- Open Access
- Authors : Arya S Chandran, Revathy V S
- Paper ID : IJERTCONV10IS06030
- Volume & Issue : ICART – 2022 (Volume 10 – Issue 06)
- Published (First Online): 21-06-2022
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Effect of Heavymetal Containing Pesticides on The Geotechnical Properties of Agricultural Soil
Arya S Chandran
PG Student, Department of CivilEngineering
Marian Engineering College Trivandrum, India
Revathy V S
Assistant Professor, Department ofCivil Engineering
Marian Engineering CollegeTrivandrum, India
Abstract Heavy metals at high concentration can cause soil pollution. Soil may become contaminated by the accumulation of heavy metals through the emission from industrial areas, application of fertilizers, pesticides etc. Now a days there is the need to increase the agricultural production, hence the use of pesticides and other chemicals. The addition of these cause change in the properties of soil and also leads to the contamination of the soil. Remediation is one of the most important method to remove the heavy metal traces in the soil. Several methods of remediation were done to reduce the concentration of contaminants. Hence this paper analyses the change occur on the geotechnical properties of soil due the addition of pesticides.
Keywords Heavy metals, Low compressible clay soil,
The soils become contaminated by the accumulation of heavy metals by the emission from land application of fertilizers, pesticides, and from industrial areas. Main heavy metals which affect the soil properties were mercury, zinc, arsenic etc. These affect the ordinary geotechnical properties of the soil and the properties get altered by the addition of pesticides in to the soil which affect the environment also.
Heavy metal contamination affect the soil system by the contact of surroundings with the soil , it affect through the food chain, through the contamination of water etc. The concentration of the heavy metals are high if it exposed into the atmosphere at low rate, the high concentration may causes severe problems in the soil. The direct exposure of the heavy metals into the soil at high concentration cause severe environmental problems in the soil surroundings.
Heavy metals are group of inorganic chemicals which may include arsenic, zinc, cadmium copper, nickel etc. The presence of these heavy metals in the soil affect the risk and hazards to the soil and then to the human beings.
The agricultural soil were collected from Nedumangadu, Thiruvananthapuram district.The physical and the chemical properties of the soil were analysed.Fig1 shows the agricultural soil and the table 1 shows the properties of the soil.
Fig. 1 Agricultural soil
Table 1 Properties of Agricultural Soil
Initial moisture content (%)
Specific Gravity, G
Liquid Limit (%)
Plastic Limit (%)
Plasticity Index (%)
Optimum Moisture Content (%)
Max. Dry Density (g/cc)
B.Heavy metal containing Pesticide
The heavy metal containing pesticide is obtained from Krishimithra, Thiruvananthapuram. The properties of the pesticides were given in the table 2.
Table2. Properties of Heavy metal containgi
The studies were conducted to determine the geotechnical property variation of soil with the addition of heavy metal containing pesticide in the soil. For this the pesticide were added at different percentage into the soil and the variation in liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, specific gravity, unconfined compressive strength etc were studied.The studies were conducted as per IS2720.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Variation in specific gravity
The heavy metal containing pesticide added at varying percentage to the soil such as o%,2%,4%,6% etc, and the variation is plotted. The specific gravity increased at a smallrate by the addition of pesticide.
variation in specific
variation in specific gravity of soil with addition of pesticide
C. Variaiton in Plastic Limit
By the addition of pesticide at varying percentage in the soil for the determination o plastic limit variation shows adecreasing trend in the plastic limit.
variaiton in plastic limit
variation in plastic limit
0% 2% 4% 6% 8%
Fig.4. Variation in plastic limit
From the study, the following conclusions were obtained:
The addition of heavy metal containing pesticide change the geotechnical properties of the soil
The specific gravity shows an increasing trend
4% 6% 8%
withthe addition of pesticide.
The specific gravity varies from 2.59 to 2.71.
Fig.2. Variation in specific gravity
Variation in Liquid Limit
The varying percentage of pesticide is added to the soil and the variation in liquid limit plastic limit and the plasticity index are concluded.
Fig.3. variation in Liquid Limit
The liquid limit of the soil shows a decreasing trend, it varies from 45.4 to 36 by the addition of small amount of pesticide.
The plastic limit also shows a decreasing trend.
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