Embedded Product Label Reading System using SIFT and Line Detection Algorithm

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV3IS16034

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Embedded Product Label Reading System using SIFT and Line Detection Algorithm

V. Ramya

Department of Computer Science and Engineering

Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, India

M. Kokila Sundari

Department of Computer Science and Engineering,

Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, India

  1. Gayathri Devi

    Department of Computer Science and Engineering,

    Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, India

    Abstract- In order to help the physically challenged visually impaired people to read text labels on product packaging, a product label reading system is proposed. To increase the clear visibility of the text with low time complexity, Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Line detection algorithm is applied. The proposed work is carried out at different levels, such as, preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction, text extraction, and text recognition, Audio output. The input image is preprocessed to improve the quality of that picture. Median filter is applied to enhance the image, borders of the image are observed using the Sobel edge detection method. Segmentation is performed to segment the images. To extract the particular text region of the image scale invariant feature transform is performed and text extraction is employed to draw out parts by one another one. The extracted product label text is recognized by optical character recognition. The audio output of the recognized product label is provided forthe benefit of the visually impaired.

    Key words- SIFT Line detection, Median filter, Sobel edge detection, and optical character recognition.


      The visually impaired people worldwide are around 314 million, were 45 million are blind [1]. In todays developing word reading is really important, printed text is everywhere in day to day life, such as getting a product package, to find a manufacture date and expiry date of the product, receipts, bank statement and so on. There are several systems designed to help the visually impaired people, but to handle product labeling is found difficult. The existing system to find the product is by using bar code reader, where the user identifies the product [2] from the large database using speech. The drawback is that the visually impaired people find it hard to position the barcode [3].


      The overview of the proposed system is designed in Figure

      1. The image of the product is captured using a camera, in proposed work the laptop camera is used. The input picture is captured lively, it is then preprocessed to improve quality of the image and by using a median filter image is

        enhanced. The Sobel edge detection method is applied to detect the edges. The segmentation is performed to segment the image. To extract the particular text region of the image scale invariant feature transform is performed and text extraction is employed to draw out parts by one another one. Optical character recognition is used to binarize and recognize the text regions that are localized by the text characters.

        Input image

        Input image

        Preprocessi ng

        Preprocessi ng

        Segmentat ion

        Segmentat ion



        Text Recogniti on

        Text Extraction

        Text localizatio

        Text Recogniti on

        Text Extraction

        Text localizatio

        Audio output

        Audio output

        Fig 1. Block diagram of the proposed system


        1. Preprocessing

          Preprocessing of the image starts with elimination of noise and image enhancement, the captured image may contain a large amount of noise which must be removed for smooth processing, the captured color image is preprocessed to gray scale image in order to reduce the computational time and image is enhanced to improve the interoperability of information included in the image for human viewers. Both noise elimination and image enhancement is performed by median filter [4, 5].

          1. Median Filter

            In signal processing, noise reduction is often desirable on an image or signal. Noise reduction is a typical

            preprocessing step which improves the results of edge detection on an image. To remove a noise median filter is used, which is a nonlinear digital filtering technique. The idea behind the median filter is used to run through the pixel of the image and replacing the pixel value with the median if neighboring pixel matches. Median filter also helps in preserving edges during the noise removal process.

          2. Sobel Edge Detection

            Sobel is a popular edge detection method which uses the derivative approximation to find edges. It returns edges at those points where the gradient of the considered image is maximized. The horizontal and vertical gradient matrices whose dimensions are 3X3 for the Sobel method has been broadly used in the edge detection operations. Each direction of Sobel mask is utilized to an image, and then two new images are made. One image shows the vertical response and other image shows the horizontal response. The value of the threshold is used to detect edge pixels.

        2. Segmentation

          The processes of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments (i.e. sets of pixels) are segmented. The concept of the segmentation is to modify the representation of an image into meaningful and easier to analyze. The region growing segmentation technique is performed.

          1. Region Growing

            This method mainly relies on the neighboring pixels with similar pixel values in one region. If the similarity in pixel is identified, cluster is made as one or more of its neighbors.

          2. Histogram

            The range of data is split into equal size bins to construct a histogram. For each bin, the number of points of data set is considered. Frequency is plotted along the vertical axis, while response variable is plotted along the horizontal axis.

        3. Feature Extraction

          To observe and describe local features in the images, Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm is introduced. The SIFT is invariant to translations, rotations and scaling in the image area and robust to moderate perspective transformations. There are primarily four steps involved in SIFT algorithm.

          1. Detection of Scale Space Extrema

            In order to detect larger corners, large windows are needed, for this purpose scale-space filtering is used. Laplacian of

            Gaussian is found in the image with various values.

            G( X ,Y , ) with input image I(x, y)If the difference of Gaussian is found images are searched for local extrema over scale and space. If its local extrema it is a potential key point. The key point is best represented in that scale.

          2. Keypoint Localization

            The potential keypoint locations have to be refined to get accurate results. If the strength of the extrema is less than a threshold value, it is eliminated. The deviation of Gaussian has higher response edges which also necessitate to be taken out. The interest points remain strong by eliminating low contrast keypoints and edge keypoints.

          3. Orientation assignment

            An orientation is set apart for each key point in order to achieve invariance of image rotation.

          4. Keypoint Descriptor

            By now keypoint descriptor is created. The region around the keypoint is assumed. It is divided into sublocks 4X4 size, 8 bin orientation of histogram is created, and an aggregate of 128 bin values is achieved. It represents a vector to form keypoint descriptor.

        4. Text Extraction

          Lin Detection algorithm using character extraction.

          1. Line Detection Algorithm

            • A line is a connected group of aligned edge pixels, and a corner is a group of edges that form together two jointive non-parallel lines [12, 13]. Line- detection algorithms based on contour extraction usually involve the following stages of image processing: smoothing, edge detection, edge thinning, edge linking, chain straightening and line correction.

            • While edges (i.e. boundaries between regions with relatively distinct gray levels) are by far the most common type of discontinuity in an image, instances of thin lines in an image occur frequently enough that it is useful to have a separate mechanism for detecting them.

            • Hough transform can be applied to detect lines; yet, in that instance, the end product is a parametric description of the line in an image.

            Equation of a line


        5. Text Recognition

          Text recognition is performed by off-the-shelf Optical character recognition (OCR)[1]. OCR prior to output of informative words from the localized text regions. A text region labels the minimum rectangular area for the accommodation of characters inside it, so the border of the text region contacts the edge boundary of the text character. However, the experiments show that OCR generates better performance if text regions are first assigned proper margin areas and binaries to segment text characters from background.

        6. Audio output

      The given product is recognized by using SIFT and Line detection algorithm. The recognized product is embedded unit which generated by P89C51, APR9600 and speaker. In micro controller is a program with the 10 product name and corresponding voice is stored in APR9600.A micro controller receive the signal from the pc through the RS232.Based on that received signal audio output played through Speaker under the control of microcontroller.

      Fig 3 Image of APR9600





      Power Supply

      3) Speaker



      Speakers are one of the common devices. The purpose of speakers is to produce audio output that can be heard by the listener. Speakers are transducers that convert electromagnetic waves into sound waves. The speakers receive audio input from a device such as an audio receiver.





      Fig 2. Block diagram of vision based Assistive System


      1. Component description

        • P89C51 Micro Controller


        • Speaker

        1. P89C51 Micro Controller

      A Single-Chip 8-Bit Microcontroller manufactured in advanced CMOS process. On-chip Flash Program Memory with In-System Programming (ISP) and In-Application Programming (IAP) capability. The device also has four 8- bit I/O ports, three 16-bit timer/event counters. The added features of the P89C51 make it a powerful microcontroller for applications that require pulse width modulation, high- speed I/O and up/down counting capabilities such as motor control.

      2) APR9600

      APR device is a single chip voice recording. The playback capability for 40 to 60 seconds. The device is support both random and sequential access of multiple messages. The sample rates are user selectable, allowing designer to customize their design for unique quality. The device is ideal for use in portable voice recorders, many other consumer and industrial application.

      Fig 4 .Speaker


Step 1:

This is the first stage of the proposed work and it is used for identifying the input image. This phase consists of three modules, first one is a camera, it is employed to check that the camera will be acting right or not, and second stage is to capture the product image, and third stage is used to browse the image that is already stored.

Step 2:

In step 2, the original image will be input to the system for preprocessing,

Step 3:

The original picture is converted into a grayscale picture for preprocessing, because the color image requires a lot of computational time.

Step 4:

The text is filtered from the edge mask image

Step 5:

The region based segmentation is used for segmenting the image. This method detects region directly because it is used to extract the image region from the location of starting point and also segmented the image pixel by pixel

Step 6:

This step is used to detect the text.

Step 7:

After text localization the text is displayed in the message text box.

Step 7:

After text recognition the text codes are send to micro controller through RS232. corresponding voice is stored in APR9600.A micro controller receive the signal from the pc through the RS232.Based on that received signal audio output played through Speaker under the control of microcontroller.


The proposed system to read printed text on hand held objects for assisting visually impaired people. The input image is taken lively and it is preprocessed to improve the quality of the image and to enhance the image using median filter, and then detect the edges using the Sobel edge detection method. At the next stage, segmentation is performed to the segment the image and then scale invariant feature transform algorithm is used to localize text in the camera based image, and then text extraction is used to extract the character one by one. The optical character recognition is used to perform word recognition on the localized text regions and transform into audio output to blind users in speech.


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