- Open Access
- Authors : Shahulhameed, Thavsubramaniyn, Karuppusamy
- Paper ID : IJERTCONV10IS08035
- Volume & Issue : ETEDM – 2022 (Volume 10 – Issue 08)
- Published (First Online): 30-07-2022
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Design and Fabrication 360 Hydraulic Floor Crane
Shahulhameed, Thavsubramaniyn, Karuppusamy
Department of Mechanical Engineering Hindusthan Institute of Technology, Coimbatore
Abstract:- A crane is a kind of machine, equipped with a hoist, wire ropes or chains, and sheaves, that can be used together to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. The hydraulic floor crane includes hydraulic cylinder, hydraulic tank, hydraulic hoses, truck, DCV, beam and hooks. The beam one end is fixed to the truck and another end is attached to the hooks. In this paper we analyze the design of hydraulic floor crane.
These hydraulic floor cranes provide an efficient, low cost alternative to other material handling equipments. Strong, robust, sturdy and built to very standard, these cranes are maneuverable in loading, unloading and shifting of heavy loads. Crane structure consists of chassis, vertical column, horizontal arm, and the hydraulic pump with cylinder assembly. The box crane can take heavy loads effectively, avoids damage under rough and unskilled handling. The hydraulic cranes used in the industry are efficient but they only have the ability to lift the load and put it down at some other position. In this general design, the arm of the crane moves in the vertical plane only, i.e it has constrained motion. The aim of our project is to re-design the hydraulic crane and give its arm the rotational ability. The ball bearing provides rotational motion to the column. The hydraulic crane was invented in Newcastle by William Armstrong in about 1845 to help load coal into barges at the Quayside.
Steel Work Design and Analysis of a Mobile Floor Crane
The transportation of heavy machine parts and equipment within and outside the workshop has been a source of concern and needs urgent attention because of the hazard it exhibits. This negative effect on the health of engineers, led to the invention of the floor jib crane but research shows that contemporary designs of floor jib crane fail over time when these static load is left on it for a prolonged period of time. This project is centered on the design and fabrication of a mobile floor crane equipped with a facility to lock the load at any level as a special feature, to tackle the issue of failure due to static load. The mobile crane is designed to bear a maximum load of about1000 kg, with a counter weight of 2.6 KN which gave the crane a 3.034 factor of safety. The materials employed are; sheet metals, angular iron, bolts, nuts, metal rollers etc. The fabrication processes involved drawing, marking out, cutting, filling, welding and assembling. For permanent joints, the arc welding process was employed. As indicated earlier, the mobile floor crane gains its significance in the transportation of
heavy machine parts within and outside the workshop. It can also be used to load and unload machine parts on truck
FABRICATED PARTS AND WORKING
A hydraulic jack is a jack that uses a liquid to push against a piston. This is based on Pascals Principle. The principle states that pressure in a closed container is the same at all points. If there are two cylinders connected, applying force to the smaller cylinder will result in the same amount of pressure in the larger cylinder. However, since the larger cylinder has more area, the resulting force will be greater. In other words, an increase in area leads to an increase in force. The greater the difference in size between the two cylinders, the greater the increase in the force will be. A hydraulic jack operates based on this two cylinder system.
A solenoid valve is an electromechanically operated valve. The valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid: in the case of a two-port valve the flow is switched on or off; in the case of a three-port valve, the outflow is switched between the two outlet ports. Multiple solenoid valves can be placed together on a manifold. Solenoid valves are the most frequently used control elements in fluidics. Their tasks are to shut off, release, dose, distribute or mix fluids. They are found in many application areas. Solenoids offer fast and safe switching, High reliability, long service life, good medium compatibility of the materials used, low control power and compact design. Besides the plunger-type actuator which is used most frequently, pivoted-armature actuators and rocker actuators are also used.
AC induction motors are the most common motors usedin industrial motion control systems,  as well as in
main powered home appliances. Simple and rugged design,  low- cost, low maintenance and direct connection to an AC power source are the main advantages of AC induction motors. Various types of AC induction motors are available in the market.  Different motors are suitable for different applications.  Although AC induction motors are easier to design than DC motors, the speed and the torque control in various types of AC induction motors require a greater understanding of the design and the characteristics of these motors.  This application note discusses the basics of an AC induction motor; the different types, their characteristics, the selection criteria for different applications and basic control techniques. 
The arm supports the load carried by the crane setup, it should be designed proper arrangement that it should be rigidly fixed with the base frame at its one end and its other end is connected with the end effect or for performing the operations say load lifting In order to carry heavy loads there are several kinds of design optimization which is need for designing and manufacturing the efficient model of arm for heavy load carrying purposes. The cross link members are used for providing additional supports to the frame by reducing its actual weight and also by increasing its over all stability.
The bearings are pressed smoothly to fit into the shafts because if hammered the bearing may develop cracks. Bearing is made upon steel material and bearing cap is mild steel.
A frame is a basic structure designed to bear a load in a lightweight economical manner. The simplest form of an A- frame is two similarly sized beams, arranged in a 45-degree or less angle, attached at the top. These materials are often wooden or steel beams attached at the top by rope, welding, gluing, or riveting. Because they have only two "legs", frames are usually set up in rows so that they can have good stability. A saw horse is a good example of this structure. More complex structures will have a cross member connecting the two materials in the middle to prevent the legs from bowing outwards under load.
A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing. The wheel is one of the main components of the wheel and axle which is one of the six simple machines. Wheels, in conjunction with axles, allow heavy objects to be moved easily facilitating movement or transportation while supporting a load, or performing labor in machines. Wheels are also used for other purposes, such as a ship's wheel, steering wheel, potter's wheel and flywheel. Common examples are found in transport applications. A wheel greatly reduces friction by facilitating motion by rolling together with the use of axles. In order for wheels to rotate, a moment needs to be applied to the wheel about its axis, either by way ofgravity, or by the application of another external force
Hydraulic cylinders get their power from pressurized hydraulic fluid, which is typically oil. The hydraulic cylinder consists of a cylinder barrel, in which a piston connected to a piston rod moves back and forth. The barrel is closed on one end by the cylinder bottom (also called the cap) and the other end by the cylinder head (also called the gland) where the piston rod comes out of the cylinder. The piston has sliding rings and seals. The piston divides the inside of the cylinder into two chambers, the bottom chamber (cap end) and the pistonrod side chamber (rod end / head end). Flanges, trunnions, clevises, Lugs are common cylinder mounting options. The piston rod also has mounting attachments to connect the cylinder to theobject or machine component that it is pushing / pulling. A hydraulic cylinder is the actuator or motor side of this system. The generaaof the head end is approximately zero, the force F on the piston rod equals the pressure P in the cylinder times the piston area A: F=P Â· A
When the ac motor is turned on it tends to activate the rotor pump which is directly coupled to the motor shaft with the help of coupling. Due to the activation of pump the oil from the reservoir is raised with the help of suction pressure created by the pump to reach solenoid valve. The solenoid valve is coupled to the hydraulic cylinder which is mounted between frame and lifting arm. When the valve is activated by means of lever by the operator, then the pressurized fluid enters thecylinder, which tends to retracts the piston outwards. Due to this arm is lifted to a certain extent with the load. When the portal is reversed with the help of hand lever, then the cylinder tends to retract backwards there by powering the arm for lifting and shifting the load carried from one place to another
rrangement of four wheels on the base plate
Assembly of fixture for holding the bearing and the verticalcolumn
ssembly horizontal arm ssembly of hydraulic jack
onnection of hoses with the hydraulic jack talling pulleys in horizontal and vertical arm talling high steel cable on the pulleys ttaching a hook on the high steel cable
ADVATAGES OF HYDRAULIC FLOOR CRANE
Hydraulic implementation increases high load carryingcapacity.
Simple in construction.
ess maintenance.nitial cost is less.
he materials used for fabrication is easily available in theconsumer markets.
on skilled labors can easily handle this system. pace consumption is less, so it can be used for smallcale applications too.
DISADVATAGES OF HYDRAULIC FLOOR CRANE
ossibility of leakage of oil oad cant be carry an angle ydraulic fluid is highly corrosive
Used for load lifting, carrying and shifting operations in small, medium and large industries like, Foundry Welding workshops Automobile workshops Construction sites, etc.,
In this paper we found that Hydraulic Floor crane mechanism is capable of lifting load. We analyse that design and fabrication was a great success both in terms of strength and stiffness.