 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 134
 Authors : Keerthana. D, G. Vinoth
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS11046
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 01 (January 2014)
 Published (First Online): 01022014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Downlink Resource Allocation for Next Generation Wireless Network Using Turbo Codes over NonLinear Channel
1Keerthana. D, 2G. Vinoth
1PG student, 2Assistant professor
Department of electronics and communication engineering DMI College of engineering, Chennai6000123, India
Abstract
In this project, a downlink resource allocation scheme for OFDMAbased next generation wireless network targets high data rate and efficient resource usage the scheme consist of radio resource and power allocation which are implemented separately. Low complexity heuristic algorithm are first proposed to achieved the radio resource allocation, where graph base framework and fine physical resource block assignment are performed to mitigate major ICI and hence improve the network performance. A novel distributed power allocation is then performed to optimize the performance of cell edge users under desirable conditions. The power optimization is formulated as an iterative barrier constrained water filling problem and solved by Lagrange method. Joint ML MMSE is used to develop simple receiver structure that gives joint ML estimates of multipath channel and the transmitted data sequence. Simulation results indicate that our proposed scheme can improve performance of cell edge users in multicell network.
Keywords next generation, OFDMA, interference Management, resource allocation
I.INTRODUCTION
Radio spectrum is becoming a scarce resource in wireless communications, the orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) has been proposed as a stateoftheart air interface technology to enable high spectrum efficiency and effectively combat frequencyselective fading. Due to its promising features, OFDMA is adopted in many emerging cellular systems such as the Long Term Evolution (LTE and IEEE 802.16m) for achieving those ambitious objectives of next generation
networks. In order to realize the flexibility on access of radio resources, OFDMA poses a new challenge for radio resource management (RRM). A good RRM scheme, including subcarrier allocation, scheduling and power control, is crucial to guarantee high system performance for OFDMAbased networks. In future wireless networks, however, denser cellular deployment with a lower frequency reuse factor is demanded. This has moved the trend to the development of RRM for multicell systems. In the multicell context, intercell interference (ICI) has become a major issue of concern since the frequency reuse1 is agreed as the preferred frequency planning deployment for modern OFDMAbased cellular networks. Due to the same spectral usage in adjacent cells, ICI can result in severe performance degradation to users of reuse1 OFDMA networks, particularly those at the cell edge. Thus, developing RRM schemes with an emphasis on ICI reduction in the multicell scenario is of significant interest to recent research work. The ICIaware RRM in multi cell OFDMA networks, in general, can be formulated as a global performance optimization problem by considering the signaltointerferenceand noise ratio (SINR) instead of the signaltonoise ratio (SNR). Unfortunately, finding the optimal solution to such a global optimization problem is extremely hard and normally not applicable in practice. This is because the problem has been known as a mixed integer programming (MIP) and proven to be NPhard, which is computationally prohibitive to tackle. The first category aims at developing intelligent subcarrier (or sub channel) allocation schemes to effectively mitigate ICI and improve the system performance. This is known as ICI coordination (ICIC). As the subcarrier Allocation can be formulated as a binary integer programming (BIP) which is an NPhard problem as well, heuristic
algorithms were proposed to simplify the process of subcarrier allocations. The second category, on the contrary, has mainly concentrated on using power allocation to maximize network throughput. Unlike the subcarrier allocation case, finding the optimal solution for power allocation might be feasible if the formulated problem can be proven to belong to the class of convex optimization problems. A Lagrange dual method and geometric programming have been proposed to tackle such optimization problems. However, the perfect convex structure on power allocation holds only for the singlecell scenario in the absence of ICI. The sum rate or system throughput of multiple cells is not convex (or concave) in terms of the power allocated to each user. This lack of a convex structure makes it impossible to obtain the optimal solution in multicell scenarios. In a boundary of the feasible region for such non
convex problems has been investigated and
j mn
a
and
Fig 2. Downlink cellular network
= 1, if PRB n is allocated to u
0, otherwise (1)
accordingly optimal power allocation schemes were proposed. Yet due to high complexity, those schemes only work well in a simple twocell scenario and have not been tested under the environment with high network densities.
j = p(0,Pmax], if ajmn=1
p
mn
0,otherwise (2)
Where Pmax denotes the maximum transmission power of each BS. Since the same PRB will not be assigned to more than one user at the same time in each cell, we have

PROBLEM FORMULATION
=1
=1
(3)
Consider a downlink cellular network consisting of a set of BSs denoted by J= {1,…,J},where J is the total number of cells in the network. The total number of users in cell j is denoted by Mj, while the number of available PRBs that can be scheduled for downlink data transmission in each TTI is denoted by N. Note
Interference evaluation: The performance of multi cell networks with ICI can be evaluated using SINR instead of SNR for interferencelimited networks. The instantaneous SINR for user m using PRB n in cell j is denoted by j and it can be expressed as
mn
that each BS is allowed to use all NPRBs as the
=
(4)
frequency reuse1 deployment is applied in the network.
,
+0
Resource allocations: For a cell j where j J, let
Where, N0 – thermal noise variance.
A
j
MjÃ—N
= [ajmn
] and Pj
=[pjmn
] be PRB and power
MjÃ—N
j
Optimization Problem: Here our optimization goal
is to maximize the overall throughput of celledge
allocation matrices, respectively, with elements a mn
mn
and pj defined as
a
mn
j = 1, if PRB n is allocated to u
0, otherwise (1)
And
mn mn
pj = p(0,Pmax], if aj =1
0,otherwise (2)
users while maintaining the required throughput for cellcentre users. As a result, a balanced performance improvement between cell edge and cellcentre users is expected to be achieved in the multicell systems. The reason behind this is that cellcentre users usually do not suffer from heavy ICI and relatively high performance is easy to be obtained for these users even in a network without optimization, whereas celledge users performance is much more vulnerable to ICI and their performance improvement
has to strongly rely on optimization schemes. Thus, in this work the resource allocation are formulated as the following maximization problem with constraints.
According to the graph theory , the corresponding interference graph is denoted by G=(V,E), where V is a set ofnodes each representing a user in the network, and E is a set of edges connecting users that
P1 =
=1
,
can cause heavy mutual interference when they are
allocated the same PRB. In order to reduce
=1
=1
= ,
complexity, the interference intensity for edge
(5)
=1
=1
, j
, 1,2, . , }
connections is determined solely by the geographical location and proximity of users in the network. i.e., celledge users suffer from severe interference due to
E C
E C
Where Mj and Mj denote the total number of celledge Users and cellcentre users in the given cell j, respectively, i.e., Mj +Mj =Mj, and Rt is a throughput threshold Defined to satisfy cellcentre users of each cell with preferred Performance achievement. Clearly, the solution to this problem is not to address the general global optimization but to achieve a better performance balance, where different types of users in the network can equally obtain desirable data rates regardless of their geographical locations.

PROPOSED RADIO RESOURCE ALLOCATION
Phase I: ICIC
In the multicell context, the resource allocations have to start with the global ICIC schemes as effective ICI mitigation cannot be achieved only by power control especially for those celledge users who are close to each other in the network. Thus, the first phase of our proposed radio resource allocation is to develop an ICIC scheme using a simple but effective graphbased framework. Our objective is to construct a graph that reflects major interference occurring in the real time
Fig.3 An example of the graphbased framework. (a) 3cell scenario. (b) Interference graph construction. network environment.
the shorter distances to the adjacent BSs. The information for precise SINR measurements is not required at this stage. For building the edge connection per pair, we define that the edge between user a and b is
connected when E(a, b)= 1,otherwise,E(a, b)=0, and note that E(a, b)=E(b, a).
The basic rules of the interference graph construction are as follows.

Users within the same cell are mutually connected.

For any celledge user, the connection is only pair wise established with other cell edge users of its dominant interfering cells.
Let Dm denote the set containing indices of dominant interfering cells to celledge user m. Thus, an illustrative example is given by Fig. 3. Fig. 3(a) presents a simple 3cell network case, where user 1, 2, 3 and 5 are celledge users of each cell and D1
={1},D2 =,D3 ={3},D5 ={1,2}, respectively. Then the corresponding interference graph is constructed in Fig. 3(b).
Phase II: Fine PRB Assignment
The first phase framework offers the network with a strategic planning for ICIC but the actual PRB allocation has not been done yet. In the second phase, therefore, we will decide how to practically make the PRB assignment in the network given the interference graph. This work is also known as the colour mapping problem in general graph theory by marking those directly connected nodes with different colours. To reduce complexity, a heuristic algorithm is proposed here to perform a fine PRB allocation by taking account of the instantaneous channel quality. Since major ICI is well looked after by the first phase, in the second phase we consider only SNR for simplicity by removing the
interdependency issue of SINR. SNR for user m on PRB n is calculated by,
n n 0
SNRm =(Pmax/N)g (jm)Ld(jm)/N
(6)
where j is the serving cell of user m. Let Rm be the set of users who are allowed to have the same PRB, or in another word, the same colour with user min the network. Note that finding the necessary Rm is also included in this algorithm. The PRB allocation decision made to a user is determined not only by the instantaneously achieved SNR but also by a weighting factor denoted by wm. Based on the weighted SNR, the PRB allocation that effectively achieves an overall performance improvement with good fairness among those two types of users in the network. On the other hand, the proportional fairness is also considered by taking account of the number of PRBs already occupied and there by prevents the PRB resource allocation schemes. On the other hand, cellcentre users are allowed to share PRBs with all users in the network (except their serving cells) and thereby may interfere with either celledge or cell centre users of the adjacent cells depending on the PRB allocation.


OPTIMIZATION FOR CELL EDGE USERS. Power allocation for cell edge users
Given the fixed PRB allocation and power allocation of Cell centre users, the original optimization problem P1 becomes a convex function of power of celledge users and can be decomposed into J parallel subproblems, where the optimal power allocation to celledge users is solved locally by each BS of the network. Note that such subproblems are defined as a series of P2, where only mutual interference between celledge and cellcentre users is taken into account. Let pj(e)n denote the power allocated to PRB
cells in the network (i.e.,j=j,jJ) , in which PRB n is used by a cellcentre user at the moment. The idea of P2 is to use power allocation to maximize performance of celledge users under the constraint that performance of cellcentre users is not largely sacrificed. Power allocation to celledge users has to be conditionally optimized in order not to generate unacceptable interference to cellcentre users in the network. In addition, here we assume that the required information about the power allocation of cellcentre users in adjacent cells is known by each BS, which in fact are achievable in future wireless networks where specific links, such as the X2 interface in LTE are built to connect BSs for necessary information exchange among them.
Fig 4. Performance of cell centre user

SIMULATION RESULTS
The proposed scheme can consistently balance the performances of cell edge users and cell centre users
Performance of celledge users
General Optimization
Dynamic SFR
Proposed [we=4,wc=1,alpha=0.5] Proposed [we=5,wc=1,alpha=0.4]
Proposed [we=3,wc=1,alpha=0.6]
1
0.9
0.8
n used by a celledge user in cell j. Therefore, the objective of P2 for cell j is expressed
0.7
CDF
0.6
max log
1 + () / ( ) +
0.5
()
2
0
(7)
0.4
0.3
0.2
n n
n n n
Where hj (hj ) denotes the combined channel impact on PRB n in cellj(j) including the channel gain and path loss fading components presented in (3), i.e.,hj =g(jm) Ld(jm), and S is a set of neighbouring
0.1
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Throuhput Mbps
power allocation using water filling lagrange
relay 1
relay 2/p>
7
6
Throughput in Mbps
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
SINR in dB
VII. REFERENCE

D. Astely, E. Dahlman, A. Furuskar, Y. Jading,
M. Lindstrom, and S. Parkvall, LTE: the evolution of mobile broadband [LTE part II: 3GPP release 8],IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 4451, 2009.

K. Etemad, Overview of mobile WiMAX technology and evolution,IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 3140, 2008.

Z. Shen, J. G. Andrews, and B. L. Evans, Adaptive resource allocation in multiuser OFDM systems with proportional rate constraints, IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 2726 2737, 2005.

Y. Lin, T. Chiu, and Y. Su, Optimal and near optimal resource allocation algorithms for OFDMA networks, IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun.,vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 40664077, 2009.

J. Jang and K. Lee, Transmit power adaptation for multiuser OFDM systems, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 171178, 2003.


CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
As a result, proposed resource allocation scheme improves the performance of celledge users which allows for future wireless networks to deliver consistent highperformance to any user form anywhere. For future enhancement, simulation of handoff technique is said to be done in LTE network and MIMO – OFDM is compared in terms of BER.