 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 0
 Authors : Tauseef Bashir , Manjit Kour
 Paper ID : IJERTV7IS090002
 Volume & Issue : Volume 07, Issue 09 (September – 2018)
 Published (First Online): 05012019
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Effect of Silt Content on the Strength Property of Concrete A Case Study
Effect of Silt Content on the Strength Property of Concrete A Case Study
1. Tauseef Bashir,
Student,
Department of structural engineering, Indo Global Group of Colleges Mohali, Punjab 140109
2 Manjit Kour Science
Assistant Professor, Department of Structural Engineering, Indo Global Group of Colleges Mohali,
Punjab 140109
Abstract – This project is robust with the effects of different quantities of silt content present in fine aggregates on the strength of concrete. The 3 days, 7 days, & 28 days compressive strength of concrete is checked. 36 samples were tested. For different tests such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength on different shaped samples (cube, cylinder, & beam). Each 9 samples casted with different fine aggregates found in the river Jehlum at different locations namely, Qamarwari, Pampore, and Lasjan. Each sample is casted with design mix of M30 ratio.
INTRODUCTION

: SILT:
Silt consists of small particles or grains of soil and minerals that are easily carried and deposited by water. Each particle is smaller than a grain of sand but larger than a clay particle. When heavy rains pound the soil some of these fine granular particles are carried by the runoff water as silt. Silt carried by water runoff is deposited in lowlands, rivers or ponds as sediment. The environmental impact of silt is enormous, as once it settles into a river or lowland it provides valuable nutrients for plants and insects in the sediment it creates.
Silt carried down the Nile River, for example, created an oasis of rich, fertile soil for the ancient Egyptians. Silt is carried down the Mississippi and other rivers to the ocean where it also provides a rich habitat for plants and fish. But silt can also be a source of problems by clogging pipes and drains. When too much silt is dumped into waterways or rivers, it can become a pollutant known as siltation. This can cause a number of environmental problems, including killing fish by clogging their gills, and by reducing the water's dissolved oxygen level

: Properties and characteristics of Silt:
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar. Silt may occur as a soil (often mixed with sand or clay) or as sediment mixed in suspension with water (also known as a suspended load) and soil in a body of water such as a river. It may also exist as soil deposited at the bottom of a water body, like mudflows from landslides. Silt has a
moderate specific area with a typically nonsticky, plastic feel. Silt usually has a floury feel when dry, and a slippery feel when wet. Silt can be visually observed with a hand lens.
Silt particles range between 0.0039 and 0.0625 mm, larger than clay but smaller than sand particles. ISO 14688 grades silts between 0.002 mm and 0.063 mm. In actuality, silt is chemically distinct from clay, and unlike clay, grains of silt are approximately the same size in all dimensions; furthermore, their size ranges overlap. Clays are formed from thin plateshaped particles held together by electrostatic forces, so present cohesion. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Texture Classification system, the sandsilt distinction is made at the
0.05 mm particle size. The USDA system has been adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). In the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) and the AASHTO Soil Classification system, the sandsilt distinction is made at the 0.075 mm particle size (i.e., material passing the #200 sieve). Silts and clays are distinguished mechanically by their plasticity

Effects of silt on hardened concrete:
Effect of silt fines on the durability properties of concrete. Silt fines are fine aggregate particles smaller than the 75 m (No. 200) sieve. … The compressive strength, however, when silt fine content is small than 5%, increases only 1 MPa. But decreases from 3 MPa to 5 MPa when the silt content increases from 7% to 9%…were cast and tested in this study. Moreover, chloride transport tests were conducted to investigate the properties of concrete. Test results indicate a decrease in durability when the ratio of silt content to fine aggregate exceeds 5%. The compressive strength, however, when silt fine content is small than 5%, increases only 1 MPa. But decreases from 3 MPa to 5 MPa when the silt content increases from 7% to 9%. These results could serve as a reference in concrete production as well as quality control of fine aggregate containing a large amount of silt fines.

SOURCE OF MATERIALS AND TEST DATA
S.No
Name of Materials
Source
Specific Gravity
Water Absorption (%)
Silt Content(%)
1
Cement OPC 43 Brand TCI
3.15
–
–
2
Coarse Aggregates (20.mm)
QAMARWARI
2.84
–
–
3
Fine Aggregates
QAMARWARI, LASJAN, PAMPORE
2.64
2.64
2.64
7.5
4.17
2.5
6.65
4.65
4.8
4
Water
1
–
–
–

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION OF SILT CONTENT AS PER IS 383 FOR QAMARWARI SAMPLE
Description
Sample Numbers
Sample1
Sample2
Sample2
Volume of sample, V1 (ml)
75
75
75
Volume of silt after 3 hours, V2(ml)
5
6
4
% silt by volume =(V2/V1)*100
6.67
8
5.3
Average of above three values =6.65%

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION OF SILT CONTENT FOR LASJAN SAMPLE AS PER IS 383
Description
Sample Numbers
Sample1
Sample2
Sample2
Volume of sample, V1 (ml)
82
82
82
Volume of silt after 3 hours, V2(ml)
3
5
4
% silt by volume =(V2/V1)*100
3.4
5.8
4.8
Average of above three values =4.65%

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION OF SILT CONTENT FOR PAMPORE SAMPLE AS PER IS 383
Description
Sample Numbers
Sample1
Sample2
Sample2
Volume of sample, V1 (ml)
82
82
82
Volume of silt after 3 hours, V2(ml)
5
4
3
% silt by volume =(V2/V1)*100
6.0
4.8
3.6
Average of above three values =4.8%

Details of Lasjan Sample


SAMPLE DETAILS
Ingredients: Qantity
Cement 23Kg
Coarse Aggregates 74Kg
Fine Aggregates 35Kg
Water 9Kg
Zone of Sand IV
Silt Content 4.65%
Water Content in Sand 4.17%

Details of Pampore Sample
Ingredients: Quantity
Cement 22.97Kg
Coarse Aggregates 70Kg
Fine Aggregates 33.21Kg
Water 9.45Kg
Zone of Sand IV
Silt Content 4.8%
Water Content in Sand 4.8%

Details of Qamarwari Sample
Ingredients: Quantity
Cement 22.97Kg
Coarse Aggregates 70Kg
Fine Aggregates 33.21Kg
Water 7.45Kg
Zone of Sand IV
Silt Content 6.65%
Water Content in Sand 7.5%

Tests Performed

Compressive strength test

Split tensile test

Flexural strength test

SPECIMEN USED, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Compressive strength test

cubes of 15 cm size Mix. M30 Split tensile test
Concrete cylinder 15 cm diameter & 30cm long Flexural strength test
Beam mould of size 15 x 15x 70 cm (when size of aggregate is less than 38 mm)
8. RESULTS OF LASJAN SAMPLE
The compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength test of concrete with silt content of 4.65% is shown in this table of different specimen.
Test date
CUBE(COMPRESSIVE STENGTH TEST) (N/ mm2 )
CYLINDER(SPLIT TENSILE TEST) (N/ mm2 )
BEAM(FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST) (N/ mm2 )
3days
435
110
8
7days
480
160
13
28days
722
185
15
The 3days, 7days and 28 days compressive strength of lasjan sample is shown in the graph below:
Cube Compressive Strength of Lasjan Sample
Compressive Strength (N/mm2)
Compressive Strength Lasjan(N/mm2)
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
3days 7days 28days
Days
Compressive Strength
Lasjan
The 3days, 7days and 28 days Split Tensile Strength of lasjan sample is shown in the graph below:
Cylinder Split Tensile Strength of Lasjan Sample
CYLINDER(SPLIT TENSILE TEST) (N/ mm2 )
Split Tensile Strength(N/mm
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
3days 7days 28days
Days
CYLINDER(SPLIT TENSILE TEST) (N/ mm2 )
The 3days, 7days and 28 days Flexural strength of lasjan sample is shown in the graph below:
Beam Flexural Strength of Lasjan Sample
BEAM(FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST) (N/
mm2 )
16
Flexural Strength
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
3days 7days 28days
Days
BEAM(FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST) (N/
mm2 )

DETAILS OF PAMPORE SAMPLE
The compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength test of concrete with silt content of 4.80% is shown in this table of different specimen.
Test date
CUBE(COMPRESSIVE STENGTH TEST) (N/ mm2 )
CYLINDER(SPLIT TENSILE TEST) (N/ mm2 )
BEAM(FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST) (N/
mm2 )
3days
420
80
7
7days
472
120
12
28days
705
150
14
The 3days, 7days and 28 days compressive strength of pampore sample is shown in the graph below:
Cube Compressive Strength of Pampore Sample
Compressive Strength(N/mm
Cube Compressive Strength Pampore(N/mm2)
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
3days 7days 28days
Days
Cube Compressive Strength Pampore
The 3days, 7days and 28 days Split Tensile Strength of pampore sample is shown in the graph below:
Cylinder Split Tensile Test of Pampore Sample
Cylindrical Split Tensile Test Pampore(N/mm2)
160
Tensile Strength(N/mm
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

days 7days 28days
Days
Cylindrical Split Tensile Test Pampore
The 3days, 7days and 28 days Flexural strength of Pampore sample is shown in the graph below:
Beam Flexural Strength of Pampore Sample
BEAM(FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST)
(N/ mm2 )
16
14
Flexural Strength
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
3days 7days
Days
BEAM(FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST) (N/
mm2 )
From above results it is observed that sand from pampore with silt content 4.80 %, compressive strength, split tensile strength, and flexural strength is increased as days of curing increased. If results are compared with sand from Lasjan with silt content (4.65%), it is observed that all strength is decreasing as slit content is increased.


RESULTS OF QAMARWARI SAMPLE



The compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength test of concrete with silt content of 6.65% is shown in this table of different specimen.
Test date 
CUBE(COMPRESSIVE STENGTH TEST) (N/ mm2 ) 
CYLINDER(SPLIT TENSILE TEST)( N/ mm2 ) 
BEAM(FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST)( N/ mm2 ) 
3days 
320 
70 
6 
7days 
450 
110 
10 
28days 
630 
130 
13 
The 3days, 7days and 28 days compressive strength of Qamarwari sample is shown in the graph below:
400
300
200
Cube Compressive Strength
Qamarwari
100
0
Compressive Strength (N/mm2)
Cube compressive Strength of Qamarwari Sample
700
600
500
Cube Compressive Strength
Qamarwari(N/mm2)
3days
7days
28days
Days
The 3days, 7days and 28 days Split Tensile Strength of qamarwari sample is shown in the graph below:
Cylinder Split Tensile Test of Qamarwari Sample
CYLINDER(SPLIT TENSILE TEST)( N/ mm2 )
Tensile Strength (N/mm2)
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
3days 7days 28days
Days
CYLINDER(SPLIT TENSILE TEST)( N/ mm2 )
The 3days, 7days and 28 days Flexural strength of Qamarwari sample is shown in the graph below:
Beam Flexural Strength of Qamarwari Sample
BEAM(FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST)(
Flexural Strength(N/mm2)
N/ mm2 )
14
12
10
8
6 BEAM(FLEXURAL
4 STRENGTH TEST)( N/
2 mm2 )
0
3days 7days 28days
Days
From above results it is observed that sand from pampore, Lasjan and qamarwari with silt content 4.80 %, 4.65% and 6.65% compressive strength, split tensile strength, and flexural strength is increased as days of curing increased. If results are compared with sand from Lasjan with silt content (4.65%), it is observed that all strength is decreasing as slit content is increased.

At the end, all the strengths are compared with each other .
In below graph comparison of compressive strength of sand from different location having different percentage of silt content are shown.
Compressive Strength of Three samples Take at Different Locations
800
700
Compressive Strength(N/mm2)
600
500
400
300
200
100
compressive strength of lasjan sample
compressive of Pampore sample
compressive strength of Qamarwari sample
0
3days 7days 28days
No. of Days(curing)
In Below split tensile strength of all the samples taken from three different locations are compared with each other having different percentage of silt content.
Split Tensile Strength OF Three Samples Taken From Different Locations
200
Split Tensile Strength (N/mm2)
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
3days 7days 28days
No. of Days(Curing)
Split Tensile Strength of Lasjan Sample
Split Tensile Strength of Pampore Sample
Split Tensile Strength of Qamarwari sample
In below Bar Chart flexural strength of all the samples taken from three different locations are compared with each other having different percentage of silt content .
Flexural Strength of Three Samples Taken From Different Locations
16
14
12
Flexural Strength (N/mm2)
10 Flexural Strength of Lasjan
sample
8 Flexural Strength of Pampore
6 Sample
Flexural Strength of Qamarwari
4 sample
2
0
3days 7days 28days
No. of Days(Curing)
From above graphs, it is observed that all types of strengths are decreases as the silt content is increases.
CONCLUSION:
Based on the experimental investigations, the following conclusions were drawn.

The control mix for M30 grade with the varying quantity of silt content by 6.65%, 4.65%, & 4.80% were designed.

It is concluded that with the increase in 0.15% of silt content in fine aggregates, the compressive strength of concrete mixes decreases by 0.15%,0.08%,and 0.17% after 3,7 and 28 days respectively comparing Lasjan and Pampore samples.

It is concluded that with the increase in 1.85% of silt content in fine aggregates, the compressive strength of concrete mixes decreases by 1%, 0.22%, and 0.75% after 3,

and 28 days respectively comparing pampore and qamarwari samples.


) It is concluded that with the increase in 2% of silt content in fine aggregates, the compressive strength of concrete mixes decreases by 1.15%,0.30%,and 0.92% after 3,7 and 28 days respectively comparing Lasjan and Qamarwari samples.

) It is concluded that with the increase in 0.15% of silt content in fine aggregates, the Split Tensile strength of concrete mixes decreases by 0.3%,0.40%,and 0.35% after 3,7 and 28 days respectively comparing Lasjan and Pampore samples.

It is concluded that with the increase in 1.85% of silt content in fine aggregates, the Split Tensile strength of concrete mixes decreases by 0.1%, 0.1%, and 0.2% after 3,
7 and 28 days respectively comparing qamarwari and Pampore samples.

) It is concluded that with the increase in 2% of silt content in fine aggregates, the compressive strength of concrete mixes decreases by 1.4%,0.5%,and 0.55% after 3,7 and 28 days respectively comparing Lasjan and Qamarwari samples.

) It is concluded that with the increase in 0.15% of silt content in fine aggregates, the flexural strength of concrete mixes decreases by 0.01%,0.01%,and 0.01% after 3,7 and
28 days respectively comparing Lasjan and pampore samples.

) It is concluded that with the increase in 1,85% of silt content in fine aggregates, the compressive strength of concrete mixes decreases by 0.01%,0.02%,and 0.01% after 3,7 and 28 days respectively comparing pampore and Qamarwari samples.

) It is concluded that with the increase in 2% of silt content in fine aggregates, the flexural strength of concrete mixes decreases by 1.02%,0.03%,and 0.02% after 3,7 and
28 days respectively comparing Lasjan and Qamarwari samples.
REFRENCES:
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