Design And Fabrication Of Plastic Brickmaking Machine

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV11IS07009

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Design And Fabrication Of Plastic Brickmaking Machine

Dr. D. Sangupandy *

Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

M.K. Sanjay UG Scholar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India


This works with the help of an electrical AC motor to drive the gear drive and actual experimental setups, in the generation of the de- plastic brick. The Gearbox assembly, hopper setup, screw conveyor, and stand were fabricated with a simple design and with easily available materials to serve and fulfill the purpose of the project. The drive system of the project starting from the motor to the conveyor system has reduced the speed to nearly 95:1 (i.e., 1440 to 15 RPM). Standard Trial tests have been carried out with the plastic molding materials to produce Plastic brick. Plastic brick is a product of industrial importance that is manufactured by burning plastic in the absence of air.

Plastic brick is used in domestic and industrial etc. for construction work. This project deals with the design and fabrication of contraptions for producing plastic bricks from plastic wastages and plastic powders etc., this project aims to produce plastic bricks from waste plastics with drastic elimination in cost.

This paper aims at the design and fabrication of a Plastic Reinforced Brick Manufacturing Machine which brings down the plastic waste in landfills which is primarily responsible for environmental pollution. The most common recyclable plastic products are beverage packaging widely used for water, soda, cool drinks, and juice, and plastic bags and plastic containers used for packing food products.

These recyclable plastic products are reinforced with bricks. At this time of energy crisis and fast depleting resources, the availability of conventional building materials perennially in terms of quantity and quality poses a hectic task for builders.

Demand for building materials is going up tremendously day by day given the ever- increasing requirement of housing and habitat

sectors. Such a crisis prompted the researchers to re- orient themselves

K. Jithu

UG Scholar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

A.Nawin UG Scholar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

N. Sridhar UG Scholar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology,

Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

to evolve a new technology to manufacture appropriate masonry products, using locally available low-cost materials. The concept of construction using green materials was aptly conceived in research realms to employ marginal materials and deploy unskilled laborers in massive production schemes.

At the same time, considering the earth as a sustainable material, there is a growing interest in the maximum use of its resources as modern ingredients in the construction sector. The major environmental challenge confronting our country in modern times is Solid Waste Management. Plastic is one of the materials mostly used in the modern world. Being lightweight and durable plastic is being widely used for various purposes and it has now become an integral part of our daily life. The plastic products that we mostly use are non-biodegradable and hence after use, these are ultimately used for filling our landfills. 1.


This work aims to reduce the plastic waste that is rising in the present world by using a system incorporating a plastic extruder to recycle waste plastic into useful products. The maximum compressive load sustained by the Polypropylene/Rubber composite brick is 17.05 tons, followed by the LDPE/Rubber composite brick with 16.55 tons. Waste is now a global problem and must be addressed to solve the world's resource and energy challenges. Plastics are non-biodegradable, synthetic polymers derived primarily from petro-fossil feedstock and made up of long-chain hydrocarbons with additives. The modeled P/C tie is 8% virgin HDPE plastic, 7% talc, and a mixture of post-consumer recycled milk bottles, grocery bags, and tires.

Electric energy is required to process the mixture and extrude the P/C product. The machine consists of a cutting unit, a recycling unit, and a mixing unit made of mild steel. The efficiency of the machine was established using plastic waste, cement, and other aggregates.


Type Roller


Tooth Belt V Belt Spur Gear

Synchronization Transmission Efficiency Anti-Shock Noise/Vibration

Surrounding Condition Avoid

Water, Dust

Space Saving (High Speed/ Low Load)

Space Saving

Avoid Heat,

Oil, Water, Dust

Avoid Heat, Oil, Water, Dust

Avoid Water, Dust

(Low Speed/ High Load)

Compact Heavy Pulley Wider Pulley Less Durability Due to Less



Required No Lube No Lube Required

Layout Flexibility

Excess Load onto Bearing

Excellent Good Fair Poor




      Waste products taken from waste plastic are dried for two to three days. The heating chamber

      switch was switched ON so that the regulator has to be

      adjusted gradually to reach the maximum temperature. Then it was allowed to heat for up to five minutes. Then the motor was switched ON. Thus, the screw

      conveyor rotates. The conveyor has taken it inside the hopper.

      Inside the extruder, more heat is generated because the heat is transferred from the heating chamber to the extruder. Thus, the plastic waste burnt inside the extruder.

      The operational principle of this machine is as follows:

      1. Switch on the heater and set the required temperature slightly above the melting point of different waste plastics.

      2. Mixing waste plastics, rubber composites, and calcium carbonate in the required quantity and is poured into the hopper when the required temperature in the control box has reached.

      3. Switch on the motor and the screw conveyor starts rotating at 80 rpm.

      4. The waste plastics from the hopper get melted and conveyed toward the nozzle.

      5. A brick mold is kept at the end of the nozzle tip and the molten plastic/rubber composite material starts filling the mold box. After the mold is filled the mold box is removed from the nozzle tip

        1. Reference diameter d2, = Z x mx

          = 28 x 1.4

          = 39.2 mm

        2. Tip diameter da2, = (Z + 2×7+2x)x1.4

          =58 mm

        3. Pitch diameter d2 = d2

        = 39.2 mm


        = tan [1/q]

        = tan [1/11]

        = 5.1944

        Sn = (/2) x 1.4 x Cos (5.1944)

        = 2.1901 mm

        Length of warm gear teeth:

        L (11 + 0.06 x Z) x Mx

        (11 + 0.06 x 41) x 1.4

        18.844 mm Total length L = 18.844 + 25

        = 43.844 mm

        For (Z=1) no of Starts.

        dipped in the water bath and kept inside the bath for

        No. of thread on Worm = L/3 ( Mx = 18.

        an hour for proper cooling.

      6. The final product is removed from the mould box and is sent for compression testing using a Hydraulic Brick testing machine.


    4. OBSERVD DETAILS: Motor (AC):

      Speed (N) =1440rpm

      Power = 0.376 KW = 0.5 hp

      Gear Box:

      Input Speed = 1440 rpm

      No of stages in reduction = >2.

    5. Worm Gear & Worm Wheel: WORM GEAR:

      1. Reference diameter, d1 = q*mx


      2. Tip diameter da1= d1 + 2*f0*mx

        = 16+2*7*1.4

        = 36mm

        where f0 is the height factor here it is taken as

      3. Tip relief radius r1= 0.1*mx

        = 0.1*1.4 = 0.14mm

      4. Root relief radius r2 = 0.2*mx

        = 0.2*1.4 = 0.28mm

      5. Nominal tooth thickness reference to dia. in axial section(s):

        S = x mx/2

        = x 1.4/2

        =2.199 mm

      6. Nominal tooth thickness reference to diameter in normal section:

      sn = /2 x mx x Cos = tan¹ [z/q]

      = tan¹ [1/11]

      = 5.19

      sn = /2 x 1.4 cos (5.19)

      = 2.190 mm


      The efficiency of a system:

      = (0.95 x tan ) / {tan ( + )} = tan ()

      = Ratio according to slicing velocity (Vs), Vs = V1 / Cos()


      V1 = ( x d1 x N1) / 60000

      =1.206 m/sec.

      Vs = 1.206 / Cos (5.1944)

      = 1.210 m/sec.

      According to Vs = 2 m/sec (approx.)

      Value of = 0.03

      = {(0.95 x tan 5.1944) / [ tan (5.1944+1.718)}

      = tan ()

      = 1.718

      = 81.10 % 90 %

      (Hence it is possible).

      Area required:

      (1 ) x power input= Kt x (to-ta) x A Were,

      To = Max operating Temperature is 60 C ta = Room Temperature = 30 C

      A = (1- 0.8110) x 0.3756

      =12 x (60-30)

      = 0.197 m²

    6. SPEEDS IN GEARBOX: Measured Specifications:


= D2/D1

= Z2/Z1


N1 = Input speed to the gearbox

= 436 rpm

N2 = Output speed from the gearbox

D2 = Diameter of the worm wheel = 50mm D1= Diameter of the worm gear

= 36 mm

Z1 = Number of starts in the worm gear


Z2 = Number of teeth on the worm wheel

=28 Nos.

N2 = (Z2/Z1) x N1

= (28 / 1) x 436 = 15 rpm


    The completed unit is shown in the below



    This work effectively converts waste plastic into useful building materials like building bricks and floor interlocks which can effectively reduce environmental pollution and further decreases the problem of waste plastics in society.

    Rather than the waste plastics going into the landfill or incinerators, they can be used as construction materials at a much lower cost after undergoing certain specific processing.

    It also reduces construction costs by eliminating the use of mortar during construction by using recyclable plastic/composite bricks and floor interlocks. From the compression testing results, we come to know that waste plastic material when effectively mixed with Rubber powder and Calcium Carbonate gives the highest compressive strength and sustains a high compressive load.


[1] Maikudi Umar Ali Inuwa, Potters Kiln Bricks: Using Manual Brick Making Machine, Journal of Education and Practice, Vol.10, pp. 1-13, 2019

[2] P.Manoj Kumar,P.Naveen Kumar, P.Pavithran, Dr.G.Rajamurugan, Automatic Brick Making Machine, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Vol. 05, pp. 1- 5, 2018

[3] Prof. S. G. Bawane, Krutik Akre, Gemant Padole, Design and Fabrication of Eco-Brick Making Machine, International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET), Vol. 11, pp.1-6, 2023

[4] Prof. S. G. Bawane, Pratik Motghare, Sudhanshu Meshram, Abhishek Wankhede, Krutik Akre, Gemant Padole, Fabrication and Testing of Eco-Bricks Making Machine, International Scientific Journal of Engineering and Management, Vol. 02, pp. 1-4, 2023 [5] O. Azeez, O. Ogundare, T.E. Oshodin, O.A. Olasupo, and B.A. Olunlade, Evaluation of the Compressive Strength of Hybrid Clay Bricks, Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 10, pp. 609-615, 2011

[6] B. V. Venkatarama Reddy, Sustainable building technologies, special section: application of s&t to rural areas, Vol. 87, pp. 1-9, 2004

[7] Zoubeir Lafhaj , Mazen Samara , Franck Agostini

, Linda Boucard ,

Fre´de´ric Skoczylas , Guy Depelsenaire, Polluted river sediments from the North region of France:Treatment with Novosol process and valorization in clay bricks, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 22, pp. 755-762, 2008

[8] Hamidun Mohd Noh, Nurul Fatin Nazwa Abu Bakar,Nurain Idris, rimah asim, Rozlin Zainal, Syarifah Meryam Shareh Musa, The Acceptance of Utilizing Low-density Polyethylene (LDPE) Plastic in Concrete Brick Among Construction Stakeholders, Nurul Fatin Nazwa & Hamidun, Research In Management Of Technology And Business, Vol. 02, pp. 865-876, 2001

[9] V A Dakwalea & R V Ralegaonkarb, Development of sustainable construction material using construction and demolition waste, Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences, Vol. 21, pp. 451-457, 2014


E.J. ENIAYEKAN, Development and preliminary testing of a compressed laterite soil brick machine, ANNALS OF FACULTY ENGINEERING HUNEDOARA International Journal Of Engineering, Vol. 02, pp. 1-6, 2012