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**Authors :**R. Jagadeesh , S. Madhu Mathi , Dr. K. Vijayaraja -
**Paper ID :**IJERTV8IS040062 -
**Volume & Issue :**Volume 08, Issue 04 (April – 2019) -
**Published (First Online):**02-04-2019 -
**ISSN (Online) :**2278-0181 -
**Publisher Name :**IJERT -
**License:**This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

#### Design and Analysis of Flapping Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Jagadeesh

Department of Aeronautical Engineering KCG College of Technology

Chennai, India

Madhu Mathi

Department of Aeronautical Engineering KCG College of Technology

Chennai, India

Dr. K. Vijayaraja

Department of Aeronautical Engineering KCG College of Technology

Chennai, India

Abstract This project presents the design of a Flapping wing UAV which is inspired by various bird mechanism and its action during flight. In this project, the real actions have been tried to convert into a perfect mechanism in order to get a stable flight manuvering. Biomemic plays a major role in this design. The design has been made CATIA V5 with all the parameters calculated according to the bird selected. The moving mesh analysis is completed with the help of ANSYS 19.0. This UAV can be widely used for surveillance for civilian and military applications.

KeywordsCATIA; ANSYS; flapping; UAV; lift; dynamic; meshing;

Figure 1 Flight Action of Flapping Wing UAV

INTRODUCTION

The flapping wing aircraft which will produce lift and thrust by the flapping mechanism. Using Bio-mimic various Ornithopter, designs have been suggested for civil and military applications especially for the purpose of surveillance. In this paper, the highly aerodynamic design for flapping wing UAV with advanced specifications have been created. The flapping wing UAV made which can be used for surveillance or reconnaissance of a particular target and also for a specific environment without its own consciousness. The Ornithopter uses battery power, gear mechanism, which enables to increase the number of flaps. We are bringing down the specifications of various birds and trying it to convert it into perfect real time mechanism. As of the first initiative, the basic and operating principles of flight have been studied in order to understand the flapping mechanism.

For an airplane/ bird to stay at a constant height, Lift force upwards = Weight force downwards

For an airplane/bird to stay at a constant speed, Thrust force forwards = opposing force of Drag

Ease of Use

Figure 2 Up stroke And Down stroke action

Figure 3 Flight Operating Principle

The parameter has been calculated for the design. After the analysis of 2D design, the 3D design has been created with the respect.

PARAMETERS CALCULATED FOR DESIGNING THE FLAPPING WING UAV

Design Parameters

Table I

S. NO

DESIGN PARAMETERS

DENOTION

UNITS

VALUE

1

LENGTH

L

M

0.23

2

WING SPAN

B

M

0.58

3

MASS

M

Kg

0.476

4

WING AREA

S

m2

0.0745

5

ASPECT RATIO

AR

———-

4.515

6

TORQUE

T

N

0.358

7

WING LOADING

W/S

Kg/ m2

10.836

Flight Parameters

FREQUENCY

Figure 4. Flapping frequency

f 1.08 (m1/ 3 g1/ 2 b1 S1/ 4 1/ 3)

f (Small Birds) 116.3 m-1/6

f (Large Birds) 28.7 m-1/3

The frequencies for the parameters designed are

f = 2.6 Hz

f = 2.6 Hz

FLIGHT SPEED (U)

The relationship between flight speed & the mass of the bird can be given,

U 4.77 m1/6

Where m is the mass of the bird and U is the Flight speed.

U = 4.212 m/s

U = 4.212 m/s

FLAPPING ANGLE ()

Flapping angle varies as sinusoidal function. and its rate is given by following equations.

(t) = 22.538o

(t) = 22.538o

(t) = max cos2 f t

FLAPPING RATE (r)

The equation for flapping rate is given as

r(t) = -2 f t sin 2 f t

r(t) = -374.943 Hz.s

r(t) = -374.943 Hz.s

PITCHING RATE ()

The angle of climb (slope) is the angle between the horizontal axis and the aircraft flight path.

Figure 6. Pitching angle

Figure 7. Flapping action

The pitch is the angle between the horizontal axis and the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.

(t) = (r(i)/B) o cos (2 f t + ) (t) = 12.5o

Velocity Parameters

VERTICAL COMPONENET OF RELATIVE WIND VELOCITY (Vy)

Vysin( ) (r(i). .cos( ) ) (0.75.c. .cos( )))

Vy = 2.427m/s

HORIZONTAL COMPONENET OF RELATIVE WIND VELOCITY (Vx)

The horizontal component of relative wind velocity is given by

VxU cos( ) (0.75.c. .sin( )) Vx m/s

Figure 5 Flapping Angle

RELATIVE VELOCITY (Vrel)

The relative velocity for the given parameters is given by

Vrel (Vx2Vy2)1/2

Vrel 5.34 m/s

RELATIVE ANGLE ()

Relative angle between the two velocity components and the effective angle of attack

= tan-1 (Vx / Vy) = 62.97o

ANGLE OF ATTACK

EFFECTIVE ANGLE OF ATTACK (eff)

Effective Angle of Attack is that part of a given angle of attack that lies between the chord of an airfoil and the effective airflow.

Figure 8. Effective angle of attack

Effective airflow is a line representing the resultant velocity of the disturbed airflow.

eff

eff

RELATIVE ANGLE OF ATTACK ()

Figure 9. Relative angle of attack

= 6O

FLOW RELATIVE ANGLE OF ATTACK (I)

Figure 10. Angle of attack

I = 2.4O

CYCLE ANGLE () The cycle angle is given by

= 58o

SECTION MEAN PITCH ANGLE (I) The section mean pitch angle is given by

i = 60o

FORCE PARAMETERS

HORIZONTAL COMPONENT OF FORCE( Fhor) The horizontal component of force is given by

FhordLcsin.cosdNnc sin().cosdDdcos.cos Fhor = -1.232 N

VERTICAL COMPONENT OF FORCE ( Fhor) FverdLccos.cosdNnc cos().cos.cos

Fver = 0.2777N

NORMAL FORCE( Nnc)

The vertical component of force is given by

Nnc = 0.306N

LIFT PARAMETERS

THEODORSON LIFT DEFICIENCY (C (K))

Theodorsen Lift Deficiency factor which is a function of reduced frequency k

C

LIFT COEFFICIENT DUE TO CIRCULATION (Cl-c)

The section lift coefficient due to circulation (KuttaJoukowski condition) for flat plate is given by

Cl-c = 0.17

SECTIONAL LIFT (LC)

The section lift can thus be calculated by

LC = 0.157N

INSTANTANEOUS LIFT (L) The instantaneous lift is given by

L = 0.565 N

LIFT ALONG SPAN (LX)

The lift along the span is given by

LX = 1.105N

THRUST PARAMETERS

INSTANTANEOUS THRUST (T) The instantaneous thrust is given by

T = 0.204 N

THRUST ALONG SPAN (TX) The thrust along span is given by

Tx = 1.16

Pin = 0.9 W

b) POWER OUTPUT (Pout)

Pout = 0.72 W

b) EFFICENCY ()

DRAG PARAMETERS

INDUCED DRAG COEFFICIENT (Cdi)

Cdi = 0.002468

INDUCED DRAG ( Di)

Di = 0.001708 N

PARASITE DRAG COEFFICIENT (Cdp)

Cdp = 11.1257

PARASITE DRAG (Dp)

Dp = 2.887 N

TOTAL DRAG (Dd)

Dd = Dp + Di Dd = 2.888 N

SKIN FRICTIONAL DRAG COEFFICIENT (Cf)

Cf = 2.529

PRESSURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UPPER AND LOWER SURFACE

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

= 82.22

DESIGN

SELECTION OF AEROFOIL

The aerofoil to be selected must be similar to the shape of the bird wing.

Figure 12. NACA 4309

So on analyzing different aerofoil and finding similarities the NACA 4309 aerofoil is been selected

DESIGN OF AEROFOIL

The design of aerofoil in CATIA V5 by importing the coordinates of aerofoil from excel sheet.

Figure 13. Aerofoil

CONNECTING RODS

The connecting rod which

Figure 11. Pressure difference

Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure.

connects the two gears and two sides of the assembled wing structure which creates the flapping motion.

J. POWER

p = 0.507 BAR

Figure 14. Connecting rod

a) POWER INPUT (Pin)

WING SKELETON STRUCTURE

The aerofoil and different crank that are used to connect the aerofoil to construct the skeleton structure of the wing which is driven by the gear mechanism.

Figure 15. Wing skeleton structure

RUNNING GEAR

The running gear is the main gear which is attached to the wing skeleton structure which is connected to the connecting rod to make the flapping motion.

Figure 19. Top body

H. ASSEMBLED WING STRUCTURE ALONG WITH GEAR The wing structure after the assembling of aerofoil and connecting rod is then connected with running gear and pinion.

Figure 20. Assembled gear with wing

PINION

Figure 16. Running gear

ASSEMBLING OF OTHER PARTS

After assembling the gear and pinion to the wing skeleton structure the body structure is merged with the wing structure.

The pinion gear is the gear which drives the main gear. The

gear is attached to the key which is driven by rotating the key.

Figure 21. Assembled structure

BODY DESIGN

Figure 17. Pinion

The design of body parts is designed according to the shape of the birds analyzed.

Figure 18 Side Body

Figure 22. Assembled structure side view

Figure 23. Assembled structure cross view

Figure 24. Assembled structure front view

J. SHEET METAL APPLICATION

Mesh Deformation Y Velocity

Figure 27 Mesh Y Velocity

Relative X Velocity

Figure 28 Relative X Velocity

Relative Y Velocity

Figure 24 Applied Skin Over The Wing

RESULTS

A. Dynamic velocity

F. Vorticity

Figure 29 Relative Y Velocity

Figure 25 Velocity

B. Mesh Deformation X Velocity

Tangential Velocity

Figure 30 Vorticity

Figure 26 Mesh X Velocity Figure 31 Tangential Velocity

Radial velocity M. Dynamic Pressure

X Velocity

Figure 32 Radial Velocity

N. Total Pressure

Figure 37 Dynamic Pressure

J. Y Velocity

Figure 33 X Velocity

Density

Figure 38 Total Pressure

Figure 34 Y Velocity

Temperature

Figure 39 Density

Velocity Angle

Figure 35 Velocity Angle

Cell Reynolds number

Enthalpy

Figure 40 Temperature

Figure 36 Reynolds Number

Figure 41 Enthalpy

Wall Temperature

Figure 42 Wall Temperature

CONCLUSION

In this paper the flapping wing UAV has been designed and analysed to evaluate its aerodynamic performance in the airflow. Using GAMBIT, the 2D structure has been designed and analysed by FLUENT. The results show that this structure have good aerodynamic design with standard flow parameters. With the reference of 2D design, the 3D structure has been with all its interior parts and gear systems. The results obtained from the FLUENT analysis clearly proves and ensures that it can work better with the flow over it.

Entropy

REFERENCES

Total Energy

Internal Energy

Total Enthalpy

Figure 43 Entropy

Figure 44 Total Energy

Figure 45 Internal Energy

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Figure 46 total enthalpy