Design and Analysis of Flapping Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

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Design and Analysis of Flapping Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

  1. Jagadeesh

    Department of Aeronautical Engineering KCG College of Technology

    Chennai, India

  2. Madhu Mathi

Department of Aeronautical Engineering KCG College of Technology

Chennai, India

Dr. K. Vijayaraja

Department of Aeronautical Engineering KCG College of Technology

Chennai, India

Abstract This project presents the design of a Flapping wing UAV which is inspired by various bird mechanism and its action during flight. In this project, the real actions have been tried to convert into a perfect mechanism in order to get a stable flight manuvering. Biomemic plays a major role in this design. The design has been made CATIA V5 with all the parameters calculated according to the bird selected. The moving mesh analysis is completed with the help of ANSYS 19.0. This UAV can be widely used for surveillance for civilian and military applications.

KeywordsCATIA; ANSYS; flapping; UAV; lift; dynamic; meshing;

Figure 1 Flight Action of Flapping Wing UAV

  1. INTRODUCTION

    The flapping wing aircraft which will produce lift and thrust by the flapping mechanism. Using Bio-mimic various Ornithopter, designs have been suggested for civil and military applications especially for the purpose of surveillance. In this paper, the highly aerodynamic design for flapping wing UAV with advanced specifications have been created. The flapping wing UAV made which can be used for surveillance or reconnaissance of a particular target and also for a specific environment without its own consciousness. The Ornithopter uses battery power, gear mechanism, which enables to increase the number of flaps. We are bringing down the specifications of various birds and trying it to convert it into perfect real time mechanism. As of the first initiative, the basic and operating principles of flight have been studied in order to understand the flapping mechanism.

    • For an airplane/ bird to stay at a constant height, Lift force upwards = Weight force downwards

    • For an airplane/bird to stay at a constant speed, Thrust force forwards = opposing force of Drag

    Ease of Use

    Figure 2 Up stroke And Down stroke action

    Figure 3 Flight Operating Principle

    The parameter has been calculated for the design. After the analysis of 2D design, the 3D design has been created with the respect.

  2. PARAMETERS CALCULATED FOR DESIGNING THE FLAPPING WING UAV

  1. Design Parameters

    Table I

    S. NO

    DESIGN PARAMETERS

    DENOTION

    UNITS

    VALUE

    1

    LENGTH

    L

    M

    0.23

    2

    WING SPAN

    B

    M

    0.58

    3

    MASS

    M

    Kg

    0.476

    4

    WING AREA

    S

    m2

    0.0745

    5

    ASPECT RATIO

    AR

    ———-

    4.515

    6

    TORQUE

    T

    N

    0.358

    7

    WING LOADING

    W/S

    Kg/ m2

    10.836

  2. Flight Parameters

    1. FREQUENCY

      Figure 4. Flapping frequency

      f 1.08 (m1/ 3 g1/ 2 b1 S1/ 4 1/ 3)

      f (Small Birds) 116.3 m-1/6

      f (Large Birds) 28.7 m-1/3

      The frequencies for the parameters designed are

      f = 2.6 Hz

      f = 2.6 Hz

    2. FLIGHT SPEED (U)

      The relationship between flight speed & the mass of the bird can be given,

      U 4.77 m1/6

      Where m is the mass of the bird and U is the Flight speed.

      U = 4.212 m/s

      U = 4.212 m/s

    3. FLAPPING ANGLE ()

      Flapping angle varies as sinusoidal function. and its rate is given by following equations.

      (t) = 22.538o

      (t) = 22.538o

      (t) = max cos2 f t

    4. FLAPPING RATE (r)

      The equation for flapping rate is given as

      r(t) = -2 f t sin 2 f t

      r(t) = -374.943 Hz.s

      r(t) = -374.943 Hz.s

    5. PITCHING RATE ()

    The angle of climb (slope) is the angle between the horizontal axis and the aircraft flight path.

    Figure 6. Pitching angle

    Figure 7. Flapping action

    The pitch is the angle between the horizontal axis and the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.

    (t) = (r(i)/B) o cos (2 f t + ) (t) = 12.5o

  3. Velocity Parameters

    1. VERTICAL COMPONENET OF RELATIVE WIND VELOCITY (Vy)

      Vysin( ) (r(i). .cos( ) ) (0.75.c. .cos( )))

      Vy = 2.427m/s

    2. HORIZONTAL COMPONENET OF RELATIVE WIND VELOCITY (Vx)

      The horizontal component of relative wind velocity is given by

      VxU cos( ) (0.75.c. .sin( )) Vx m/s

      Figure 5 Flapping Angle

    3. RELATIVE VELOCITY (Vrel)

      The relative velocity for the given parameters is given by

      Vrel (Vx2Vy2)1/2

      Vrel 5.34 m/s

    4. RELATIVE ANGLE ()

    Relative angle between the two velocity components and the effective angle of attack

    = tan-1 (Vx / Vy) = 62.97o

  4. ANGLE OF ATTACK

    1. EFFECTIVE ANGLE OF ATTACK (eff)

      Effective Angle of Attack is that part of a given angle of attack that lies between the chord of an airfoil and the effective airflow.

      Figure 8. Effective angle of attack

      Effective airflow is a line representing the resultant velocity of the disturbed airflow.

      eff

      eff

    2. RELATIVE ANGLE OF ATTACK ()

      Figure 9. Relative angle of attack

      = 6O

    3. FLOW RELATIVE ANGLE OF ATTACK (I)

      Figure 10. Angle of attack

      I = 2.4O

    4. CYCLE ANGLE () The cycle angle is given by

      = 58o

    5. SECTION MEAN PITCH ANGLE (I) The section mean pitch angle is given by

    i = 60o

  5. FORCE PARAMETERS

    1. HORIZONTAL COMPONENT OF FORCE( Fhor) The horizontal component of force is given by

      FhordLcsin.cosdNnc sin().cosdDdcos.cos Fhor = -1.232 N

    2. VERTICAL COMPONENT OF FORCE ( Fhor) FverdLccos.cosdNnc cos().cos.cos

      Fver = 0.2777N

    3. NORMAL FORCE( Nnc)

    The vertical component of force is given by

    Nnc = 0.306N

  6. LIFT PARAMETERS

    1. THEODORSON LIFT DEFICIENCY (C (K))

      Theodorsen Lift Deficiency factor which is a function of reduced frequency k

      C

    2. LIFT COEFFICIENT DUE TO CIRCULATION (Cl-c)

      The section lift coefficient due to circulation (KuttaJoukowski condition) for flat plate is given by

      Cl-c = 0.17

    3. SECTIONAL LIFT (LC)

      The section lift can thus be calculated by

      LC = 0.157N

    4. INSTANTANEOUS LIFT (L) The instantaneous lift is given by

      L = 0.565 N

    5. LIFT ALONG SPAN (LX)

    The lift along the span is given by

    LX = 1.105N

  7. THRUST PARAMETERS

    1. INSTANTANEOUS THRUST (T) The instantaneous thrust is given by

      T = 0.204 N

    2. THRUST ALONG SPAN (TX) The thrust along span is given by

    Tx = 1.16

    Pin = 0.9 W

    b) POWER OUTPUT (Pout)

    Pout = 0.72 W

    b) EFFICENCY ()

  8. DRAG PARAMETERS

  1. INDUCED DRAG COEFFICIENT (Cdi)

    Cdi = 0.002468

  2. INDUCED DRAG ( Di)

    Di = 0.001708 N

  3. PARASITE DRAG COEFFICIENT (Cdp)

    Cdp = 11.1257

  4. PARASITE DRAG (Dp)

    Dp = 2.887 N

  5. TOTAL DRAG (Dd)

    Dd = Dp + Di Dd = 2.888 N

  6. SKIN FRICTIONAL DRAG COEFFICIENT (Cf)

Cf = 2.529

  1. PRESSURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UPPER AND LOWER SURFACE

    Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

    = 82.22

    1. DESIGN

      1. SELECTION OF AEROFOIL

        The aerofoil to be selected must be similar to the shape of the bird wing.

        Figure 12. NACA 4309

        So on analyzing different aerofoil and finding similarities the NACA 4309 aerofoil is been selected

      2. DESIGN OF AEROFOIL

        The design of aerofoil in CATIA V5 by importing the coordinates of aerofoil from excel sheet.

        Figure 13. Aerofoil

      3. CONNECTING RODS

      The connecting rod which

      Figure 11. Pressure difference

      Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure.

      connects the two gears and two sides of the assembled wing structure which creates the flapping motion.

      J. POWER

      p = 0.507 BAR

      Figure 14. Connecting rod

      a) POWER INPUT (Pin)

      1. WING SKELETON STRUCTURE

        The aerofoil and different crank that are used to connect the aerofoil to construct the skeleton structure of the wing which is driven by the gear mechanism.

        Figure 15. Wing skeleton structure

      2. RUNNING GEAR

      The running gear is the main gear which is attached to the wing skeleton structure which is connected to the connecting rod to make the flapping motion.

      Figure 19. Top body

      H. ASSEMBLED WING STRUCTURE ALONG WITH GEAR The wing structure after the assembling of aerofoil and connecting rod is then connected with running gear and pinion.

      Figure 20. Assembled gear with wing

      1. PINION

        Figure 16. Running gear

        1. ASSEMBLING OF OTHER PARTS

          After assembling the gear and pinion to the wing skeleton structure the body structure is merged with the wing structure.

          The pinion gear is the gear which drives the main gear. The

          gear is attached to the key which is driven by rotating the key.

          Figure 21. Assembled structure

      2. BODY DESIGN

      Figure 17. Pinion

      The design of body parts is designed according to the shape of the birds analyzed.

      Figure 18 Side Body

      Figure 22. Assembled structure side view

      Figure 23. Assembled structure cross view

      Figure 24. Assembled structure front view

      J. SHEET METAL APPLICATION

      1. Mesh Deformation Y Velocity

        Figure 27 Mesh Y Velocity

      2. Relative X Velocity

        Figure 28 Relative X Velocity

      3. Relative Y Velocity

      Figure 24 Applied Skin Over The Wing

    2. RESULTS

      A. Dynamic velocity

      F. Vorticity

      Figure 29 Relative Y Velocity

      Figure 25 Velocity

      B. Mesh Deformation X Velocity

      1. Tangential Velocity

        Figure 30 Vorticity

        Figure 26 Mesh X Velocity Figure 31 Tangential Velocity

      2. Radial velocity M. Dynamic Pressure

      3. X Velocity

      Figure 32 Radial Velocity

      N. Total Pressure

      Figure 37 Dynamic Pressure

      J. Y Velocity

      Figure 33 X Velocity

      1. Density

        Figure 38 Total Pressure

        Figure 34 Y Velocity

      2. Temperature

      Figure 39 Density

      1. Velocity Angle

        Figure 35 Velocity Angle

      2. Cell Reynolds number

      1. Enthalpy

        Figure 40 Temperature

        Figure 36 Reynolds Number

        Figure 41 Enthalpy

      2. Wall Temperature

        Figure 42 Wall Temperature

    3. CONCLUSION

In this paper the flapping wing UAV has been designed and analysed to evaluate its aerodynamic performance in the airflow. Using GAMBIT, the 2D structure has been designed and analysed by FLUENT. The results show that this structure have good aerodynamic design with standard flow parameters. With the reference of 2D design, the 3D structure has been with all its interior parts and gear systems. The results obtained from the FLUENT analysis clearly proves and ensures that it can work better with the flow over it.

  1. Entropy

    REFERENCES

  2. Total Energy

  3. Internal Energy

  4. Total Enthalpy

Figure 43 Entropy

Figure 44 Total Energy

Figure 45 Internal Energy

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Figure 46 total enthalpy

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