Delay Analysis

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV7IS050119

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Delay Analysis

Deepa Joy

Kerala Technical University

Cochin college of Engineering and Technology Valanchery, Malappuram, Kerala-676552, India

Sreechithra P

Kerala Technical University

Cochin college of Engineering and Technology Valanchery, Malappuram, Kerala-676552, India

AbstractThe objective of this study is to identify the major causes and effects of construction delays. This study is done based on literature review and a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was formed based on the 32 factors and 9 effects of delay, targeting the contractors. The Likerts scale of five ordinal measures is used in this survey. The level of importance of each factor and effect of delays is established by computing Relative Importance Indices (RII).The analysis is made using Microsoft Excel and SPSS Software.

Keywords Delay factors, Delay effects, RII, SPSS


    Delay is the slowing down of work without entirely stopping construction and can lead to time overrun either beyond the contract date or beyond the date that the parties have agreed upon for the delivery of the project. Delays can be classified into non-excusable delays, excusable non compensable delays, excusable compensable delays and concurrent delays.

    Non-excusable delays are delays which the contractor either causes or assumes the risk for. Excusable non-compensable delays are delays caused by factors that are not foreseeable, beyond the contractor's reasonable control and not attributable to the contractor's fault or negligence.

    Compensable excusable delays are excusable delays, suspensions, or interruptions to all or part of the work caused by an act or failure to act by the owner resulting from owner's breach of an obligation, stated or implied, in the contract. Concurrent delays occur when both owner as well as the contractor are responsible for the delay.


    The contractor and the owner pay for the extra charge for the completion of the project due to delay. When the completion time of the construction project exceeds, it is known as construction project delay. It is needed to conduct detailed investigation and identification of delay factors, selecting the right actions to counter these delay factors within cost and maintaining quality.


    • Reduce delays in road projects

    • Reduce the effects of factors that cause delays.

    • Timely completion of project.

    • Reduce cost overruns.

    • Leads to proper planning of projects regarding time.

    • Construction of Delay Model.

  4. OUTLINE OF THE THESIS Chapter 1: Introduction

    Time delay is one of the biggest problem in many construction projects all over India. Timely completion is the key factor of the project, but the construction process is subject to many variables and unpredictable factors.

    Chapter 2: Literature Review

    Literature survey is carried out for identifying factors and effects that causes delays in construction industry and are also responsible for the harmful effects on projects.

    Chapter 3: Research Methodology

    Fig 1. Methodology

    Chapter 4: Result and Discussion

    The causes and effects of construction delays were ranked by using relative important index. The important causes of delays are fluctuation of prices and bad weather conditions. The important effects of delay are cost overrun and loss of profit by the contractor.

    Chapter 5: Conclusions


    The causes and effects of dealy obtained by survey were examined and werw ranked on the basis of Relative Importance Index (RII).

    The relative importance index is given as:


    n1 = respondents answered strongly disagree n2 = respondents answered disagree

    n3 = respondents answered neutral n4 = respondents answered agree

    n5 = respondents answered strongly agree


    The response of contractors were analysed based on their relative importance index. The relative importance index and ranks of factors and effects of delay are given in Figure 1 and 2.Fluctuation of prices was ranked as the most influential cause of delay with a relative importance index (RII) of 0.92. They also identified Cost overrun as the most critical effect of delay with a relative importance index of 0.854.


    Standard Error

    t Stat
















    Table 1: Coefficients for delay factors


    Fig 2. RII of Delay factors

    Fig 3. RII of Delay effects


    Linear regression try to model the relationship between two variables by fitting a linear equation to observed data. One variable is considered to be an explanatory variable, and the other is considered to be a dependent variable.

    A linear regression line has an equation of the form

    Y = a + bX, (2)


    X is the explanatory variable Y is the dependent variable b is the slope of the line

    a is the y-intercept ,

    a and b can be found using equation

    Table 2: Coefficients for delayeffects


    Standard Error

    t Stat












    Regression equation for delay factors by manual computation is as follows

    y=3.602-0.0243x (4)

    Similarly, Regression equation for delay effects is

    y=2.713+0.134x (5)


It is found that fluctuation of prices is the most important delay factor while cost overrun is the important effect of delay.


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  2. Benjamin Boahene Akomah, Emmanuel Nana Jackson (2016) Contractors Perception of Factors Contributing to Road Project Delay, International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 2016, 5(3): 79-85.

  3. Djoen San Santoso, Ph.D.; and Sothy Soeng (2016)"Analyzing Delays of Road Construction Projects in Cambodia: Causes and Effects", Journal of Management in Engineering, ASCE, ISSN 0742-597X.

  4. Ghada Taha, Mohamed Badawy, Omar El-Nawawy (march 2016)"A Model for Evaluation of Delays in Construction Projects" International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 5, Issue 3.

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