely used in very crucial applications such as battlefield surveillance, RADAR imaging, to monitor patients physiological parameters, automotive applications, in environmental applications which involve forest fire detection, precise agriculture, greenhouse, etc. As WSN has broadcast approach, there is a need of security. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are now used as supporting infrastructure in many applications. Secure communication in WSNs is very important because information sent through these networks can be easily captured or replaced or altered.

    There are Different possible attacks on WSN are Selective forwarding attack, Sinkhole attack, Wormholes attack, Sybil attack, flood attack, Acknowledgement spoofing , Sniffing attack, Data integrity attack, Energy drain attack , Black hole attack, Denial of service attack, Physical attacks, Traffic analysis attack, Privacy violation by attack and clone Attacks. One of the serious physical attacks faced by the wireless sensor network is node clone attack. Various techniques are available to overcome the clone attack but existing protocols are have issues like requirement of large storage space, has high communication overhead, larger energy consumption which results in reduction in network-lifetime, less probability of protection against attack. So we are proposing clone detection protocol where we are trying to minimize above issues. Proposed protocol have low transmission overhead, while using reasonably small memory space, less

    power consumption and prolonged battery life with high detection probability against clone attack. Clone-detection protocols must be non-deterministic and fully distributed and fulfill security requirements on witness selection. In distributed clone detection protocols, because witness and detection routes are distributed, ensuring that detection routes encounter witness nodes is challenging.[11]

  2. CLONE ATTACK

    An adversary can capture a sensor node and take out its key materials. Once a node is captured, the adversary can reprogram it and generate a clone of a captured node. These clones can be placed in network. These clone attacks are very harmful to the wireless sensor networks. With a single captured sensor node, the attacker can create as many replica nodes as he wants. The replica nodes are forbidden by the adversary, but have keying materials that allow them to seem like authorized participants in the network. So it is very much hard to detect a clone attack.[10]

    2.1 Impact of Clone Attacks on WSN Security

    WSN has some common security goals such as data confidentiality, authenticity, availability, availability, freshness, data integrity, scalability. In clone attack replica of original node can be deployed anywhere in network, so its very dangerous for keeping the network secure.

  3. CLONE ATTACK DETECTION

    WSN has two methods to set the networks, it might be static (fixed) or mobile. In static WSN sensor nodes are deployed randomly and after deployment their positions do not change. In mobile WSN, the sensor nodes can move their own after deployment.[10] In static WSN Two types of detection techniques are available those are centralized and distributed. In a centralized approach for detecting node replication, when a new node joins the network, it broadcasts a location claim containing its location and identity to its neighbours. One or more of its neighbours then forward this location claim to the base station. With location information for all the nodes in the network, the base station can easily detect any pair of nodes with the same identity but at different locations. The main disadvantage of this approach is that if the base station is compromised or the path to the base station is blocked, adversaries can add any number of replicas in the network. Distributed approaches for detecting clone nodes is based on location information for a node being stored at one or more witness nodes in the network. When a new node joins the network, its location claim is forwarded to the corresponding witness nodes. If any witness node

    receives two different location claims for the same node ID, then the existence of clone is detected [10].

    3.1Distributed approaches

    Distributed schemes do not need central control means the clone detection process runs on every node of the network. In clone node detection process, the node ID and location of node plays important role. Achieves 100% detection of duplicate nodes assuming the broadcast reaches throughout the network.

  4. PROPOSED WORK

    Security and data integrity are the major areas need to be concentrated while performing communications around WSNs. Proposed Clone Detection Protocol is designed and which efficiently analyze the communication data step by step without any interventions. Clone Detection methodology is highly helpful to remove the duplicate data while transmission, which leads the network performance to be more effective and produces two times better accuracy and speed while communication. The scenario starts with selecting the input data file and pass it to manipulation level by means of Clone Estimation algorithm; once the clone is detected the data is secured. The secured and clone eliminated data is meant for communication between source and destination and experimentally it illustrates the performance and efficiency of the wireless Sensor network communications.

      1. Block diagram

        Fig. 1. Block diagram

        The approach is to minimize transmission time while building a network. The basic theory is that clustering is done because the nodes which are clustered have a sensed data which vary in very insignificant amount.[18]

        The existing network build in this paper is static wireless network, which is a continuously self-configuring, of node devices connected wirelessly. First initializing of nodes in the network is done. Initializing process includes the deciding g number of nodes deployed, considering its initial energy as well as transmitter and receiver energy.

      2. Flowchart

    Figure shows the flow chart of the proposed protocol:

    Fig.2. Flow chart

    The basic theory is that clustering is done because the nodes which are clustered have a sensed data which vay in very insignificant amount. So cluster head in a cluster when take the data from their members is similar in nature. Cluster heads have to send similar type of data again and again to base station which is time consuming and wastage of energy by the cluster heads. [17] A threshold sensitive reactive proposed scheme to minimize the transmission time as transmission consume more energy than processing of data at the nodes. This was done to impart two threshold

    parameters, hard and soft threshold. A node only transmit when currently sensed value is greater than hard threshold and difference between current sensed and previous sensed value is greater than soft threshold .This is a kind of optimization technique which can optimize the communication.

  5. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Objectives of this proposed protocol are

    (i) increased network Lifetime (ii) high Clone Detection Probability (iii) less Storage requirement. To fulfill these objectives, we have adopted following methodologies:

    1. In this proposed work for routing, clustering and hopping process during network formation and data transmission, Cross Unequal Clustering Routing Algorithm (CUCRA) is implemented. The Cross Unequal Clustering Routing Algorithm combines the advantages of various clustering algorithms and improves them. In the calculation of the cluster radius, two of the dynamic variables of the cluster size were introduced in the parameters. The node residual energy and the distance between node and the BS implement the dynamic variable of the cluster size. At the same time, introducing cluster adjacent node into the communication between clusters for data forwarding, it effectively reduces the energy loss of the cluster head. Such residual or individual nodes forward the sensed data either directly to the Base Station or by finding the next best hop by sending many control messages hence reduces the network lifetime.[20] The proposed protocol reduces/eliminates such individual node formation and improves the overall network lifetime when compared to the existing protocols.[19]

    2. There is a tradeoff between storage capacity

      and energy consumption, namely, more detection routes can ensure a higher clone detection probability with decreased number of witnesses. Meanwhile, we found that, due to the energy hole phenomenon in WSNs, the remaining energy is as high as 90% under the premature death of the network.

      Therefore, this

      protocol fully utilizes the remaining energy to create as many detection routes as possible to reduce the storage requirements of the node and achieves a small constant storage requirement.[11]

    3. Proposed Protocol Has Fully Distributed

    Characteristics and Provides Strong Protection against Attacks and a High Detection Probability here witness nodes form route paths along circles, with a sink serving as the center, because clone detection is processed along the centrifugal (or centripetal) direction, and the distance between any two detection routes is shorter than the witness path length. Thus, the witness path must encounter the detection route, ensuring that this protocol theoretically has a 100% clone detection probability. Moreover, witness routes and clone detection routes are randomly generated. Thus, even if the adversary knows the algorithm, the locations of

    witness nodes and detection route information cannot be obtained. Therefore, this protocol has fully distributed characteristics and strong robustness to compromise attacks.[11]

    A threshold sensitive secure data transfer scheme to minimize the transmission time as well as to provide more security against attack. This was done to impart two threshold parameters, hard and soft threshold. A node get transmit when currently sensed value is greater than hard threshold and difference between current sensed and previous sensed value is greater than soft threshold. This is a kind of technique which can optimize the communication.[17 ]

  6. SIMULATION RESULTS

The empirical analysis of performance of randomly created wireless sensor network is done with the help of Matlab simulation software, shown below:

Fig.3 Detection probability vs node degree

Fig. 4 Packets sent vs number of rounds

Fig 5 Number of cluster heads vs number of rounds

Fig. 6 Energy consumption vs number of nodes

Fig. 7 Storage requirement vs avg node degree

Fig. 8 Alive nodes vs number of rounds

Fig. 9 Clone detection

    1. Analysis of simulation results

      Here we are analyzing the performance of simulation results of new clone detection protocol with the performance of Low storage clone detection protocol (LSCD).In the graphs shown, LSCD is named as base and new protocol simulated is named as change.

      Fig. 10 Storage requirement under different nodal degree

      Figure 10 shows the Storage requirement under different nodal degrees of our work compared with LSCD protocol. Storage requirement in proposed work is less.

      The storage space requirements can increase with increasing number of nodes.

      Fig. 11 Network lifetime

      Figure 11 shows the network lifetime in terms of calculation of alive nodes. Because CUCRA takes into account both the remaining energy and the distance between the node and the BS in the clustering radius, cluster size can dynamically change with time and also the distance between the node and the BS. CUCRA and EEUC algorithms are using multi-hop communication, they successfully avoid long-distance communication between cluster head and the base station This contributes to the effective balance of energy loss and the extended network lifetime.[20]

      CONCLUSION

      Empirical analysis of network performance is done in this paper. The overall methodology to enhance the network lifetime, clone detection probability and to reduce the requirement of lesser storage space is described. Improving the results using Cross Unequal Clustering Routing Algorithm (CUCRA) for routing and clustering while transmission of data. In our future work, we would like to explore advanced mechanisms to ensure that our protocols continue to function even in the attack of powerful adversaries who replicate the node IDs.

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