Effect of Plastic Waste (Polypropylene) in Bitumen

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Effect of Plastic Waste (Polypropylene) in Bitumen

A. Govandan

M. Tech, Assistant professor, Dept of CIVIL-PITS

  1. Philip Raj

    Dept of CIVIL-PITS

  2. Sabari Krishnan

Dept of CIVIL-PITS

Abstract:- Discarding of plastic waste is a global problem due to its non biodegradability. The plastic waste when mixed with bitumen improves desired mechanical properties in particular road mix. Bitumen is used as a binding material in construction of flexible pavement, So our team work is to utilize the waste plastic water packets utilized in the road construction to decrease the plastic content. So we are Partially replacing the Plastics(Polypropylene) in a bitumen by 5%, 5.25%, 5.5%, 5.75%, 6%,6.25% using various grades like VG(Viscosity Grade) and RS(Rapid Setting Emulsion) and we are investigated the effects of plastic waste in bitumen comparatively in the method of MARSHALL STABILITY. Our Ultimate aim is to determine and investigate the Stability and Flow Values.

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter we shall know about the information about the project, the main aim is to determine the effects of plastic waste in bitumen. Rapid industrial and population increase has resulted in increasing the various types of waste materials. Considerable measure has been done for the disposal of these waste plastic. These plastics are considerably non biodegradable so that can be used as a modifier in bitumen and to enhance their strength. This utilization of waste plastic in hot bitumen and aggregate to change pavement performance, to protect environment and to provide low cost roads. These materials can be suitable in highway construction. The pollution and disposal problem reduced .keeping in mind the need for bulk use of these solid waste in India. It was thought expedient to test these material and develop specification to enhance the use in Road making In which higher economic return are possible. The necessary specification should be formulated and attempts are to be made to maximum use of waste plastic in upper layer of road pavement.

OBJECTIVES

  • To investigate the marshal stability and flow value of the sample when bitumen is partially replaced by the polypropylene.

  • To determine the properties of bitumen, softening point and penetration of an bitumen.

  • To utilize the waste plastic as a useful way by adding water packet plastics in the bitumen.

  • It reduce soil fertility, biodegradable condition because of using plastic.

    FEATURE SCOPE

  • Compute the Percentage of Plastic composition for bitumen content.

  • Investigate the relationship between the plastics(Polypropylene) to the strength of bitumen component.

  • Determine and conclude all the data of Marshall stability and flow value came out with result related to the objective.

SIGNIFICANTOFSTUDY

Bitumen is used as a binding material in construction of flexible pavement, So our team work is to utilize the waste plastic water packets utilized in the road construction to decrease the plastic content. So we are Partially replacing the Plastics(Polypropylene) in a bitumen. It reduce the disposal Problem in Plastic.

BITUMEN/ASHPALT &TAR RELATION

Bitumen also known as Ashpalt, but the Ashpalt it is produced in .Plants that heat, dries and mix aggregate, bitumen and sand or some fillers into a composite mix called Ashpalt. Bitumen widely used in road construction for a binder as a glue content mixed with aggregate for paving purpose in Highways and District Roads.Tar is also known as Liquor Carbonis Detergens(LCD)is a very thick,black and Sticky. a dark brown or black bituminous usually odorous viscous liquid obtained by destructive distillation of organic material (such as wood, coal, or peat).

    1. DESCRIPTION OF MATERIALS

      1. BITUMEN

        Bitumen is Obtained from Crude oil Petroleum as a Last Stage End Product. Any of various flammable mixtures of hydrocarbons and other substances found in asphalt and tar. Bitumens occur naturally or are produced from petroleum and coal.

        1. PROPERTIES OF BITUMEN

          1. Bitumen has excellent adhesive qualities provided the conditions are favourable.

          2. When one takes a thread of bitumen from a sample and stretches or elongates it, it has the ability to return to a length close to its original length .

          3. when a load is applied to bitumen, the bitumen will flow, but will not return to its original position when load is removed.

          4. Bitumen has a Viscoelastic character. Its behavior may be either viscous or elastic depending on the temperature or the load.

          5. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays and the evaporation of volatile compounds can cause bitumen to harden.

        2. BITUMEN CONTENT

          BINDER 54%

          MINERAL MATTER 36%, ORGANIC MATTER 10%.

        3. GRADES IN BITUMEN VG-10 BITUMEN:

          VG-10 is widely used in spraying applications such as surface-dressing and paving in very cold climate in lieu of old 80/100 Penetration grade. It is also used to manufacture Bitumen Emulsion and Modified Bitumen products.

          EMULSION TYPES

          RS-1 : Rapid Setting 1 RS-2 : Rapid Setting 2 MS : Medium Setting SS-1 : Slow Setting 1 SS-2 : Slow Setting 2

          VG-20 BITUMEN

          VG-20 is used for paving in cold climate & high altituderegions and this is the general form of an normal using bitumen in road pavement construction.

          VG-30 BITUMEN

          VG-30 is primarily used to construct extra heavy duty Bitumen pavements that need to endure substantial traffic loads. It can be used in lie of 60/70 gradepenetration.

          VG-40 BITUMEN

          VG-40 is used in highly stressed areas such as intersections, Due to its higher viscosity, stiffer Bitumen mixes can be produced to improve resistance to shoving and other problems associated with higher temperature and heavy traffic loads.

        4. MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF BITUMEN

Tar is Obtained from Coal.People can be exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles is hazardous to Health. Crude Oil is heated about 300c to 350c .further the crude oil subdivided into Gas,Propane,butane,Naphtha,Kerosene,Gas oil

|

Then the Second Process are Atmospheric Residue is heated about 350c to 425c then from the Vacuum Gas oil is further divided into oxidizer and deasphalting Column(Propane/butane Solvent) by 1st distillation,2nd distillation and 3rd distillation

OXIDIZER DEASHPALTING COLUMN

| |

(OXIDISED BITUMEN) (DE-ASHPALTED

\ / BITUMEN)

\ /

BITUMEN

OXIDISED BITUMEN& DE-ASHPALTED BITUMEN

Oxidized Bitumen are Produced from passing the air through the residue.This Process gives the bitumen more rubber properties than its original content. De-Ashpalted bitumen are Separates the Ashpalt from the Bitumen or Crude Oil.this is the form of deashpalted bitumen

      1. QUARRY DUST

        Quarry dust is obtained from Crushing units of rocks, It is the waste residue materials used for the purpose of filler of our Bituminous sample. filler consists of, very fine, inert mineral matter that is added to the hot mix asphalt, to increase the density and enhance strength of the mixture.

      2. PLASTIC CONCERN IN A ROAD PAVEMENT

Bottle caps and closures, detergents covers, biscuit covers,water pouches and microwave trays are the plastics consists of polypropylene chemical content, usage of more carrying materials through the plastic bags contains more hazardous to the world s well as environmental degradation and also soil fertility. Partial replace of plastics gives more stability,water resistant,Apart from that due to rapid increase in wheel loads and change in climatic conditions. Plastic modification can be considered as one of the pavement to improve the road pavement construction. Higher resistance to deformation.Higher resistance to water induced damages. Increased durability and improved fatigue life.Improved stability and strength. Disposal of waste plastic and thereby environment

MATERIALS AND METHODS

    1. INTRODUCTION

      The threat of disposal of plastic will not solve until the practical steps are not initiated at the ground level. It is possible to improve the Performance of bituminous mixed and used in the surfacing course that plastic wastes used after proper processing as an additive would enhance the life of the roads and also solve environmental problems. Plastic is a very versatile material. Due to the industrial revolution ,and its large scale production plastic seemed to be a cheaper and effective raw material.

    2. Basic materials

The materials used are as follows.

  1. Coarse Aggreagates

  2. Bituminous Binder

  3. Mineral Filler

  4. Polypropylene

      1. Coarse Aggregate (CA)

        Coarse aggregate should be screened crushed rock, angular in shape, free from dustparticles, clay, vegetations and organic matters.Coarse aggregates are of sizwe 6mm,12.5mm,20mm and fillers are main use in binding process of the bituminous mixes while mixing the plastics it should be the most compacting material in the mixes.Coarse aggregates are of size 6mm,12.5mm,20mm and fillers are main use in binding process of the bituminous mixes while mixing the plastics it should be the most compacting material in the mixes.

      2. Bitumen

Asphalt binder RS-1 and VG grade are used in this research. The bitumen are of various percentage for RS-1 from 5%,5.25%,5.5%,5.75%,6%,6.25% and VG grade of

4.5%,5%,5.5%,6%,6.5%

      1. Mineral Filler

        Mineral filler consists of, very fine, inert mineral matter that is added to the hot mix asphalt, to increase the density and enhance strength of the mixture. These fillers should pass through 75m IS Sieve and it may be cement or fly ash.

      2. Polypropylene

Due to the waste of more and more plastic waste. The one of the main commercial waste is water packet pouches it consists of more wastage problems, it should be cleaned and dried after shredding process to be taken, then for the more bituminous mixing properties are available in plastics.so it should be used for the binding content for the bitumen.

Water Packets are the more commercial waste the various sources from theatres, drinking shops and bus stands,Railway stations more dangerous to the environment, So Polypropylene(PP) is to utilize by the bitumen.

    1. DESIGN OF MIX:-

      According to IRC-SP-98-2013

      Requirements for Waste Plastic Modified Dense Graded Bituminous

      Pavement Layers

      Minimum stability (kN at 60°C) 12kN Minimum flow -2mm

      Maximum flow -4mm

      RS-1 GRADE TABLE 1: RS-1 GRADE BY PP CONTENTOF 0%

      BITUME N

      (%)

      BITUME N

      (gms)

      AGGREGATES(mm)

      Total

      20

      12.5

      6

      Filler s

      100

      %

      (gms

      )

      12%

      (gms

      )

      23%

      (gms

      )

      35%

      (gms

      )

      30%

      (gms)

      5%

      60

      136.

      8

      262.

      2

      399

      342

      1200

      5.25%

      63

      136.

      4

      261.

      5

      398

      341.1

      1200

      5.5%

      66

      136.

      1

      260.

      8

      396.

      9

      340.2

      1200

      5.75%

      69

      135.

      7

      260.

      1

      395.

      9

      339.3

      1200

      6%

      72

      135.

      4

      269.

      4

      394.

      8

      338.4

      1200

      6.25%

      75

      135.

      0

      258.

      8

      393.

      8

      337.5

      1200

      BIT UM EN

      (%)

      BITU MEN

      (gms

      )

      PP 5%

      RE PL AC EM E

      NT

      (gm

      s)

      AGGREGATES(mm)

      Total

      20

      12.5

      6

      Filler s

      100

      %

      (gms

      )

      12%

      (gms)

      23%

      (gms)

      35%

      (gms)

      30%

      (gms)

      5%

      57

      3

      136.8

      262.2

      399

      342

      1200

      5.25

      %

      59.85

      3.15

      136.4

      261.5

      398

      341.1

      1200

      5.5

      %

      62.7

      3.3

      136.1

      260.8

      396.9

      340.2

      1200

      5.75

      %

      65.55

      3.45

      135.7

      260.1

      395.9

      339.3

      1200

      6%

      68.4

      3.6

      135.4

      269.4

      394.8

      338.4

      1200

      6.25

      %

      71.25

      3.75

      135.0

      258.8

      393.8

      337.5

      1200

      BIT UM EN

      (%)

      BITU MEN

      (gms

      )

      PP 5%

      RE PL AC EM E

      NT

      (gm

      s)

      AGGREGATES(mm)

      Total

      20

      12.5

      6

      Filler s

      100

      %

      (gms

      )

      12%

      (gms)

      23%

      (gms)

      35%

      (gms)

      30%

      (gms)

      5%

      57

      3

      136.8

      262.2

      399

      342

      1200

      5.25

      %

      59.85

      3.15

      136.4

      261.5

      398

      341.1

      1200

      5.5

      %

      62.7

      3.3

      136.1

      260.8

      396.9

      340.2

      1200

      5.75

      %

      65.55

      3.45

      135.7

      260.1

      395.9

      339.3

      1200

      6%

      68.4

      3.6

      135.4

      269.4

      394.8

      338.4

      1200

      6.25

      %

      71.25

      3.75

      135.0

      258.8

      393.8

      337.5

      1200

      TABLE 2: RS-1 GRADE BY PP CONTENT OF 5%

      TABLE 3: R-1 GRADE BY PP CONTENTOF 15%

      BITU MEN

      (%)

      BIT UM EN

      (gm

      s)

      PP 10

      %

      RE PL AC EM E

      NT

      (gm

      s)

      AGGREGATES(mm)

      Tota l

      20

      12.5

      6

      Filler s

      100

      %

      (gm

      s)

      12%

      (gms)

      23%

      (gms)

      35%

      (gms

      )

      30%

      (gms

      )

      5%

      54

      6

      136.8

      262.2

      399

      342

      120

      0

      5.25

      %

      56.

      7

      6.3

      136.4

      261.5

      398

      341.

      1

      120

      0

      5.5%

      59.

      4

      6.6

      136.1

      260.8

      396.

      9

      340.

      2

      120

      0

      5.75

      %

      62.

      1

      6.9

      135.7

      260.1

      395.

      9

      339.

      3

      120

      0

      6%

      64.

      8

      7.2

      135.4

      269.4

      394.

      8

      338.

      4

      120

      0

      6.25

      %

      67.

      5

      7.5

      135.0

      258.8

      393.

      8

      337.

      5

      120

      0

      VG GRADE

      TABLE 4: VG GRADE BY PP CONTENTOF 0%

      TABLE 5: VG GRADE BY PP CONTENTOF 0%

      BITUME N

      (%)

      BITUME N

      (gms)

      AGGREGATES(m

      m)

      Total

      20

      12.5

      6

      Filler s

      100

      %

      (gms

      )

      12%

      (gms

      )

      23%

      (gms

      )

      35%

      (gms

      )

      30%

      (gms)

      4%

      48

      136.

      8

      262.

      2

      399

      342

      1200

      4.5%

      54

      136.

      4

      261.

      5

      398

      341.1

      1200

      5%

      60

      136.

      1

      260.

      8

      396.

      9

      340.2

      1200

      5.5%

      66

      135.

      7

      260.

      1

      395.

      9

      339.3

      1200

      6%

      72

      135.

      4

      269.

      4

      394.

      8

      338.4

      1200

      6.5%

      78

      135.

      0

      258.

      8

      393.

      8

      337.5

      1200

      BITU MEN

      (%)

      BITU MEN

      (gms)

      PP 5%

      REPLAC EME

      NT

      (gms)

      AGGREGATES(mm)

      Tot al

      20

      12.

      5

      6

      Fill ers

      100

      %

      (g

      ms)

      12

      %

      (g

      ms)

      23

      %

      (g

      ms)

      35

      %

      (g

      ms)

      30

      %

      (gm

      s)

      4%

      45.6

      2.4

      136

      .8

      262

      .2

      399

      342

      120

      0

      4.5%

      51.3

      2.7

      136

      .4

      261

      .5

      398

      341.

      1

      120

      0

      5%

      57

      3

      136

      .1

      260

      .8

      396

      .9

      340.

      2

      120

      0

      5.5%

      62.7

      3.3

      135

      .7

      260

      .1

      395

      .9

      339.

      3

      120

      0

      6%

      68.4

      3.6

      135

      .4

      269

      .4

      394

      .8

      338.

      4

      120

      0

      6.5%

      74.1

      3.9

      135

      .0

      258

      .8

      393

      .8

      337.

      5

      120

      0

      BITU MEN

      (%)

      BITU MEN

      (gms)

      PP 5%

      REPLAC EME

      NT

      (gms)

      AGGREGATES(mm)

      Tot al

      20

      12.

      5

      6

      Fill ers

      100

      %

      (g

      ms)

      12

      %

      (g

      ms)

      23

      %

      (g

      ms)

      35

      %

      (g

      ms)

      30

      %

      (gm

      s)

      4%

      45.6

      2.4

      136

      .8

      262

      .2

      399

      342

      120

      0

      4.5%

      51.3

      2.7

      136

      .4

      261

      .5

      398

      341.

      1

      120

      0

      5%

      57

      3

      136

      .1

      260

      .8

      396

      .9

      340.

      2

      120

      0

      5.5%

      62.7

      3.3

      135

      .7

      260

      .1

      395

      .9

      339.

      3

      120

      0

      6%

      68.4

      3.6

      135

      .4

      269

      .4

      394

      .8

      338.

      4

      120

      0

      6.5%

      74.1

      3.9

      135

      .0

      258

      .8

      393

      .8

      337.

      5

      120

      0

      TABLE 6: VG GRADE BY PP CONTENTOF 5%

      BITU MEN

      (%)

      BITU MEN

      (gms)

      PP 15%

      REPLAC EME

      NT (gms)

      AGGREGATES(mm)

      Tot al

      20

      12.

      5

      6

      Fill ers

      100

      %

      (g

      ms)

      12

      %

      (g

      ms)

      23

      %

      (g

      ms)

      35

      %

      (g

      ms)

      30

      %

      (gm

      s)

      5%

      51

      9

      136

      .8

      262

      .2

      399

      342

      120

      0

      5.25%

      53.55

      9.45

      136

      .4

      261

      .5

      398

      341

      .1

      120

      0

      5.5%

      56.1

      9.9

      136

      .1

      260

      .8

      396

      .9

      340

      .2

      120

      0

      5.75%

      58.65

      10.35

      135

      .7

      260

      .1

      395

      .9

      339

      .3

      120

      0

      6%

      61.2

      10.8

      135

      .4

      269

      .4

      394

      .8

      338

      .4

      120

      0

      6.25%

      63.75

      11.25

      135

      .0

      258

      .8

      393

      .8

      337

      .5

      120

      0

      Bit um en

      (%)

      Bitu men (gm

      s)

      PP 15%

      Repla ceme nt (gms)

      Aggregates

      Tota l

      20

      12.5

      6

      filter s

      12%(

      gms)

      23%(

      gms)

      35%(

      gms)

      30%(

      gms)

      100

      %(g

      ms)

      4

      40.8

      7.2

      136.8

      262.2

      399

      342

      1200

      4.5

      45.9

      8.1

      136.4

      261.5

      398

      341.1

      1200

      5

      51

      9

      136.1

      260.8

      396.9

      340.2

      1200

      5.5

      56.1

      9.9

      135.7

      260.1

      395.9

      339.3

      1200

      6

      61.2

      10.8

      135.4

      269.4

      394.8

      338.4

      1200

      6.5

      66.3

      11.7

      135.0

      258.8

      393.8

      337.5

      1200

      Bit um en

      (%)

      Bitu men (gm

      s)

      PP 15%

      Repla ceme nt (gms)

      Aggregates

      Tota l

      20

      12.5

      6

      filter s

      12%(

      gms)

      23%(

      gms)

      35%(

      gms)

      30%(

      gms)

      100

      %(g

      ms)

      4

      40.8

      7.2

      136.8

      262.2

      399

      342

      1200

      4.5

      45.9

      8.1

      136.4

      261.5

      398

      341.1

      1200

      5

      51

      9

      136.1

      260.8

      396.9

      340.2

      1200

      5.5

      56.1

      9.9

      135.7

      260.1

      395.9

      339.3

      1200

      6

      61.2

      10.8

      135.4

      269.4

      394.8

      338.4

      1200

      6.5

      66.3

      11.7

      135.0

      258.8

      393.8

      337.5

      1200

      TABLE 7: VG GRADE BY PP CONTENTOF 10%

      BITU MEN

      %

      BITU MEN

      (gms)

      PP 15%

      REPLAC EME

      NT

      (gms)

      AGGREG ATES

      Tot al

      20

      12.5

      6

      Fill ers

      100

      %

      (g

      ms)

      12%

      (gm

      s)

      23%

      (gm

      s)

      35

      %

      (g

      ms)

      30

      %

      (gm

      s)

      TABLE 8: VG GRADE BY PP CONTENTOF 15%

    2. Initial Testss

      The initial test for the bitumen and tar should have proper Standards on methods of tests was first published in 1958. However, during the course of this period a number of improvements have since been made in carrying out of these methods of tests.

      TABLE 9: CODE BOOK FOR INITIAL TESTS

      SL.NO

      TEST

      GRADE

      IS CODE

      1

      SOFTENING POINT

      RS-1

      IS 887-2004

      VG

      IS:1205-1978

      2

      PENETRATION

      RS-1

      IS 887-2004

      VG

      IS:1203-1978

      3

      SPECIFIC GRAVITY

      RS-1

      IS 887-2004

      VG

      IS:1202-1978

      1. SOFTENING POINT TEST

        Softening Point – The temperature at which the substance attains a particular degree of softening under specified condition of test.

        PROCEDURE

        4%

        40.8

        7.2

        136.8

        262.2

        399

        342

        1200

        4.5%

        45.9

        8.1

        136.4

        261.5

        398

        341.1

        1200

        5%

        51

        9

        136.1

        260.8

        396.9

        340.2

        1200

        5.5%

        56.1

        9.9

        135.7

        260.1

        395.9

        339.3

        1200

        6%

        61.2

        10.8

        135.4

        269.4

        394.8

        338.4

        1200

        6.5%

        66.3

        11.7

        135.0

        258.8

        393.8

        337.5

        1200

        4%

        40.8

        7.2

        136.8

        262.2

        399

        342

        1200

        4.5%

        45.9

        8.1

        136.4

        261.5

        398

        341.1

        1200

        5%

        51

        9

        136.1

        260.8

        396.9

        340.2

        1200

        5.5%

        56.1

        9.9

        135.7

        260.1

        395.9

        339.3

        1200

        6%

        61.2

        10.8

        135.4

        269.4

        394.8

        338.4

        1200

        6.5%

        66.3

        11.7

        135.0

        258.8

        393.8

        337.5

        1200

        Preparation of Test Sample – Heat the material to a temperature between 75°C and 100°C above its softening point. Stir until it is completely fluid and free from air bubbles and water, and filter. Place the rings, previously heated to a temperature approximating to that of the molten material, on a metal plate which has been coated with a mixture of equal parts of glycerine and dextrine, and fill with sufficient melt to give an excess above the level of the ring when cooled. Aftercooling for 30 minutes in air, level the material in the ring by removingthe excess with a warmed, sharp knife.

        TABLE 10: SOFTENING POINT TEST FOR BITUMEN

        SL.NO

        GRADE

        SOFTENING POINT(C)

        TRIAL- 1

        TRIAL- 2

        TRIAL- 3

        1

        RS-1

        45 C

        45 C

        46 C

        2

        VG

        51 C

        52 C

        51 C

      2. PENETRATION TEST

        Penetration – The penetration of a bituminous material is the distance in tenths of a millimetre that a standard needle will penetrate vertically into a sample of the material under standard conditions of temperature, load and time.

        PROCEDURE

        Preparation of Test Sample

        Soften the material to a pouring consistency at a temperature not more than 60°C for tars and pitches and not more than 90°C for bitumens above the respective approximate softening point and stir it thoroughly until it is homogeneous and is free from air bubbles and water. Pour the melt into the container to a depth at least 10 mm in excess of the expected penetration. Protect the sample from dust and allow it to cool in an atmosphere at a temperature between 15 to 30°C for1

        l/2 to 2 h for 45 mm deep container and 1 to1 l/2 h when the container of 35 mm depth is used. Then place it along with the transfer dish in the water bath at 25.0 ± 0.1°C and allow it to remain for 11/2 to2 hand 1 to 11/2 h for 45 mm and 35 mm deep container respectively.

        TABLE 11: PENETRATION TEST FOR BITUMEN

        SL.NO

        GRADE

        INITIAL

        FINAL

        PENETRATION VALUE

        1

        RS-1

        80

        161

        81

        VG

        121

        166

        45

        2

        RS-1

        142

        228

        86

        VG

        202

        247

        45

        3

        RS-1

        231

        313

        82

        VG

        302

        349

        47

      3. SPECIFIC GRAVITY

        Specific Gravity – The ratio of the mass of a given volume of the substance to the mass of an equal volume of water, the temperature of both being specified.

        PROCEDURE PYCNOMETER METHOD

        Clean, dry and weigh the specific gravity bottle together with the stopper . Fill it with freshly boiled and cooled distilled water and insert the stopper firmly.

        A)Keep the bottle up to its neck for not less than half an hour in a beaker of wipe all surplus moisture from the surfacewith a clean, dry cloth and weigh again B)After weighing the bottleand water together the bottle shall be dried again. Fill the specific gravity bottle containing the asphalt with freshly boiled distilled water placing the stopper loosely in the specific gravity bottle. Do not allow any air bubble to remain in the specific gravity bottle. Place the specific gravity bottle in the water bath and press the stopper firmly in place. Allow the specific gravity bottle to remain in the water bath for a period of not less than 30 minutes. Remove the specific gravity bottle from the water bath, wipe all surplus moisture from the surface with a clean dry cloth and weigh it along with the stopper. In the case of liquids such as creosote and anthracene oil, fill the bottle up to the brim and insert the stopper firmly. Keep the filled bottle for not less than halfan hour in a beaker of distilled water maintained at a temperature of 27.0 ± 0.1°C, remove the bottle from the beaker, wipe all surplus water from the surface with a clean, dry cloth and weigh again

        Specific gravity (solids and Semisolids)=(c-a)÷(b-a)-(d-c) where a = mass of the specific gravity bottle, b = mass ofthe specific gravity bottle filled with distilled water c =mass of the specific gravity bottle about half filled with the material, d

        = mass of the specific gravity bottle about half filled with the material and the rest with distilled water, and e = mass of the specific gravity bottle completely filled with the material Specific gravity of bitumen(RS-1)=0.99

        Specific gravity of bitumen(VG)=0.99

    3. GRADATION OF AGGREGATES

Grading of aggregates consists of Bituminous Concrete(BC) and Dense Bituminous Macadam(DBM)according to MORT(Ministry of Road

Transport)

TABLE 12: DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM

Grading

1

2

Nominal a

size

37.5mm

26.5mm

Layer thickness

75-100mm

30-75mm

IS Sieve(mm)

Cumulative % by weight of total aggregate

Cumulative % by weight of total aggregate

45

100

37.5

95-100

100

26.5

68-93

90-100

19

71-95

13.2

35-75

36-80

9.5

4.75

38-54

38-54

2.36

28-42

28-42

1.18

0.6

0.3

7-21

7-21

0.15

0.075

2-8

2-8

Sieving of aggregates as per gradation of 20mm size, 12.5mm and 6mm aggragates are retained and sieved the correct size of bituminous mix aggregates are taken to the sample Preparation.

    1. MARSHALL STABITY TESTING

      1. TEST PROCEDURE

        Procedure to determine Marshall stability of bituminous mixture

        i)Heat the weighed aggregates and the bitumen separately upto 170oC respectively. Mix them thoroughly. ii),transfer the mixed material to the compaction mould arranged on the compaction pedestal.

        1. Give 75 blows on the top side of the specimen mix with a standard hammer (45cm, 4.86kg). Reverse the specimen and give 75 blows again. Take the mould with the specimen and cool it for a few minutes.

          The standard mould size for the Marshall Stability is 100mm by 63.5mm depth of total height it consists of one collar and holding the mould one screws are there for placing and removal of an mould.

          SL.

          heNO rk

          PERCENTA GE

          (%)

          TRIAL-1

          TRIAL-2

          TRIAL-3

          SAMPLE

          (w.t)

          W.B 60°C

          (w.t)

          SAMPL E

          (w.t)

          W.B 60°C

          (w.t)

          SAMPL E

          (w.t)

          W.B 60°C

          (w.t)

          od1

          5

          1197

          1215

          1198

          1217

          1193

          1221

          n2t

          5.25

          1194

          1219

          1197

          1225

          1194

          1228

          3

          5.5

          1200

          1223

          1193

          1229/p>

          1196

          1231

          ate4r

          5.75

          1197

          1217

          1197

          1224

          1195

          1229

          5

          6

          1195

          1226

          1200

          1228

          1195

          1234

          6

          6.25

          1200

          1219

          1196

          1225

          1200

          1226

          SL.

          heNO rk

          PERCENTA GE

          (%)

          TRIAL-1

          TRIAL-2

          TRIAL-3

          SAMPLE

          (w.t)

          W.B 60°C

          (w.t)

          SAMPL E

          (w.t)

          W.B 60°C

          (w.t)

          SAMPL E

          (w.t)

          W.B 60°C

          (w.t)

          od1

          5

          1197

          1215

          1198

          1217

          1193

          1221

          n2t

          5.25

          1194

          1219

          1197

          1225

          1194

          1228

          3

          5.5

          1200

          1223

          1193

          1229

          1196

          1231

          ate4r

          5.75

          1197

          1217

          1197

          1224

          1195

          1229

          5

          6

          1195

          1226

          1200

          1228

          1195

          1234

          6

          6.25

          1200

          1219

          1196

          1225

          1200

          1226

          Pouring the aggregates and bituminous mixes of sample should be poured at the mould after mould normal compact should done before the compaction process.

          75 Blows Should done both top and bottom side from t drop in height.

        2. Remove the specimen from the mould by pushing. Ma the specimen and cure it at room temperature, overnight.

        3. A series of specimens are prepared by a similar meth with varying quantities of bitumen content, with an increme of 0.5% (3 specimens) or 1 bitumen content.

        4. Before testing of the mould, keep the mould in the w bath having a temperature of 60oC for half an hour.

        5. Check the stability of the mould and flow value on the Marshall stability apparatus.

      2. WATER BATH PROCEDURE

When over of specimen tamping process leave for 4 hours after attain a normal temperature, place the specimen in a weight and note down the grams of specimens, after the specimen should be heated about 60c and take a weight.

SL

.

N O

PER C

ENT A

GE

TRIAL- 1

TRIAL-2

TRIAL- 3

(%)

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W. B

60° C

(w.t

)

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W. B

60° C

(w.t

)

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W. B

60° C

(w.t

)

1

5

1192

121

2

1194

121

2

1192

121

8

2

5.25

1195

121

6

1197

122

1

1197

122

6

3

5.5

1200

122

6

1195

122

9

1192

123

3

4

5.75

1194

121

4

1192

121

6

1193

121

8

5

6

1198

122

4

1199

122

8

1197

123

0

6

6.25

1295

122

0

1196

122

5

1200

122

8

SL

.

N O

PER C

ENT A

GE

TRIAL- 1

TRIAL-2

TRIAL- 3

(%)

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W. B

60° C

(w.t

)

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W. B

60° C

(w.t

)

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W. B

60° C

(w.t

)

1

5

1192

121

2

1194

121

2

1192

121

8

2

5.25

1195

121

6

1197

122

1

1197

122

6

3

5.5

1200

122

6

1195

122

9

1192

123

3

4

5.75

1194

121

4

1192

121

6

1193

121

8

5

6

1198

122

4

1199

122

8

1197

123

0

6

6.25

1295

122

0

1196

122

5

1200

122

8

TABLE 13: RS-1 GRADE BITUMEN BY PP CONTENTOF 0%

TABLE 14: RS-1 GRADE BITUMEN BY PP CONTENT OF 5%

TABLE 15: RS-1 GRADE BITUMEN BY PP CONTENT OF 10%

SL. NO

PERC

ENT AGE

TRIAL-1

TRIAL-2

TRIAL-3

(%)

SAMPLE

(w.t)

W.B 60°C

(w.t)

SAMPLE

(w.t)

W.B 60°C

(w.t)

SAMPLE

(w.t)

W.B 60°C

(w.t)

1

5

1193

1219

1195

1216

1193

1227

2

5.25

1194

1215

1194

1220

1197

1220

3

5.5

1194

1224

1190

1227

1190

1215

4

5.75

1197

1213

1198

1229

1200

1220

5

6

1192

1220

1197

1224

1195

1218

6

6.25

1189

1221

1193

1227

1198

1223

TABLE 16: RS-1 GRADE BITUMEN BY PP CONTENT OF 15%

SL.N O

PERC

ENT A

GE

TRIAL-1

TRIAL-2

TRIAL-3

(%)

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W.B

60° C

(w.t)

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W.B

60° C

(w.t)

SAM P

LE

(w.t)

W.B

60° C

(w.t)

1

5

1190

1213

1197

1215

1193

1223

2

5.25

1192

1215

1195

1223

1199

1227

3

5.5

1194

1222

1199

1229

1192

1216

4

5.75

1196

1218

1198

1222

1195

1227

5

6

1199

1224

1192

1227

1198

1212

6

6.25

1196

1223

1197

1218

1200

1228

SL.N O

PER C

ENT A

GE

TRIAL- 1

TRIAL-2

TRIAL-3

(%)

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W.B

60° C

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W.B

60° C

SAMP L

E (w.t)

W.B

60° C

(w.t)

(w.t)

(w.t)

1

4

1197

1202

1194

1201

1191

1209

2

4.5

1196

1206

1193

1209

1197

1201

3

5

1193

1208

1194

1203

1192

1205

4

5.5

1199

1208

1195

1204

1190

1207

5

6

1195

1203

1197

1208

1200

1209

6

6.5

1197

1201

1200

1206

1191

1208

SL.N O

PER C

ENT A

GE

TRIAL- 1

TRIAL-2

TRIAL-3

(%)

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W.B

60° C

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W.B

60° C

SAMP L

E (w.t)

W.B

60° C

(w.t)

(w.t)

(w.t)

1

4

1197

1202

1194

1201

1191

1209

2

4.5

1196

1206

1193

1209

1197

1201

3

5

1193

1208

1194

1203

1192

1205

4

5.5

1199

1208

1195

1204

1190

1207

5

6

1195

1203

1197

1208

1200

1209

6

6.5

1197

1201

1200

1206

1191

1208

TABLE 17: VG GRADE BITUME BY PP CONTENT OF 0%

SL.N O

PER C

ENT A

GE

TRIAL- 1

TRIAL-2

TRIAL-3

(%)

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W.B

60° C

(w.t)

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W.B

60° C

(w.t)

SAMP L

E (w.t)

W.B

60° C

(w.t)

1

4

1193

1210

1191

1202

1191

1206

2

4.5

1198

1209

1199

1204

1198

1209

3

5

1191

1203

1194

1201

1193

1207

4

5.5

1197

1205

1198

1206

1197

1203

5

6

1200

1205

1197

1204

1195

1201

6

6.5

1194

1200

1198

1208

1198

1202

SL.N O

PER C

ENT A

GE

TRIAL- 1

TRIAL-2

TRIAL-3

(%)

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W.B

60° C

(w.t)

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W.B

60° C

(w.t)

SAMP L

E (w.t)

W.B

60° C

(w.t)

1

4

1193

1210

1191

1202

1191

1206

2

4.5

1198

1209

1199

1204

1198

1209

3

5

1191

1203

1194

1201

1193

1207

4

5.5

1197

1205

1198

1206

1197

1203

5

6

1200

1205

1197

1204

1195

1201

6

6.5

1194

1200

1198

1208

1198

1202

TABLE 18: VG GRADE BITUME BY PP CONTENT OF 5%

SL. NO

PERC

ENTA GE

TRIAL-1

TRIAL-2

TRIAL-3

(%)

SAMPLE

(w.t)

W.B 60°C

(w.t)

SAMPLE

(w.t)

W.B 60°C

(w.t)

SAMPL

E (w.t)

W.B 60°C

(w.t)

1

4

1195

1206

1192

1202

1200

1205

2

4.5

1195

1209

1197

1204

1197

1205

3

5

1200

1204

1193

1204

1193

1203

4

5.5

1197

1202

1196

1209

1191

1207

5

6

1200

1212

1195

1201

1200

1202

6

6.5

1195

1207

1198

1209

1198

1208

SL. NO

PERC

ENTA GE

TRIAL-1

TRIAL-2

TRIAL-3

(%)

SAMPLE

(w.t)

W.B 60°C

(w.t)

SAMPLE

(w.t)

W.B 60°C

(w.t)

SAMPL

E (w.t)

W.B 60°C

(w.t)

1

4

1195

1206

1192

1202

1200

1205

2

4.5

1195

1209

1197

1204

1197

1205

3

5

1200

1204

1193

1204

1193

1203

4

5.5

1197

1202

1196

1209

1191

1207

5

6

1200

1212

1195

1201

1200

1202

6

6.5

1195

1207

1198

1209

1198

1208

TABLE 19: VG GRADE BITUME BY PP CONTENT OF 10%

TABLE 20: VG GRADE BITUME BY PP CONTENT OF15%

SL. N

O

PER C

ENT A

GE

TRIAL-1

TRIAL-2

TRIAL-3

(%)

SAMPL E

(w.t)

W. B

60° C

(w.t

)

SAMP L

E (w.t)

W. B

60° C

(w.t

)

SAM P

LE

(w.t)

W. B

60° C

(w.t

)

1

4

1192

120

7

1192

120

1

1193

120

2

2

4.5

1198

120

6

1199

120

2

1198

120

7

3

5

1195

120

8

1193

120

7

1197

120

3

4

5.5

1194

120

5

1200

120

6

1195

120

9

5

6

1200

120

3

1194

120

8

1195

120

4

6

6.5

1193

120

1

1193

120

2

1193

120

1

CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

As the result of effects of plastic waste(Polypropylene) in Bitumen is done by the Marshall Stability Apparatus at NIT,Trichy and Some Specimens are of casted at Periyar Maniammai University,Thanjavur are being tested and attains the maximum load.

    1. Marshall Stability Value

      It is defined as the maximum load at which the specimen fails under the application of the vertical load. It is the maximum load supported by the test specimen at a loading rate of 50.8 mm/minute (2 inches/minute). Generally, the load was increased until it reached the maximum & then when the load just began to reduce, the loading was stopped and the maximum load was recorded by the proving ring.

    2. Marshall Flow Value

      It is defined as the deformation undergone by the specimen at the maximum load where the failure occurs. During the loading, an attached dial gauge measures the specimen's plastic flow as a result of the loading. The flow value was recorded in 0.25 mm (0.01 inch) increments at the same time when the maximum load was recorded.

      SL.N O

      BITUM EN

      %

      P P

      %

      TRIAL-1

      TRIAL-2

      TRIAL-3

      STAB I

      LITY

      VALU E

      (kN)

      FLOW

      VALU E

      (mm)

      STAB I

      LITY

      VALU E

      (kN)

      FLO W VAL U

      E(m

      m)

      STA BI

      LITY

      VAL U

      E(kN

      )

      FLOW

      VALU E

      (mm)

      1

      4

      0

      61

      3.1

      63

      3.3

      63

      3.2

      5

      63

      3.1

      65

      3.3

      66

      3.1

      1

      0

      65

      3.2

      69

      3.2

      69

      3.1

      1

      5

      68

      3.1

      70

      3.2

      71

      3.2

      2

      4.5

      0

      72

      3.2

      76

      3.1

      78

      3.3

      5

      75

      3.0

      78

      3.1

      82

      3.2

      1

      0

      76

      3.1

      77

      3.1

      80

      3.9

      1

      5

      78

      3.6

      81

      3.4

      79

      3.8

      3

      5

      0

      75

      3.1

      79

      3.3

      81

      3.3

      5

      77

      3.3

      81

      3.6

      80

      3.6

      1

      0

      78

      3.3

      82

      3.6

      79

      3.6

      1

      5

      81

      3.2

      83

      3.5

      87

      3.3

      4

      5.5

      0

      82

      2.9

      87

      2.9

      87

      3.1

      5

      91

      3.2

      94

      3.0

      96

      3.3

      1

      0

      102

      3.5

      101

      2.6

      100

      2.8

      1

      5

      95

      3.0

      97

      3.1

      99

      3.2

      5

      6

      0

      84

      2.8

      90

      2.7

      93

      2.9

      5

      85

      2.9

      87

      2.9

      90

      3.9

      1

      0

      86

      3.3

      87

      3.0

      89

      3.3

      1

      5

      89

      3.2

      90

      3.1

      93

      3.1

      6

      6.5

      0

      92

      2.8

      96

      2.9

      94

      2.6

      5

      94

      2.7

      93

      3.2

      95

      3.1

      1

      0

      96

      2.9

      95

      3.2

      97

      3.2

      1

      5

      100

      3.0

      98

      3.5

      98

      3.2

      SL.N O

      BITUM EN

      %

      P P

      %

      TRIAL-1

      TRIAL-2

      TRIAL-3

      STAB I

      LITY

      VALU E

      (kN)

      FLOW

      VALU E

      (mm)

      STAB I

      LITY

      VALU E

      (kN)

      FLO W VAL U

      E(m

      m)

      STA BI

      LITY

      VAL U

      E(kN

      )

      FLOW

      VALU E

      (mm)

      1

      4

      0

      61

      3.1

      63

      3.3

      63

      3.2

      5

      63

      3.1

      65

      3.3

      66

      3.1

      1

      0

      65

      3.2

      69

      3.2

      69

      3.1

      1

      5

      68

      3.1

      70

      3.2

      71

      3.2

      2

      4.5

      0

      72

      3.2

      76

      3.1

      78

      3.3

      5

      75

      3.0

      78

      3.1

      82

      3.2

      1

      0

      76

      3.1

      77

      3.1

      80

      3.9

      1

      5

      78

      3.6

      81

      3.4

      79

      3.8

      3

      5

      0

      75

      3.1

      79

      3.3

      81

      3.3

      5

      77

      3.3

      81

      3.6

      80

      3.6

      1

      0

      78

      3.3

      82

      3.6

      79

      3.6

      1

      5

      81

      3.2

      83

      3.5

      87

      3.3

      4

      5.5

      0

      82

      2.9

      87

      2.9

      87

      3.1

      5

      91

      3.2

      94

      3.0

      96

      3.3

      1

      0

      102

      3.5

      101

      2.6

      100

      2.8

      1

      5

      95

      3.0

      97

      3.1

      99

      3.2

      5

      6

      0

      84

      2.8

      90

      2.7

      93

      2.9

      5

      85

      2.9

      87

      2.9

      90

      3.9

      1

      0

      86

      3.3

      87

      3.0

      89

      3.3

      1

      5

      89

      3.2

      90

      3.1

      93

      3.1

      6

      6.5

      0

      92

      2.8

      96

      2.9

      94

      2.6

      5

      94

      2.7

      93

      3.2

      95

      3.1

      1

      0

      96

      2.9

      95

      3.2

      97

      3.2

      1

      5

      100

      3.0

      98

      3.5

      98

      3.2

      TABLE 21-RESULT OF RS-1 GRADE TABLE 22- RESULT OF VG GRADE

      SL.N O

      BITUME N%

      PP

      %

      TRIAL-

      1

      TRIAL-2

      TRIAL-3

      STAB ILITY VAL UE

      (kN)

      FLOW VALUE

      (mm)

      STABI LITY VALU E

      (kN)

      FLOW VALUE

      (mm)

      STAB ILITY VAL UE

      (kN)

      FLOW VALU E

      (mm)

      1

      5

      0

      30

      3.4

      32

      3.3

      34

      3.3

      5

      32

      3.9

      33

      3.2

      34

      3.5

      10

      35

      3.7

      37

      3.6

      36

      3.6

      15

      39

      3.6

      41

      3.3

      41

      3.3

      2

      5.25

      0

      58

      3.4

      61

      3.1

      62

      3.3

      5

      61

      3.3

      63

      3.1

      61

      3.5

      10

      62

      3.5

      63

      3.6

      62

      3.4

      15

      65

      3.2

      66

      3.4

      66

      3.1

      3

      5.5

      0

      68

      3.3

      72

      3.1

      74

      3.1

      5

      71

      3.3

      71

      3.7

      72

      3.6

      10

      73

      3.3

      74

      3.5

      74

      3.6

      15

      75

      3.4

      74

      3.5

      76

      3.5

      4

      5.75

      0

      79

      3.4

      79

      3.3

      81

      3.4

      5

      81

      3.2

      82

      3.6

      81

      3.5

      10

      92

      3.2

      91

      3.2

      93

      3.6

      15

      95

      3.6

      96

      3.5

      95

      3.4

      5

      6

      0

      82

      3.2

      83

      3.2

      86

      3.2

      5

      85

      3.3

      86

      3.1

      86

      3.0

      10

      87

      2.9

      88

      2.8

      88

      2.9

      15

      92

      2.8

      92

      3.0

      92

      2.9

      6

      6.25

      0

      84

      3.1

      85

      3.2

      89

      3.2

      5

      86

      3.1

      87

      3.1

      84

      3.3

      10

      89

      3.2

      89

      3.1

      87

      3.2

      15

      91

      3.1

      90

      3.2

      91

      3.2

      CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION

      • The result shows that with increase of waste plastic in bitumen increases the properties of aggregate and bitumen.

      • Using of waste plastic in flexible pavements shows good result when compared with conventional flexible pavements.

      • The optimum use of plastic can be 5.75% for RS-1 grade and 5.5% of VG grade bitumen based on Marshal Stability test.

      • This has added more value in minimizing the disposal of plastic waste is the eco-friendly technique

      • Utilization of waste polypropylene in bituminous concrete mixtures shows improved property of the mixtures thus formed.

      • The waste polypropylene plastics utilized in the mix will get coated over Aggregate of the mixture and reduces porosity, absorption of moisture and improves binding property.

      • The bitumen modified with 15% Polypropylene for RS-1 grade and 10% Polypropylene for VG grade Waste is showing better Performance as compared to other mixes.

      • The Marshall Stability which is a strength parameter has shown increasing trend based on the graph.

  • From the study of the behaviour of Polypropylene modified DBM it was found that the modified mix possesses improved Marshall

    o Characteristics

  • It is observed that Marshall stability value increases with Polypropylene content upto 5.6% gradually and thereafter decreases.

  • we observe that the marshall flow value decreases upon addition of polypropylene i.e the resistance to deformations under heavy wheel loads increases.

  • Softening Point of bitumen lies optimum value of 45c for RS-1 grade and 51c for VG grade.

  • Penetration of bitumen forms on 83c for RS-1 grade and 45c for VG grade.

  • Marshall Stability Value of Maximum attains Strength are 96 Kn for RS-1 AND 102 FOR VG grade.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *