 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 22
 Authors : Mr.Sachin Y Chilkandi, Mrs. Naseema Banu U M
 Paper ID : IJERTCONV3IS19207
 Volume & Issue : ICESMART – 2015 (Volume 3 – Issue 19)
 Published (First Online): 24042018
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Digital Watermarking based on Canny Edge Detection and Texture Block in DWT
Mr.Sachin Y Chilkandi Mrs. Naseema Banu U M
Dept,of ECE Asst professor Dept of ECE
Manglore Institute of Technology and Engineering Manglore Institute of technology and Engineering Moodbidri,Manglore India Moodbidri,Manglore,India
Abstract Digital watermarking is a method to secure the digital data such as text, images, and videos. Watermarking is not only used for authentication, it is used for protecting the data. a new algorithm based on canny edge detection and texture block based on dwt has been proposed here. The main objective of this method to improve the robustness of the system and reliability. Canny Edge detection is performed first after that texture blocks are extracted. Watermark can be embedded in both subband high frequency and low frequency. The experiment results show the robustness of the system and ability to resist the attacks.
Keywords Digital image watermarking; texture block; edge detection; discrete wavelet transform

INTRODUCTION
The exponentially increasing demand of multimedia systems and the distribution of large variety of digital image data over the World Wide Web (www) create the need of copyright protection of digital image data. The purpose of digital watermarks is to provide copyright protection for intellectual property rights that is in digital format. Digital watermarking method must satisfy two basic requirements first it must be having perceptual invisibility or transparent for original image. Secondly the watermark must be highly resistant and robust to various attacks such as cropping, noise, compression, rotation, scaling, resizing and translation. Various methods have been developed to increase the transparency and robustness of the watermarking methods [1,3 7 and 9]. Watermarking techniques are broadly classified as visible and invisible watermarking as shown in Fig.1. In visible watermarking, the watermark is visible in the image or video frames.
These watermarks are not robust and can be used as logos or overlay images in the field of image or video watermarking. But in invisible watermarking the information is hidden within the image. Based on domain which the watermark is applied the invisible watermarking can be further classified as transform domain or spatial Edge Detection method includes the detection of edges from image uses the edge detection algorithm. The edge detection methods mainly are Robert [2], Sobel [3][4], Prewitt[5], and Canny[6]. Here the author uses the Sobel Approach. In this approach the gradient is calculated for all pixel arrangement in the image and as a result, edge is returned for maximum gradient. Digital image watermarking algorithm based on canny edge detection and texture block in
the discrete wavelet domain is proposed in order to balance between the invisibility and the robustness and improve the ability of resisting to geometric attacks of the digital image watermark. For the purpose, embed the digital watermark into the highfrequency and low frequency subbrands in the discrete wavelet domain.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES

Discrete Wavelet Transform
The wavelet transform has been use in the application of image processing to understand the basic idea of the DWT we focus on one dimensional signal. A signal splits into two parts, usually high frequencies and low frequencies. This process is continuing until the signal has been entirely decomposed or stopped before by the application at hand. For compression and watermarking applications, generally no more than four decomposition steps are computing. Furthermore, from the DWT coefficients, the original signal can be reconstructing. The reconstruction process called the inverse DWT (IDWT).

Digital Image Watermarking Based on canny Edge Detection
An edge is characterized by an abrupt change in intensity indicating the boundary between two regions in an imait is a fundamental operation in computer vision and image processing. It concerns the detection of significant variations of a gray level image The commonly used methods of edge detection are: canny operator [9], second derivative zero crossing algorithm, gradient operator, Laplace operator, Sobel operator etc. The Canny edge detector is an edge detection operator that uses a multistage algorithm to detect a wide range of edges in image the canny edge detector first smoothes the image to eliminate and noise. It then finds the image gradient to highlight regions with high spatial derivatives. The algorithm then tracks along these regions and suppresses any pixel that is not at the maximum (non maximum suppression). The gradient array is now further reduced by hysteresis. Hysteresis is used to track along the remaining pixels that have not been suppressed. Hysteresis uses two thresholds and if the magnitude is below the first threshold, it is set to zero . If the magnitude is above the high threshold, it is made an edge. And if the magnitude is between the 2 thresholds, then it is set to zero unless there is a
path from this pixel to a pixel with a gradient above T2 The canny detection algorithm is as follows:

In gaussian smoothing noise contained in image is smoothed by gaussian filter

Calculate the magnitude of the gradient M and the direction Q. The following template of 2 x 2 can be used as a firstorder approximation of the partial differential in the xdirection and ydirection.

P = 1 x[1 1] Q = 1 x[ 1 1]

Canny Edge Detection
Apply canny edge detection for the original image I to obtained binary image is B .

Partition Blocks
Partition the binary image B and the original image I into R blocks Bk and Ik ( k= I,2,.Â·Â·,R), and both of the size are Lx L. Bk and Ik are corresponding. Calculate the number of edge points s in Bk . Let the threshold be T .

Texture Blocks
2 1 1
2 1 1
The texture blocks are extracted whose number of the edge
Therefore, the magnitude of the gradient M and the direction Q can be calculated
M(i,j) = 2(, ) + 2(, ) (1)
(i,j) = arctan[ Q (i,j) P (i,j) ] (2)

nonmaximum suppression: nonmaximum suppression produces thin edges removing the non maxima pixels along the normal direction

hysteresis thresholding: canny use two thresholds high and low if pixel gradient high threshold then edge is detected
The watermark should be embedded into the highfrequency subbands and the low frequency subbands respectively with different embedding strength because if embedding the whole watermark into only the highfrequency subbands, the robustness of the watermark will decline. In addition, it will be difficult to resist to geometric attacks such as clipping attacks if embedding the watermark into the whole image. Hence, the watermark should be embedded into a plurality of localized positions of the image using the edge detection method. Therefore, a new digital image watermarking algorithm based on canny edge detection and texture block in the discrete wavelet domain is proposed.



DIGITAL WATERMARK EMBEDDING
Using the method of partitioning blocks to extract the local religions with good texture properties as well as improve the efficiency of the algorithm. In the algorithm, regard the number of edge points as the parameter for classification because the edge points are the characterization of the image gray mutation and the more edge points in the block are, the stronger the textures are.
Let theoriginal image I= {x(i,j),I :::: i :::: M,I :::: j :::: N} ,
the binary watermark image W = f OJ (i,j ) ,1 :::: i :::: P,1 :::: j :::: Q} , where i and j represent the pixel values of the ith row and the jth column of the original image and the watermark image respectively. The watermark embedding algorithm flowchart is showed in Fig.l. The steps of embedding the
watermark are as follows:
points is more than T. Extract the original image blocks Ik corresponding to the texture blocks as the carrier of embedded watermark. The number of extracted blocks is U

Watermark Arnold Scrambling
Apply Arnold scrambling to the original watermark with the scrambling time K and then the first key K generates. The water image after scrambling is W'.
Fig.1 Watermark Embedding Process

Second Generation Discrete Wavelet
Second generation discrete wavelet transform for the texture blocks Ie ( c= 1,2,.Â·Â·,U). Embed the watermark of different strength into the lowfrequency subband LLI and highfrequency subbrands LHl, HLI and HHI. The formula of embedding the watermark is (1).
Ie'(i,j)= Ie (i,j) x [1 + axW*(h)]
C= 1,2,Â·Â·Â·,U; U= PxQ / 4
i=1,2Â·Â·Â·,L/4; j=1,2Â·Â·Â·,L/4;
h=1,2Â·Â·Â·PxQ (3)
where Ie (i,j) is the coefficients of each subband after wavelet transform for the original texture blocks. a is the strength coefficient and W* (h) is the watermark component after scrambling. Ie' (i,j) is the wavelet coefficients of the modified texture blocks. The second key K2 generates which can be used in extracting the watermark information, namely the position of the extracted texture blockIe.

Determination of the Intensity Factor
a is divided into two kinds a, and a2 because the low frequency subbrand and the highfrequency subbrand have different visual masking properties and the robustness after embedding the watermark is also different. Choose a, in the lowfrequency and choose a2 in the highfrequency subbrand. Define a, and a2 as (2) according to the literature [1]:

Second Generation Inverse Discrete Wavelet Transform
Apply second generation inverse discrete wavelet transform to The image J which has the scrambling watermark.


EXTRACTION OF THE DIGITAL WATERMARK
The extraction and the embedding of the digital watermark are reciprocal process. The watermark extraction algorithm flowchart is showed in Fig.2.
Fig.2 Watermark Extraction Process
The specific process for the digital watermark extraction is as following according to the watermark embedding algorithm.

Partition Block
Partition the image to be detected J and the original image I into R blocks Jk and Ik (k= 1,2,' . ., R ), and both of the size are 32 x 32 . Jk and Ik are corresponding in position.

Determination of Texture Blocks
Determine texture block set U = { Uk' k = 1,2,.Â·Â·, P x Q / 4} from the R blocks of the original image I according to the key K2 generated in the process of embedding watermark. Extract the corresponding blocks from J as the texture block set to be measured U' = {U'k' k = 1,2,.Â·Â·, P x Q / 4} according to the position of the texture blocks set.

Second Generation Discrete Wavelet Transform Second generation discrete wavelet transform for the extracted U'k and the corresponding Uk . Calculate the intensity factor a1 and a2 according to the method of embedding the watermark. Extract the watermark component according to (3) and (4). W' (h) = [U'k (i,j)/Uk (i,j)I] / a (3)
h= 1,2,.Â· Â·,Px Q; i= 1,2,Â· Â·Â·,L/ 4; j= 1,2,Â·Â·Â·,L/ 4 (4)
where U'k (i,j) is the coefficients of each frequency brand of the texture blocks to be measured after second generation discrete wavelet decomposition. Uk (i, j) is the coefficients of each frequency brand of the texture blocks of the original image after second generation discrete wavelet decomposition and is corresponding to U'k (i, j) . Judge the value of W* ( h ) . If it is more than 0, the watermark component exists and let the value be 1. If not, let the value be 0.

Arnold Antiscrambling
Make the extracted water component W* ( h) Arnold anti scrambling according to the key K1 and
then the extracted watermark image W ' {w' (i,j), lsi s P,I sj s Q} can be obtained.

Evaluation of the Watermark
Determine the degree of similarity between the extracted water image and the original water image. It is the most effective to use the subjective approach for meaningful watermark.
RESULTS
We used the Lena image of 256 x 256 and 256 gray scales as the original image and the binary text image of 32 x 32 as the original watermark to test the performance of the algorithm. The original image was divided into blocks of 8 x 8 . The effect of embedding watermark is showed in Fig.3 and Fig A. We can see that the watermarked image is so similar with the original image visually from Fig.3. The invisibility is
Fig 3. (A) Original Image. (B) Watermark. (C)Canny Edge
(D) Histogram Adjustment (E) Extracted Watermark
CONCLUSIONS
A new digital image watermarking algorithm based on canny edge detection and texture block in DWT is proposed. In the algorithm, A canny edge detection is applied to the original image after that the texture blocks are extracted and the watermark is embedded adaptively both in the lowfrequency subband and the highfrequency subband in DWT. The result shows the method to improve the robustness of the system and reliability. It also has good ability of resisting to geometric attacks. In further study improve the robustness and enhance capacity of digital watermark.
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