 Open Access
 Authors : Dr. S. Sridhar , Monisha Tanniru , Rasagna Sidhantam , Sai Viswanath Singamsetty
 Paper ID : IJERTV9IS050045
 Volume & Issue : Volume 09, Issue 05 (May 2020)
 Published (First Online): 10052020
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Efficient High Speed Computing Low Power Multiplier Architecture using Vedic Mathematics For Digital Signal Processing Applications
Dr. S. Sridhar
Electronics and Communication Engineering Lendi Institute of Engineering and Technology Vizianagaram, India
Monisha Tanniru
Electronics and Communication Engineering Lendi Institute of Engineering and Technology Vizianagaram, India
Sai Viswanath Singamsetty Electronics and Communication Engineering Lendi Institute of Engineering and Technology
Vizianagaram, India
Rasagna Sidhantam
Electronics and Communication Engineering Lendi Institute of Engineering and Technology Vizianagaram, India
Abstract DSP(Digital signal processing) applications typically invole complicated mathematical operations to be performed repetitively on data samples with less delay and power consumption. Multiplication based operations like multiply and accumulate(MAC) and inner products are few computationally Aggressive Arithmetic Functions(CAAF) frequently contained in todays VLSI systems and DSP applications like FFT, Finite Impulse Response filters etc. Design of a high speed 4/8 bit Vedic multiplier based on the techniques of ancient Vedic Mathematics is proposed in this manuscript. Vedic method of multiplication strikes a difference in the conventional method of multiplication. Verilog HDL is employed for designing the structural modules, while Xilinx ISE tool is used for validating the designs.
Keywords Vedicmultiplier, fast binary multiplication, HDL simulation, synthesis.

INTRODUCTION
Multipliers are the primary arithmetic operational units that determine the execution time in many digital signal/image processing, networking and communication based applications. For the past many decades multiplier designs are revolving around parameters of consideration like high speed, low power consumption, regularity of layout and hence less area or even combination of them (with tradeoffs among them) thus paving to implement compact digital systems. Owing to these parameters, technological advancements are urging researchers to innovate novel multiplication algorithms based on various serial, parallel and hybrid multiplication techniques. Although there exist several types of multiplication algorithms, we have chosen to implement a digital multiplier suitable for digital signal and image processing applications using Vedic mathematics based on the ensured guarantee of faster and accurate calculations by Vedic mathematics.
In twentieth century Vedic mathematics name is discovered which is given to the ancient Indian system of
mathematics. The system of Vedic Mathematics was entirely based upon sixteen Sutras or wordformulae and thirteen sub sutras [8] [9]. Vedic mathematics reduces the complex calculations that exist in conventional mathematics. Out of all the sixteen sutras available in Vedic mathematics, only two of them are made use of in multiplication operations. They are Urdhva Triyakbhyam sutra and Nikhilam Sutra. Urdhva Triyakbhyam sutra deals with vertical and cross wise where as Nikhilam deals with all from 9 and last from 10.Techniques of Vedic mathematics for digital multiplication are quite different from conventional multiplication techniques. S Akhter et.al [1] implemented fast NÃ—N multiplier in Vedic mathematics using VHDL, as it gives effective utilization of structural method of modelling [1]. B. D. Kumar et.al [2] highlighted the efficiency of Vedic multiplication where the design complexity is drastically reduced modularity greatly increased for inputs having large no of bits. H. Goyal et.al [3] implemented fast multiplier based on Vedic mathematics using modified square root carry select adder, this method reduces the carry propagation delay. Since adders are main components used in multipliers, using fast adders definitely enhances the overall performance of Vedic multipliers. Various Adder topologies like Ripple Carry Adder (RCA), Carry Select Adder (CSA), Square Root Carry Select Adder (SQRTCSA) etc., are used to compare area, delay and power [4]. Since squaring operation plays a vital role in high speed applications (where the speed is a crucial performance characteristic) like animation, Digital signal processing, and image processing, etc. Yavadunam sutra and bit reduction techniques are employed for squaring binary numbers in High speed VLSI architecture [5].
Multipliers employed in binary cubing architectures are designed using Anurupyena sutra of Vedic mathematics. Combinational path delay is reduced and it achieves better area in terms of slices. Comparison is made between conventional and Vedic methods [6]. These are faster than
conventional square and cube because of its regular and and parallel structure of Vedic square and cube. Because of reduced hardware complexity and delay the proposed Vedic multipliers square and cube can be implemented in Arithmetic and Logic Unit designs replacing the traditional square and cube circuits [7]. Most of the computing time is occupied by squaring operation and it becomes to increase the speed which are to be squared.
Remaining sections of the manuscript are organised as follows. Section II deals with Different multiplication algorithms and section III deals with the proposed Vedic multiplication architecture. Experimental evaluations and analysis are depicted in section IV and section V concludes the manuscript.

DIFFERENT MULTIPLICATION ALGORITHMS
Multipliers play a prominent role in various digital signal/image processing, wireless communications, Networking, Embedded Systems and various applicable areas. The basic arithmetic operations – addition and multiplication are fundamentally present in majority of the electronic circuits. Statistics clarify the facts that more than 70% instructions in microprocessors (and/or microcontrollers) and DSP algorithms include multipliers. Usage of multiplier circuits always compel designers to trade for added complexity and increased silicon area requirements with enhanced speed and power consumption etc. Of course there are numerous number of multipliers having unique pros and cons for themselves which include the Grid Method, Binary Multiplier, Shift and Add multiplier, Dadda Multiplier, Array multiplier and Sequential multiplier etc. Few of the multiplication algorithms are discussed in this section.

Grid Multiplication Algorithm Grid multiplication algorithm represents an introductory method of multipledigit multiplication; it remained a standard part of mathematics curriculum in England since late 1990s. Process includes partitioning the both factors to be multiplied into their hundreds, tens and units parts. Further partial products are calculated explicitly in a simple multiplicationonly stage and these contributions are totaled to generate the final product in separate addition stage. For example, calculation of 34 Ã— 13 is computed using the grid as shown in fig 1.
Fig 1: Example for Grid Multiplication
Product is obtained through forming rowbyrow totals (300
+ 40) + (90 + 12) = 340 + 102 = 442.

Binary Multiplication Algorithm Binary Multiplication algorithm generates product of two binary numbers. Process includes calculating the partial products, shifting and adding
them together. Long multiplicand is multiplied by 0 or 1 which is much easier than decimal multiplication as product by 0 or 1 is 0 or same number respectively Architecture for Binary Multiplier as shown in the fig 2 .
Fig 2: Example for Binary Multiplication

Shift and Add Multiplication Algorithm Depending on the SB bit value of multiplier, the multiplicand value is added and accumulated. For every clock cycle the multiplier bits are shifted one bit to the right and its value is tested. If the multiplier bit is 0, then only a shift operation is performed. Similarly if the multiplier bit is 1, then the multiplicand bits are added to the accumulator and resultant partial product is shifted to the right by one bit. After testing all multiplier bits, the product is retained in the accumulator. The accumulator is 2N (M+N) in size. This circuit carry several advantages in asynchronous circuits. Architecture for shift and add multiplication is shown in the figure.3 below.
Fig 3: Example for Shift and Add Multiplication

DADDA Multiplication Algorithm Dadda multiplication almost resembles the Wallace multiplication algorithm. Unlike the Wallace multipliers that perform many reductions on each layer, Dadda multipliers do very few (minimum) reductions. Hence Dadda multipliers represent a less expensive reduction phase, while the numbers are a few bit longer requiring slightly larger adder circuits. This implies that only fewer columns are compressed in the initial stages of the column compression tree, and more number of columns are compressed in later levels of the multiplication algorithm. Dotdiagram representation of 8×8 Dadda multiplier is shown in Fig 4.Below.
Fig 4: Example for Dadda Multiplication
A plain diagonal line connecting two dots in figure above represent the outputs of the full adder while, the outputs of half adder are represented by crossed diagonal lines connecting two dots.

Array Multiplication Algorithm Array multiplication algorithm represents an efficient layout of combinational multiplier design. Here the multiplication process is purely based on add and shift algorithm, each of the partial products are generated through ascertaining product of multiplicand with one multiplier bit every time. Likewise N1 (N denotes number of multiplier bits) number of adders are required to complete the process. Hence array multiplier is considered to consume more number of logic gates and hence occupy more area. Therefore Array multiplier is economically less feasible though it is faster in operation [10] Architecture for Array multiplication as shown in fig 5.
Fig 5: Example for Array Multiplication

Sequential Multiplication Algorithm Sequential multipliers are mostly preferred because of their low area requirements. A sequential multiplier multiplies two binary numbers (multiplicand X – n bits and multiplier Y – m bits) using single n bit adder, firstly the circuit processes a single partial product at once and it repeats the it to m times. Figure 6 below shows the partial product generation and addition in a sequential multiplier.
Fig 6: Example for Sequential Multiplication
Here the multiplication process is divided into some sequential steps such that in each step, the generated partial products are added to an accumulated partial sum. Further the partial sum is shifted to align the accumulated sum with partial product in next steps. In every step sequential multiplier includes three operations to generate partial products, adding partial products to the together partial sum later shifting the partial sum.Therefore, every step in sequential multiplier includes three different operations of generating partial products, adding partial products to the accumulated partial sum and shifting the partial sum.


PROPOSED VEDIC MULTIPLICATION ALGORITHM
The word Vedic is procured from the word Veda. The word Veda represents the storehouse of all knowledge. Vedic mathematics is a part of four Vedas (books of wisdom), it is a part of Sthapatya Veda (book on civil engineering and architecture), which is an upaveda (supplement) of Atharva Veda. Vedic mathematics can give a proper knowledge of several concepts in mathematics like arithmetic, geometry, trigonometry, factorization, calculus, quadratic equations. Jagadguru Shankaracharya Bharati Krishna Teerthaji Maharaja (1884 1960) makes all part of the work together and gave a proper mathematical explaination which is useful for various applications. Swamiji constructed 16 sutras (formulae) and 16 Upa sutras (sub formulae) after extensive research in Atharva Veda[7] [8]. These 16 Strutas are dealing with various groups in mathematics like geometry calculus etc. These Sutras are enlisted alphabetically (below) along with their brief meanings [9].

ChalanaKalanabyham Differences and Similarities.

Ekadhikina Purvena Increment one more than the previous one.

Ekanyunena Purvena Decrement one less than the previous one.

Gunakasamuchyah Factors of sum is equal to the sum of factors.

Gunitasamuchyah Product of sum is equal to the sum of product.

Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah All from 9 and last from 10.

Paraavartya Yojayet Transpose and adjust.

Puranapuranabyham By the completion or non completion.

Sankalana vyavakalanabhyam By addition and by subtraction.

Shesanyankena Charamena Remainders by the last digit.

Shunyam Saamyasamuccaye When the sum is the same that sum is zero.

Sopaantyadvayamantyam Ultimate and twice the penultimate.

Urdhvatiryagbhyam Vertically and crosswise.

Vyashtisamanstih Part and Whole.

Yaavadunam Whatever the extent of its Deficiency
Fig 7: Architecture of Vedic Multiplication
Architectural design of proposed Vedic multiplier is shown in Figure 7. above. For 4bit multiplication Input bits are divided in two equal parts, cross and vertical product computations are performed. Input data is A=A3A2A1A0 and B=B3B2B1B0, while the output bits represented by S=S1S2S3S4S5S6S7S8. Proposed architecture is comprised of designing different structural modules like:

Four 2bit binary multipliers

Two 4bit parallel adders

One 2bit parallel adder.

One Half Adder
Detailed operations relevant to structural details of above modules are elaborated below in a sequential manner.

TWO BIT BINARY MULTIPLIER:
Design of 2bit binary multiplier is meant for multiplying the two 2bit binary numbers and provides the result. Methodology of multiplication is based on calculating the partial products, shifting them and adding them together. The logic diagram of 2bit binary multiplier (as depicted below in Figure 8) contains two Half Adders and AND Gate units.
Fig 8: Logic Diagram of 2 Bit Binary Multiplier
Four such 2bit binary multiplier units are employed for the overall top level design unit.

4BIT PARALLEL ADDER:
A full adder can take three inputs and performs addition operation with an input carry. But a Parallel Adder is a digital circuit, which is a cascade of several full adders. Such a n bit adder formed by cascading n full adders (FA1 to FAn) is used to add two nbit binary numbers. A ripplecarry adder is a simple form of parallel adder, where the carryout of each full adder is connected to the carryin of the next full adder. Hence the total delay time of the adder is the time it would take for a carry to ripple through all bitpair full adders. Block diagram of a 4bit parallel adder is shown in Figure 9 below.
Fig 9: Block Diagram of 4Bit Parallel Adder

2BIT PARALLEL ADDER:
A 2Bit parallel adder is designed using an EXOR (Exclusive OR) gate and AND gate. Here two full adders are connected in a parallel manner. The Block Diagram of 2bit parallel adder is shown in fig 10.
Fig 10: Block Diagram of 2Bit Parallel Adder
The logic diagram of 2Bit Parallel Adder is shown in Figure 11 below.
Fig 11: 2Bit Parallel Adder Logic Diagram

HALF ADDER:
Half adder is constructed using an XOR gate and an AND gate, it is meant for adding 2 bits and generate a sum bit (S) and carry bit (C) as the outputs. Though half adder is a simple circuit it has a major disadvantage of adding only two input bits (A and B) and has nothing to do with the carry (if there is any in the input). That means the binary addition process is not complete and hence it is called a half adder. Logic diagram of an Half Adder circuit is shown in Figure 12. Below.
Fig 12: Half Adder Circuit



EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS
Structural modules of proposed multiplier are designed using Verilog (HDL) programming language. The structural design modules are validated using Xilinx ISE tool. Experimental evaluations pertaining to the simulated waveforms and results obtained for various other blocks are critically evaluated below.
Fig 13: Simulation Waveforms of 4Bit Multiplier
Experimental analysis performed for 2bit, 4bit, 8bit and 16bit multiplications. Simulations relevant for 4bit Vedic multiplication operations corresponding to different 4bit input values (A and B) are displayed in Figure 13.Similarly waveforms relevant to 2bit operations are shown in Figure14. below.
Fig 14: Simulation Waveforms of 2Bit Multiplier
The waveforms relevant to 4bit parallel adder with inputs A[3:0] and B[3:0] generating 8bit sum output and single bit carry output is displayed in Figure15.below.
Fig 15: Simulation Waveforms of 4bit Parallel Adder
Waveforms relevant to 2bit parallel adder with inputs A[1:0] and B[1:0] generating 4bit sum output and single bit carry output is displayed in Figure16.below.
Fig 16: Simulation Waveforms of 2bit Parallel Adder

CONCLUSION
With regards to operation of various multiplier circuits parameters like operating speed, power consumption and silicon area under usage are of primary concern, that are in turn dependent on the typical adder circuits deployed. Proposed Vedic mathematics binary multiplier circuits are explored with binary parallel adder circuit components. Here it is observed that parallel adders are more efficient in terms boperation. In contrast Carry Increment Adder circuits are meant for future deployment as they require only little
`additional logic and reduced delay at the cost of circuit area.
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