Effect of Expansive Soil with Bottom Ash and Cement using Geogrids

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV10IS11120

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Effect of Expansive Soil with Bottom Ash and Cement using Geogrids

Darshan K R

Department of Civil Engineering JIT, Davangere, India

Bhavana M

Department of Civil Engineering JIT, Davangere, India

Praveen Kumar R L Department of Civil Engineering JIT, Davangere, India

Pooja S

Department of Civil Engineering JIT, Davangere, India

Abstract Soil Stabilization is that the arrangements with altering the properties of soil to support its presentation. Stabilization is getting utilized for a spread of designing works either in its normal kind or in an extremely handled type. At last all designs lay on soil establishment any place the most goal is to expand the strength or solidness of soil and to reduce back the improvement cost. At present everyday the utilization of byproduct with soil has acquired consideration as a result of the rising issues of waste administration. This paper presents the results of associate in exploratory program attempted to examine the effect of Bottom ash and cement at totally unique dose on Black cotton soil. Conduct of soil was seen through different measurements of mix of bottom ash and cement. The use of Bottom ash and cement soil was assessed exploitation physical strength execution tests specifically; water content test, specific gravity test, grain size analysis, liquid limit test, standard proctor test, direct shear test, permeability. These were directed in order to pass judgment on the development inside the strength attributes of the soil.

Keywords Expansive Soil, Bottom Ash, Cement, Geogrids.


    In most of the countries, the development exercise are happening on the earth, the superimposed, static or dynamic weights, finally get traded to the topographical courses of action under them, soil being one of the too broadly experienced land plans, as a result of this stack transaction, the soil under will experience densification. This densification may be achieved through various courses, for instance, compaction and hardening. The negative work acts of these soil are an aftereffect of area of montmorillonite or blends of montmorillonite and illitic mud minerals in the earth division which adsorbs water. The principal issues directing with BLACK COTTON soils are swelling, shrinkage and heaving characteristics.The black cotton soil expands when it teams up with water and consultants on drying. Because of continued enlarging and shrinkage of soil, breaks make and as necessary create weakness. Thusly it is crucial for redesign the geotechnical properties of black cotton soil and to reduce its swelling characteristics. Because of portrayed enlarging and shrinkage lead of expansive soils prompts the outrageous damages to the Civil Engineering structures, for example, part in designs or complete distractions of the construction, foundation and black- tops.


    1. Soil stabilization:

      Vishwanath K

      Department of Civil Engineering JIT, Davangere, India

      The change of soil properties to meet specific engineering requirements, known as "Soil stabilization". There are basically two types of improvement Modification and Stabilization. Soil stabilization is the modification of soil properties to further improve the designing presentation of soils. Change of soil properties is the temporary upgrade of sub level stability to speed up construction.

    2. Methods of soil stabilization:

    There are various techniques by which soils can be balanced out; however, all strategies fall into two general classes. They are,

    • Mechanical stabilization.

    • Chemical admixture stabilization.

      Some stabilization strategies utilize a combination of these two techniques. Mechanical stabilization depends on physical processes to stabilize the soil, either changingthe physical composition of the soil (soil mixing) orplacing a barrier in or on the soil to get the ideal impact. Physical stabilization depends on the utilization of an admixture to modify the substance properties of soil to accomplish the ideal impact.


    • To look at the utilization of bottom ash and cement on progress of geotechnical properties of black cotton soil.

    • To decide the optimum % bottom ash and % cement to get maximum dry density and minimum water content.

    • To decide the suitable combination black cotton soil

    + bottom ash +cement in working on the strength of black cotton soil.


    1. Materials used:

      The various materials utilized in this examination are

      1. Black cotton soil: Black Cotton soil which is expansive in nature. The top surface of the soil was cleared with all the organic wastes and different strips materials. The top soil was excavated up to a depth of 1.5 feet and the soil was collected.

      2. Bottom ash: When crushed coal is burned in a dry, bottom ash, around 80% of the un-covered material or ash sis appropriated in the cylinder gas and is picked and rediscovered as fly debris. The left out 20% of the ash is dry bottom share made basically out of silica, alumina, and iron, with lesser rates of calcium, magnesium, sulfates, and different mixtures. The composition of the bottom ash particlesis controlled for the most part by the wellspring of the coal and not by the kind of heater.

      3. Cement: A cement is a cover, a substance utilized for development that sets, hardens, and adheres to different materials to bind them together. Cement is rarely utilized all alone, but instead to bind sand and gravel together. Cement mixed in with fine aggregate, or with sand and gravel, produces concrete.

      4. Geo grids: Geogrids is geosynthetic materials utilized as reinforcement in construction works. Kinds of geogrids, its capacities and applications in development works are examined. Geogrids can be sorted as geosynthetic materials that are used in the construction industry as a reinforcing material. It tends to be utilized in the soil reinforcement or used in the support of retaining wall and, even many numerous uses of the material are on its being flourished. Thepopularity and utilization of geogrids in development are because of the way that it is good in tension and has a higher capacity to disperse load across a huge area.

    2. Methodology:

      Following laboratory tests have been carry out,

      1. Water content test – IS 2720 Part 2, 1973.

      2. Grain size analysis – IS 2720 Part 4, 1985.

      3. Specific gravity test – IS 2720 Part-3, 1980.

      4. Liquid limit test – IS 2720 Part-5, 1985.

      5. Standard Proctor Compaction – IS 2720 Part-8, 1983.

      6. Direct shear test – IS 2720 Part 13,1986.

      7. Plastic limit test- IS 2720 Part 5 ,1985.

      8. Permeability test- IS 2720 Part 17 ,1986.

    3. Sampling of soil:

    Table No. 1: Sampling of soil

    Soil particulars

    Percentage variance

    Natural black cottonsoil


    Soil sample 1


    Soil sample 2


    Soil sample 3


    Soil sample 4


    Soil sample 5

    6%BA+2% C+BCS

    Soil sample 6

    6%BA+4% C+BCS

    Soil sample 7

    6%B+6% C+BCS

    Soil sample 8

    6%BA+8% C+BCS


    1. Water content test:

      Maybe the significant component that incredibly influences many soil properties is the water present in a soil. Its assurance is vital. It is for the most part communicated as a rate by weight of the heaviness of dry solids in soil mass.

      Table No.2: Table Showing Variation of Soil Properties from water content


      Water Content (%)

      Natural black cotton soil


      Sample 1 2%BA+BCS


      Sample 2 4%BA+BCS


      Sample 3 6%BA+BCS


      Sample 4 8%BA+BCS


      Sample 5 6%BA+2% C+BCS


      Sample 6 6%BA+4% C+BCS


      Sample 7 6%BA+6% C+BCS


      Sample 8 6%BA+ 8% C+BCS


      Showing graphical variation:

      FIG No 1: Variation of Water content variation

    2. Grain size analysis:

      The grain size examination is generally utilized in order of soils. The information got from grain size appropriation bends is utilized in the plan of channels forearth dams and to decide reasonableness of soil for streetdevelopment, landing strip and so forth. Data acquired from grain size investigation can be utilized to anticipate soil water development in spite of the fact that penetrability tests are all the more by and large utilized.

      Table No.3: Table Showing Variation of Soil Properties from grain size analysis (sieve analysis)


      Grain Size Analysis

      Natural black cotton soil

      It is well graded.

    3. Specific gravity test by pycnometer method:

      Explicit gravity is the proportion of the mass/weight of dry soil solids in air to the mass/weight of equivalent Volume of refined water at 270 °C. The particular gravity of soil is utilized in computing void proportion, porosity, level of immersion assuming thickness and water content are known. The particular gravity of soil helps in ID and arrangement of soil.

      Table No.4: Table Showing Variation of Soil Properties from specific gravity (density bottle method)


      Specific Gravity

      Natural black cotton soil


    4. Liquid limit by Casagrande method:

      Liquid Limit is the water content comparing to as far as possible among fluid and plastic condition of consistency of a soil. It is characterized as the base water

      content at which the dirt is still in the fluid state, yet has a little shearing strength against streaming.

      Table No.5: Table Showing Variation of Soil Properties from liquid limit by Casagrande method


      Liquid Limit (%)

      Natural black cotton soil


      Showing graphical variation:

      FIG No 2: Variation of Specific gravity variation

    5. Standard proctor test:

      Compaction is the course of densification of soil mass by diminishing voids. The level of compaction of a soil mass by diminishing voids. The level of compaction of a soil is estimated concerning its dry Density. The level of compaction mostly relies up upon its moisture content, compaction energy and kind of soil. For a given compaction energy each soil accomplishes the greatest dry thickness at a specific water content which is known as optimum moisture content.

      OMC and MDD still up in the air by the compaction test.Every one of the compactions is done with standard proctor apparatus. For the assurance of moisture density relationship, it included energy got from a hammer of 2.6Kg mass falling from a level of 31cm in a 1000 mm³ shape. Each layer is compacted in five layers to such an extent that each layer getting 25 blows.

      Table No.6: Table Showing Variation of Soil Properties from Standard proctor test (light compaction test)

      Showing graphical variation:

      FIG NO.3: Variation of OMC

      FIG NO.4: Variation of MDD

    6. Direct shear test:

      The Direct Shear Test is a trial system led in geotechnical engineering practice and exploration that means to decide the shear strength of soil materials.Shear strength is characterized as the most extreme resistance that a material can endure when subjected to shearing.



      Angle Of Internal Friction


      Natural black cottonsoil 0%



      Sample 1 6%BA+BCS



      Sample 2 6%BA+BCS+8%C



      SBC of Soil

      31 T/m2

      Table No. 7: Table Showing Variation of Soil Properties from Direct shear test


      Light Compaction


      OMC (%)



      Natural black cotton soil0%



      Sample 1 2%BA+BCS



      Sample 2 4%BA+BCS



      Sample 3 6%BA+BCS



      Sample 4 8%BA+BCS



      Sample 5 6%BA+2%C+BCS+GG



      Sample 6

      6%BA+4% C+BCS+GG



      Sample 7

      6%BA+6% C+BCS+GG



      Sample 8

      6%BA+8% C+BCS+GG



      Showing graphical variation:

      FIG NO.5: Variation of properties of direct shear test


      The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) is a proportion of the strength of the subgrade of a street or other cleared region, and of the materials utilized in its construction. The proportion is estimated utilizing a normalized infiltration test originally created by the California Division of Highways for highway designing. Exact tests measure the strength of the material and are not a genuine portrayal of the tough modulus.

      Table No.8: Table Showing Variation of Soil Properties from California Bearing Ratio test




      Natural black cotton soil 0%


      Sample 1 6%BA+BCS


      Sample 2 6%BA+BCS+8%CEMENT


      Showing graphical variation:

      FIG NO.6: Variation of properties of California Bearing Ratio test


      1. With expansion likewise of Bottom ash and Cement content the compressive strength of Black Cotton soil increases.

      2. The Soil is grouped under Well Graded. Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit values are 59% and 23% individually it is given that the soil is profoundly compressible. Accordingly, from the outcomes got, the soil lies beneath the standard suggested for nearly geotechnical work.

      3. Stabilizers and Geo-grids is utilized as support for working on the geotechnical trademark Compressive Strength of Black Cotton soils. Stabilizers fundamentally further developCompressive Strength of Black Cotton soil.

      4. The OMC and MDD for 6% Bottom ash and 8% Cement with geogrids gave a best result of 15.18% OMC and 1.77g/cc of MDD.

      5. The SBC of Soil when blended with 6% Bottom Ash and 8% Cement gave a best result ie., 31 T/m2.

      6. Similarly CBR for 6% Bottom ash and 8% Cement gave best result of 8.2%.

      7. Overall we can say, 6% Bottom ash and 8% Cement

        gave a best result when considered for geotechnical works.


      • The above work has been done in research facility conditions. Functional practicality at site must be contemplated.

      • Other than the above admixture utilized, we can additionally utilize various sorts of admixtures from various businesses to concentrate on their impact on adjustment of soil.


[1] C. Rajakumar etal,2015: mulled over Utilization of Bottom Ash to Stabilize Expensive Soil Subgrades and he detailed that far reaching soils show unwanted issues in establishments, asphalts, and so forth.

[2] Manikandan,A.T and IbrahimY. 2017 "A concentrate on impact of base debris and coconut shell powder on the properties of earth soil".

[3] Naeinietal 2009 in their review they arranged three sorts of soil tests with various level of bentonite on which CBR tests were conveyed no matter what geogrid support in one or multi-facet.

[4] Prof MayuraYeole and Dr. J.R. Patil 2015, did a research center CBR test on or without geotextile which was set in a couple of layer in the form.

[5] Ravi S Balagoudra et al., 2017: To beat the dirt issue issues investigates zeroed in on soil change methodologies by including fibers, lime, etc to the soil.

[6] IS 2720 – 1993 Part:11: Method of test for soils.

[7] IS 2720 – 1981 Part:12: Indian standard techniques for test for soils.