- Open Access
- Authors : Sunanda Das
- Paper ID : IJERTV10IS110067
- Volume & Issue : Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2021)
- Published (First Online): 18-11-2021
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Critical Analysis on Crime Against Women in West Bengal based Upon Socio-Political Transformation
(Tata Institute Of Social Sciences, Phd; Assistant Professor, Sociology Indian Institute Of Legal Studies, Siliguri, Cooch Behar)
Abstract:- Two side of the one coin Gender oppression, domestic violence and resistance both the perception are allied from social, political, economic institutional, psychological mechanisms and among these three different notions there are one thing common and that is fashioning self or given primacy over I am this body (Menon). For social insecurities, existence destitute as of physique or mind those administrative actualities are demonstrating themselves as the utilisations of volcanic expansions overabundant signifiers. These all are essentially known as, life – long preoccupation with power and human subjectivity, where how authoritative being political living being they are in a relations, that will be determine by their determination which they have persistent despite all kinds of resistance. Foucauldian treatise is generally based on concessions, duties and to find out hidden aspects of power and resistances between philandering and monogamous. Presently, in this contemporary era, for the complexity of hidden, human relations and catalymistic binaries, we are going through the waves ofdiverse glitches or some blame worthy circumstances, which boils downthe fact as peace time of violence. Fundamental points or self imagery here could be, they are not pleased with the person with whom they are making legitimate intimacy or nourishments ( Scheper-Hughes 1997,Scheper-Hughes& Bourgois 2003). Nude flawless rules of patriarchy neverthinks rape can be harmful for bodily honour of the person, but rather patriarchal rubrics have expressed its disquiet against family appreciation. Menon has articulated in her book seeing like a feminist rape is fate worse than death. Family which is known as the source of primary socialization, must be like sanctuary, but realism is far away from the ideal type This phenomena can be discussed through the filmBegum Jan, which discourses the issue sympathetically.
Key words; ideal type, human relations, catalymistic binaries, legitimate intimacy or nourishments.
Domestic violence crossways diverse classes and the adopted patriarchy when it comes to navigating events like divorce are discovered. Despite the universality of violence in both public and private spaces, Focault tells us power and knowledge stanchly involve with one another. Hence here, in this chapter besides aforementioned immortal critical concerns, I will try to reconnoitre procedures of fierceness with different source of power and relations, binaries which can growl the fact with broader world perspective. Contemporary base of the social orders and also how self subjectivity is mesmerised in itself and make shrill linkages between minds, body, brain- power (dialogue) with broader world perspectives. The aim of this study is too intricate on the functioning of power and its relation to subjectivity and knowledge formation. Irrespective of the universality of violence in both public and private spaces, Focault tells us power and knowledge directly involve with one another. Foucault's idea of power encounters the estimation that power is solitary unsought and tyrannical vigour that activates virginally over the means of law, prohibition and censorship. In Power/ Knowledge, he insists that "power would be a brittle mechanism; it functioned only through the mode of suppression, elimination, obstruction and authoritarianism, in the manner of Integrity, exercise itself only in a negative tactic". Power cohabits with the social body and is interlaced with other kinds of relations. Foucauldian understanding of history Domestic violence crossways diverse classes and the adopted patriarchy when it comes to navigating events like divorce are discovered. Despite the universality of violence in both public and private spaces, Focault tells us power and knowledge stanchly involve with one another. Hence here, in this chapter besides aforementioned immortal critical concerns, I will try to reconnoitre procedures of fierceness with different source of power and relations, binaries which can growl the fact with broader world perspective. Contemporary base of the social orders and also how self subjectivity is mesmerised in itself and make shrill linkages between minds, body, brain- power (dialogue) with broader world perspectives. The aim of this study is too intricate on the functioning of power and its relation to subjectivity and knowledge formation. Irrespective of the universality of violence in both public and private spaces, Focault tells us power and knowledge directly involve with one another. Foucault's idea of power encounters the estimation that power is solitary unsought and tyrannical vigour that activates virginally over the means of law, prohibition and censorship. In Power/ Knowledge, he insists that "power would be a brittle mechanism; it functioned only through the mode of suppression, elimination, obstruction and authoritarianism, in the manner of Integrity, exercise itself only in a negative tactic". Power cohabits with the social body and is interlaced with other kinds of relations. Foucauldian understanding of history constructed on power relations alters history from an advance of meanings and communication to a micro-physics of power. Power is rumoured in its traceable and local assets and in the unobtrusive exercises. Foucault's work stretches different impetus to what is often referred to as the politics of everyday life as it provides the theoretical beginning for arguing the factory, the school, psychiatry, medicine and the like as political indications. Foucaults most luxuriant insight into the process of power at the micro-political level is his interpretation of the body as the direct locus of social control. Heaccentuates the specificity of the body as approximately directly aimed at and moulded by dint of archaeologically adjustable administrations of bio-power. Hence here, in this chapter besides
aforementioned immortal critical concerns., I will try to explore forms of violence with different source of power and relations, binaries which can reverberation contemporary base of the social orders ; and also how self subjectivity is enthralled in itself and make sharp linkages between minds, body, brain- power (discourse) with broader world perspective. The aim of this study is to elaborate on the functioning of power and its relation to subjectivity and knowledge formation. The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) records on crimes against women, including trafficking in West Bengal, have shown startling anticyclones. The NCRB explosion for 2016, which was unconfined on November 30, 2017, logged 283 events and 307 fatalities under Section326A (acid attack) and Section 326B (stab to enact …. an acid attack) in the country. Of these, West Bengal chronicled 76 events of such spells and about 83 fatalities, secretarial for 26% of all occurrences and 27% ofsufferers. One of the uppermost donors of crime against women is congruity listed under Section 498A of the IPC (cruelty by husband or hisrelatives). Thru 2016, 1,10,434 cases were recorded cross the country,where West Bengal recorded 19,305 cases .The miniature it emanates to human trafficking, West Bengal is not only the uppermost provider to the crime but it single-handedly books for 44% of all cases nationally. As per the State dividends a border through Bangladesh, Nepa and Bhutan, it has developed a transportation way in human trafficking. The distress-ridden tea gardens of north Bengal, the remote islands of Sunder bans and the districts of Malda and Murshidabad with poor human development indicators and high density of population serve as ideal source point for traffickers luring young girls on the pretext of jobs or marriage to other States. Some experts say that the number of cases of human trafficking is high as the police are proactive in registering cases of human trafficking and missing children. One of the aims of the Kanyashree Prakalpa launched by the West Bengal government was to curb trafficking by providingconditional cash transfer to school-going girls but the numbers clarify that a lot more needs to be done. West Bengal has been recording a high crime rate against women over the past several years. In 2016, West Bengalranked second with 32,513 cases of crime against women, contributing9.6% to all such crimes in the country. Uttar Pradesh with over 17% of the female population of the country Bengal has 7.5% accounted for14.5% of all crimes against women. But despite the high levels of crimes against women, it has failed to garner adequate attention from the authorities. The State government has not taken note of the numbers, and the Opposition too has not raised the issue.There are more than a few reasons, not smallest amount, it is problematic to inaugurate the extent of such violence because of lack of research andbecause of the precise determined density burden of women to retain quietalmost such delinquencies. It is notoriously difficult to collect such data when the victims can fear coming forward or even, tragically, feel ashamed.Data can also be politically sensitive, especially in some cultures. Forexample in the case of rape, international research reviews that overallonly about 10-15 percent of rapes are reported to police, positioning rapeas the most unreported serious crimes(Rollins,1996;Walby,1994).Over halfof such violence, including rape, takes place in the context of intimaterelationship, and such violence is found across the class
,urban- rural andother social contexts(Davis,1994; Dobash and Dobash ,1992; OConnor andWilson,1995).There are more than a few reasons, not tiniest, that it isdisreputably problematic to bring together such data as soon as the victims can terror coming advancing or even, disastrously, feel ashamed. Documents can correspondingly be politically sensitive, especially in some cultures. The segregation of women was recognized previously , and is illustrated in a innumerable of strategies which were implemented(Coulter,1993;Tweedy,1992;Walby,1997).Women were left out from adjudicators responsibility and from convinced parts of occupation, married women were striped from access to job in the public service, contraception and abortion were illegal and evidence was debarred, divorce was illegal, married women were reliant on their husbands for ingress to social welfare , to child reimbursements and to financial services(Coulter,1993).Despite these restrictions, women did continue to mobilize between the 1920s and the 1960s, drawing on histories of resistance to colonization to organize outside mainstream political structures, putting their energies into community based organizations . This pattern of exclusion from mainstream politics and involvementinisfoundinmanypostcolonialcountries(Jayawardena,1986;Wieringa(ed),1995).Undeniablyinheritances of resistance to colonialism can be seen as strengthening womens movements in the late twentieth century(Coulter,1993;Moane,1996).Womens exclusion from political life thus involves a convergence of structural and attitudinal factors, and has an important psychological impact on womens sense of political agency. Many women do not see a way to take action either to improve their immediate conditions or to bring about change at a broader level (Rinehart,1992).This exclusion means that women do not have a fully say in decision that affect their day to day lives , and furthermore ,that political issues that are of greater concern to women are neglected or judged to be unimportant. Frustration, anger and feeling of powerlessness are among the psychological reaction to political exclusion. Even in this post modern highly intellectual society women are in generally excluded from political participation; economically, socially excluded. GeraldineMoane, emphasizes in the midst of the oppressive conditions women can realize their own power. To Focauldian concepts personal visible violent power of patriarchy grinds women down physically and mentally, emotionally, and spiritually, but these arguments have been criticised in several tactics like some post – modern feminist have argued its impossible to keep a good women down, she suggests and incantation out the system any how; its more or less similar with the post – modern ideologies, u cant step same river twice
AN ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK
Intended for womenfolk and teenagers, the right to regulator their individual formsbesides their sexuality deprived of some procedure of judgment, compulsion, or strength is dangerous for their authorization. Deprived of sexual privileges, they cannot understand their privileges to autonomy besides independence, nor can they switch additional features of their exists. Certainly it is the efforts to switch ladies and lassies sexuality that position in numerous of the humanoid privileges misuses they expression on an everyday foundation, counting gender-based violence, involuntary wedding, female bisexual persons,
transgender persons, sex labours, besides others who misbehave sensual and gender standards besides who expression superior risk of ferocity, shame, and judgment as a consequence. It is strong: sensual privileges reinforce the pleasure of all additional human rights besides are a requirement for fairness and impartiality. genital disfigurement, and limits on their flexibility, clothing, teaching, service, besides contribution in community life. The similar grips factual for lesbians, gay menfolk,
Affording to natures of personalities of male assaulter, Symonds (1978) has categorized male who are directly involved with violence against women; such as: I. the unwary, juvenile, irritable who are directly involved with violence against women ii. the reliant on, indignant, culpability galloped individual; iii. The arrogant, vindictive, and hostile individual. However, hypothesis or else, models or wife battering based on Focauldian concept over power and resistance can prove with the h of some quantitative crunches; if we focus on wife beating then genuinely we can find out that wife beating cannot be elucidated on the basis of some solo factors; it is generally wrapped by several that we cant imagine without extra lenses. Some intellectualists have expressed their worried ness and explain that wives are bitten by their husbands because of their inability to control their husbands or could be, they dont know how to resists or how to make positive response against entirely stimulators.
TYPES OF RELATIONS AND POWER MATRIX
Henceforth at this juncture, in these chapter as well above-mentioned memorable dangerous anxieties, I have strained to investigate therapeutic information. Not all the authorities of a impracticable planetary done which registrars and patients, physiologists besides physicians interconnected (strained and perverse apprehensions, scorching drought, toughened or overcooked structures, the new birth of the body in the beneficent element of cool waters) have disappeared; it is, slightly, by way of if they had been expatriate, surrounded inside the
distinctiveness of the enduring, in that region of personal indications thatfor the medicdescribes not the method of information, nonetheless the biosphere of substances to be recognized( Birth of clinic Focault,1963).In response to the long- held (besides apparently continuing) Cartesian physiqueconcentration divided (Descartes  1996), which has outshined ttitude and thinking for periods, the procedure of placing the creature back together or embodiment currently requirements to remain important update. Hearteningly personification is a stretch that is in advance theoretic impetus crossways varied arenas such as dance/performance (Briginshaw 2001; Buckland2001), dance movement analysis (Allegranti 2009a; Bloom 2006;Meekums 2006), psychiatry (Orbach 2004a, 2004b, 2006), physique psychoanalysis (Totton 2008), neuroscience (Gallese 2009b), besides growing theory (Beebe et al. 2005; Overton et al. 2008). But, it is feminist hypothesizing that for me greatest briefly problematizes the difficulties of personification, not only in terms of the social building of the gendered besides sexual body (Butler 2004, 2005) however chiefly in a demand for the addition of organic clarifications and neurobiological statistics in sympathies of being in our bodies (Fausto-Sterling 1985,2000, 2010; Grosz 1994, 2005; Wilson 20040).Since the instant we are instinctive, figures are unavoidably complicated in a compound procedure of, in de Beauvoirs (1949) intelligence, flattering womenfolk and menfolk. Furthermore, this procedure of flattering is temporally besides physically depending besides how we go around integrating this palimpsest of knowledge is enduring. Over the past 15 years, revolutionary suffragette allowance roughly the body has dared the reproduction departure of motive (mind) besides sentiment (body), besides radicals have come to interpretation sentiment by means of together a sincere foundation of information besides a product of philosophy that is as uncluttered to investigation by earnings of any other customarily emblazoned phenomenon (Fonow and Cook 2005:2215).
TYPES OF RELATIONS AND POWER MATRIX OUTCOME OF CRIME AGAINST WOMEN
This present study will examine that what could be the lifelong preoccupation with the theory of power and human subjectivity. Besides searching the answer of some questions which we cant deny like: what could be the co -connections between booming productivities and Asiatic mode of productions, or else , capitalism; where there are connections between sexual politics as well as work place disorders; how those have transformed into personal lives of workers, as be the part of culture of poverty ,or else, be the part of Vulture culture. When we think about commandment or nation of govern mentality from Queens palace and hence appropriate , flush if infrequent, thoughtful, as per a tool of behaviour patterns or social engineering which has been legitimized by statutory . Principals of equality and guarantors against randomness, we have negotiated an elongated detachment, in the context of gender issues mainly of empowering women, to the extent to which , as long as for certain guarantees in the Constitution, they could be protected through law. But social diagram of women and violence against them just do not vanish by legislation. Their cause lies deeply entrenched in our psyche cultivated through centuries of cultural practices adopted in our lifestyle. They are not cloaks that could be easily discarded. They have entered our blood stream and putrefied our flesh and bones. TheUNICEF report, 2012 says that 57 per cent of Indian boys and 53 per cent of girls between the age of 15 and 19 think wife beating is justified. The UNDP Human Development Report 2011 says India 129out of 146 countries in the Gender Equality Index, behind Bangaladesh (112),and Pakistan(115).This particular study, will try to find out some reasons which have manifested public and private source of violence; for that I centralize gender to explore the public and private spectrum neuroimaging socially legitimised stereotypical dichotomies, where between time and space acolytes values are varying . Probing the intensification of this war on bodies, it delves issues about their safety and security in an increasingly unpredictable world.
Before examining the socio-political linkage and interlink ages between Gender – oppression, Domestic violence and resistances in West Bengal, we must pay major attention on some important demographic attributes like womens status and autonomy; for example, early marriage, early motherhood, high levels of fertility and morbidity, low levels of literacy, and work participation rates that will make emphasis over on some qualitative problems with some scientific quantitative documents. Quantitative demographic crunch which are not statics, It has its own dynamism, which varies from time to time and spaces to spaces, we should make ourselves depended on some arithmetical stupidity for some cross- fertilization between statistical quantitative data or for some crystal like clear legitimised evidences that could be helpful for us to make some critical assessment over on some patterns of binaries and clashes between private and public spheres violence. Besides, how over a period of time, features of violence have changed from genera to genera. From those aforementioned vulnerable signs we can make a hypothesis that safe heavens no longer exist and that peace time violence force them to be in the edge of marginalization. Bourdieu in his book A Social Critique Judgement of taste (1979)has argued that judgements of tastes are related with social position. The argument is put forward by original combination of social theory and quantitative crunch; in the process he tries to reconcile the influence of both external social structure and subjective experience of individual. He gave major emphasis not only on theories but quantitative or demographic work through; for that his work is generally known as the sixth most important work of twenty century(www.isa-sociology.org.
Demographic Profile: West Bengal Districts: 1991 and 2001
Meanwhile 1990 the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has been issuing Human Development Reports for a great amount of countries, measuring the level of human development accomplished by both concluded the index of the Human Development Index or HDI, which is stranded on three imperative indicators: anticipation of life at birth, enlightening achievement and per capita revenue. The HDR of 1995 familiarized two new procedures for appraising the comparative condition of womenfolk in a assumed nation. The principal is the Gender Development Index or the GDI, which is grounded on the identical three pointers as the HDI nevertheless are distinguished for womenfolk and men, to remain rehabilitated hooked on a exact notch that designates the degree of gender-based differences usual in a assumed republic.
THE OVERLAP BETWEEN GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE ANDFAMILY/DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
This present study will examine that what could be the lifelong preoccupation with the theory of power and human subjectivity? And how archaeology of human science and knowledge itself could investigate madness? How this culminated in what is agreeability, most rigorous analysis of power, exploring as it did, social, political, economic, institutional, psychological mechanism of regulation discipline and subjugation. The chapter traces the development in Foucaults thought on power from his early focus on disciplinary power or later accounts on bio power govern mentality. It examines how the human sexuality is bound up with his thought of power and ethics of individual liberation embedded in the idea of the aesthetic fashioning self.
IMPACT OF URBANIZATION AMONG WOMEN
Since 1971 to 1991, the part of urban populace in West Bengal amplified from around 25 per cent to 27.5 per cent of the entire. For India by means ofanentire, urbanization had been rising ample faster; it produced as of fewer than 20 per cent in 1971 to 25.7per cent in 1991. As stated beforehand, Howrah and North 24 Parganas had from top to bottom heights of urbanization and around 50 per cent of the inhabitants were previously alive in urban areas. Development was too moderately from head to foot in the districts of Darjeeling and Bardhhaman(30 to 35 per cent). However, till 1991, levels of urbanization in other districts and especially in the districts of Koch Bihar,Maldah inNorth Bengal and areas. Development was too moderately from head to foot in the districts of Darjeeling and Bardhhaman (30 to 35 per cent).However, till 1991, levels of urbanization in other districts and especially in the districts of Koch Bihar,Maldah in North Bengal and Bankura, Birbhum and Puruliain south Bengal remained as low as 8 per cent to 10 per cent.
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY AGE GROUP
The border in alteration expired appreciative of the population in the working age groups. For West Bengal there was some upsurge likewise in the portion of the elder age groups, however not for India by way of an entire. The tendencies were nearly Indistinguishable for men and women. This tendency revenues that there is perhaps a minor reduction in the dependency rates, i.e., the regular amount of people contingent on an operative in the country as a whole, but till 1991, this trend was not very clear. Inappropriately, at the time of writing, the statistics for age delivery of the district wise population of West Bengal for 2001 was not available. There is an option that, with a decrease in West Bengals birth-rate, the share of the population in younger age groups has fallen.
The survey (1996 – 98)NFHS – 2 WEST B ENGAL,1998 99
Amartya Sen , in his world famous article Missing Women has statistically proved that during the last century ,100 million women have been missing in South Asia due to discrimination leading to death experienced by them from womb to
tomb in their life cycles. By way of is renowned, India is one of the insufficient nations of the world where there is a shortage in the comparative amount of women as per likened towards men. Demographers decide that neither the shortfall in the general facts of women nor the weakening in the sex-ratio over the years can be completely owing to usual reasons. Additional examination of the evidences has exposed that the difficulty in womens dimensions to endure ascends beginning a multifaceted production of numerous socio-cultural militaries. These services function in contradiction of women inside their individual relations correct since the time of birth or even beforehand that. For portions of India, here is an extended antiquity of female infanticide and, in current years, this tendency has been further serious by the prospects on condition that for pre-birth sex approval broken down methods of amniocentesis.
EXPECTATION LIFE AT BIRTH
This is a substantial cane of energy moralities and an important essential of human growth manuals. Current panels have unprotected that both male and female life at birth in West Bengal have been swelling increasingly thru 198197. LEB for women sustained to way underneath that for men up to1991. Straight in the period 1988 to 1991, the all-India male/female life expectancies at birth were almost equivalent. But in West Bengal, there remained a methodical deficit in the female LEB as associated to the male unique that ended the centuries, the birth rates in West Bengal have tumbled abundant earlier than in India all composed. In 1981, the birth- rate intended for India was somewhat overhead the West Bengal number.
HEALTH AND STATUS OF WOMEN
Health of the persons is a likeness of the general social, economic and cultural situation usual in a society. Like any other field of social development, womens position in the field of health is branded by disparity based on gender. In the Indian situation, gender-based inequality is further intensified when related with such issues as poverty, illiteracy, rural background, lower caste, widowhood, desertion, disability, single marital status or childlessness. There has been substantial development in the circumstances in the only remaining periods in social and economic development, albeit unequally, in terms of lifespan, literacy, infant mortality, to refer only a few. Hitherto, it regarding womens health pauses overdue improvements cutting-edge other fields and gender based disparities endure to persist in greatest conditions counting West Bengal. The disappointment to speech the fitness and nutritious requirements of women is frequently exposed anywhere gender disaggregated statistics are obtainable. Inappropriately, such data are revealing and mainly by a thin emphasis. Always meanwhile individuality, the health rules of the nation in deference of women have been fanatical with demographic thoughts, supplementary exactly populaces witch. As early as 1952, elevation of healthiness of women and children was labelled by the national family welfare programme. From the Fifth Plan period (197479), maternal health, child health and nutrition facilities were combined by family planning amenities with the main goal of as long as at least a smallest equal of community facilities to expectant ladies, lactating mothers and pre-school children. In the prompt nineties, numerous important child existence interferences were combined by safe motherhood and family development events. While measuring the health – policy of the country, the Committee on Empowerment of Women lately detected fecundity instruction interferences with generative health programme for both men and women and adolescent girls states.
Extensive scarcity subsequent in long-lasting and stubborn hunger is the solitary main nuisance of the emerging world today. The physical arrival of this unceasingly re-enacted disaster is the disorder of under-nutrition, which establishes itself amongst great units of the poor, predominantly women and children. The Report on the National Nutrition Policy (1993) recognized numerous most important nourishment glitches in the country. Augmented food production or its obtainability may not unavoidably result in balanced rise in actual obtainability of food, in measure or quality, for women and children within the household. There are numerous lessons which propose that there is gender-based discrimination in this respect in various parts of the country.
AGE AT MARRIAGE
Age at marriage a girl gets married is of substantial attention to demographers since, previous the marriage, better the probability of extra children. But the stage at wedding and therefore the phase at which point, they twitch demeanour children have serious inferences in lieu of the well-being of women and the children to stay instinctive, the sluggish upsurge in age at marriage for women in the country is measured a issue in poor generative health. For example, the NFHS-1 presented that for women of 1549years, 3.5 per cent pregnancies result in spontaneous abortion in West Bengal.
USE OF CONTRACEPTIVES
Threw in a diffident way in the initial fifties (1952), the countrys family planning programme has gone through periodic changes. But all along, the core prominence has endured demographic, more exactly, discount in total fertility rate (TFR). Till the mid-seventies, certain labours accustomed to put part of the responsibility on men. It is additional subject that this accustomed over male decontamination and not so much over and done with the elevation of condoms.
Gynaecological illness has to prepare with any indisposition of the reproductive system which is not associated to pregnancy, abortion or child birth, but which may be connected to sexual behaviour. There are many circumstances, illnesses or
dysfunctions which reduction below the scope of gynaecological injury, but which drive unreported for a range of reasons. As a consequence of womens general situation in society, they are not as much of to be predictable to eloquent their delinquent or pursue medical help. It is additional subject that such assistance is often beyond the reach of most women in the country. As a consequence of biological reasons; women are more vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than men.
Abortion is an essential fragmnt of the subject of generative health of women. It is also a tremendously sensitive and multifaceted subject in many societies, including India, having comportment on their status. In advance of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act of 1971, persuaded abortion was a criminal felony under the Indian Penal Code of 1860. While the channel of the 1971 act was definitely a milestone development, it does not deliver full right to adult women to terminate pregnancy measured unwanted by dint of her. It tenancies end of gravidity lower than exact conditions.
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
Bengal, ever since the colonial periods, has assumed of women and girl childs education as a doorway to deliverance, not of the women single-handedly but of entire societies. Accurate to the aforementioned preliminary bias of producing suitable helpmeet for the reputable bhadralok of colonial Bengal.
SELECTIVE DEVELOPMENT INDEX IN WEST BENGAL BY DISTRICTS, 2001 SOCIO ECONOMIC BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AREA
Crimes ardent against women in the district of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal. The amount of crime against women is
temperately astounding in South 24 Parganas district in divergence to other regions of West Bengal. The paper suggests uncovering the reassurance of illiteracy, poverty and cooperative charges upon the increasing rate of corruptions against womenfolk in this district. Thru expenditure official crime data, we inspected general delinquency predisposition and physical entrance of crimes and also dyed the crime control achieves. The reputation of crime glitches in South 24 Pargana is also examined as of a comparative belvedere by attractive in a bury district contrast The verdicts of the paper entitles that crime against women in South 24 Parganas is contemporaneous in frequent actions and the self-justifying proceedings of crimes are not acceptable. The melody of the position of the women in society has been a substance of intense inspection and deliberation all over the world. This is correspondingly true of India over and above West Bengal, a fundamentally patriarchal society, where the goal of equivalence amid men and women is really certain by the nations mechanisms. Women are supposed to be the better half of the society and theoretical to relish all freedoms and eases, at par with men. But the realism demonstrations certain additional picture which is very miserable. In trying to get empirical evidence for the way women are harassed and tortured, we had to depend mainly on crime records provided by the police and the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB).
Important sources of the study have been the reports and research works by scholars and activists who have worked in related areas. According to NCRB data,5 the proportion of IPC crimes committed against women towards total IPC crimes increased
per cent during 2000 at the all-India level from 7.0 per cent in 1999 and 6.7 per cent in 1998. Rape cases registered a 6.6 per cent increase from 1999 to 2000 and cases of dowry deaths registered a 4.4 per cent increase in the same period. Torture cases rose by 4.5 per cent from 19992000. As far as crimes against women in cities are concerned, 23 mega cities shared 11.9 per cent of such cases reported at the national level in 2000Chennai shared 24.0 per cent of these cases followed by Delhi (12.7 per cent).In an overview of gender-based violence in West Bengal, According to NCRB REPORT 2019, Some West Bengals district like 24 parganas,(North and South),Murshidabad, Darjeeling Uttar and Dakshin Dinajpur,Cooch Behar, Nadia, Medinipur,Malda and Birbhum, act as the major source areas of trafficking( which are well known public sphere violence). Thus, for instance, South 24 pagans contain 30 per cent of Muslim and 32 per cent of SCs. Similarly, Murshidabad has 61 per cent of Muslims and 12 per cent of SCs. Those aforementioned evidences have showed the sign of edge of marginality. Similarly if this is the condition of overall West Bengal, then definitely we should make cross sectional analysis between its districts. Through this study , I am trying to ponder over some issues like : human mind is an important container for all sorts of power; albeit how the same human mind is showing the seeds of all sorts of violence or wars of our everyday life. There are some connections between some age old phenomena and also clashes with contemporary issues. Looking at the contemporary situations of women in West Bengal based on some quantitative demographic analysis, in this chapter will give major emphasis on or try to make some connections between public and private sphere violence. To make some general assessment we will make comparison between basic human rights and health and sanitization and access and control over tangible and intangible resources; and even major indicators could be human rights and also the rights over own sexuality. There are some sharp analysis/ about grey hair power- politics generally based on private and public spheres. Fortunately our society is shifting and its attitude towards the problem also it varies from the regions to regions that could be the emergence or showering the sign of laws, public sphere awareness, and definitely emergence of education. There are several dimensions of gender oppression, Domestic violence and resistances, especially in West Bengal.
Violence against women and life cycle West Bengal is currently the third greatest populated state in India, through a populace compactness of a slight additional than 900 individuals per square km. The government endures to appeal a great quantity of immigrants from adjoining states as well as adjoining republics. Its landscape is conquered by the sedimentary grasslands of the Ganga besides its branches, excluding intended for the hilly topography of North Bengal, ranging into the Himalayan slopes.
Throughout the previous insufficient periods West Bengal has chronicled high charges of farming growing. It also takes a sturdy engineering improper which requirements to be additional supported besides spread.
In terms of personal safety, West Bengal is typically leisurely to be a abstemiously innocuous state in the all-India location. In 2001, for example, the amount of cognizable sleazes per one lakh populace in West Bengal (76.7) was fewer than half of the all India typical (172.3), with only Meghalaya and Mizoram reportage a lower rate. Nevertheless here the principal anxiety is one critical constituent of the total safety situation in any cultured civilization; violence against women. Maybe the rawest depression of women is the bodily and expressive fierceness that growths women's lives 'from support to serious. It can mark the first generation of a woman in the procedure of child exploitation, incest and sexual pestering; it can appear marriage and domestic life, occasionally closing in homicide or recklessness, by way of so sadly obvious in the increasing amount of such carnages logged in crime figures. Rendering to the report of National Crime Records Bureau West Bengal accounted for carefully 12.7% of whole crime against women by distribution total 29,133 gears in the year 2011-
According to Indian Penal Code (IPC) crimes against women can be classified as:Rape( section 376 IPC)
Kidnapping and Abduction for different purposes ( section 363-373 IPC)
Homicide for dowry, dowry deaths and their attempts ( section 302/304B IPC)
Torture or cruelty both physical and mental ( section 498A IPC)
Molestation ( section 354 IPC)
Sexual harassment or Eve-teasing (section 509 or 294 IPC)
Import of teenagers up to 21 years of age (section 366B IPC). On behalf of the first time an enormous physique of national level and state level data related to domestic violence against women has been amassed by the second National Family Health Survey showed thru 1996-98. Some of its conclusions are abridged. According to the exposes of this very large all-India suvey (addressed to ever-married women of child- bearing age), domestic violence seems to be democratic' wounding athwart age, religion, community, rural- urban gulf, even women's service status.
INCIDENCES OF CRIMES AGAINST WOMEN BY CRIME HEADS IN WEST BENGAL MAJOR FORMS OF CRIME AGAINST WOMEN AND THEIR SPATIALITY
On behalf of the Bengali women lifespan is allocated in two focal units: the epoch consumed in her baper bari or fathers house, and that disbursed in her sasur bari or father in laws house. But initial ages, nevertheless insufficient, habitually leave of absence a robust spot on an adolescents life, and she transmits using her obsessed by her married ceremonial accepted wisdom and prepossessions which mark her family member to her new-fangled home one or the other conflict or complement with her previous one (M.M. Urquhart,1987). If we explore the various types of crimes that have been taking place in Soutp4 Parganas, it will be obviously unmistakable that torture or unkindness tends to interpretation for the uppermost part in total CAW in the district. This agony or cruelty is most frequently occurs in post marital period of a girl. For example, we can spectacle the condition of year 2000 and 2003 which demonstrations that71% and 73% of CAW is caused due to agony by husband correspondingly. Human
Development Report of the district discloses that 65.49% of conjugal populace in the age group of 10 to 14 in rural areas is girls, where as in urban areas this is only 6.5%. This incidence of juvenile marriage creates the girls extra susceptible of torture. 5% and 4% of the total CAW is the circumstances of dowry death in the year 2000 and 2003 respectively which correspondingly a crime which ensue in the post marital stage of a women. It is very stimulating to memorandum that the tendencies of dowry deaths are displaying an unsettled project. Whether or not of this specific region dowry is recognized such as a collective social standard and the anguish for dowry seems very normal. The glassy of dowry deceits usually in between Rs. 20000 to 40000 (Human Development Report West Bengal, 2009). Cases of torture by husband and relatives went up by 5.2% than the previous year in entire West Bengal (19772 cases, source: NCRB Report, 2010.
One more kind of crime which transpires self-same regularly that is sexual offence like rape, molestation and sexual harassment. According to Commission of Womens situational examination South 24 Parganas is viewing an excessive incidence of rape. In this specific ingredient furthermost of the wounded are adolescents. If we drive through some dependable case studies then effortlessly, we will be able to comprehend the aforementioned that, these kinds disobediences are commonly captivating occupancy outside of family circle Just for instance, in Diamond Harbour middle aged person raped a 14 years old school girl was raped by a middle aged fellow, and she was in school uniform (source: The Times of India,2nd September,2012). If we explore the problem of 2003, then it can be undoubtedly comprehended that molestation and rape (gang rape and other type rape) is consuming a superior fraction portion than the extra procedures of annoyances.
Infrequently these events turn out to be as a result heart interpreting when spiritually or in the flesh throw down the gauntlet girls is being mistreated. In Baruipur area of South 24 Parganas a physically dared girl was raped by his neighbour (source: The Times Of India,23rd August,2012)..
It is a procedure of sexual aggression that assortments in sternness as of sexually evocative annotations, scrubbing in public places in addition cat calls as of absolute floundering. According to NCRB report, in South 24 Parganas the delinquent of eve- teasing is mounting slowly. Eve-teasing has been disreputably problematic crime to prove, even supposing eve-teasing happens in public places, streets and public conveyances. In arrears to some compassionate social taboos, anxiety of future nuisance victims is frightened to lodge grievance. For example, in Baruipur no less than seven folks were beaten up by the eve-teasers for griping contrary to eve-teasing. The oppressed girl took poison and committed suicide (source: The Times of India, April 9, 2008). The data establishes that eve-teasing has just about insignificant fraction portion surrounded by completely other sensual assault in this district. But according to the estimation of the multitude of this district safety of women as of the eve-teasers is a big issue.
At the present tenancy agreement transfer on to one more women associated crime that is trading of girls which receipts residence in South 24 Parganas at a precise high rate. These events of trafficking occur for numerous intentions like: enforced prostitution, constructing of pornographies, sex tourism, forced marriage etc., the reasons in arrears these trafficking in Soutp4 Parganas are scarcity, lack of service occasions, child marriage, untruthful promises, social disgraces/dishonour( widowed, divorced) etc. Most of the women go to new dwellings looking for work and finally liberated as of the brothels of Delhi, Mumbai, Hariyana and even Kolkata. West Bengal sprays lower than enormous illegal linkage where South 24 Parganas entertainments by means of a most important conveyance argument. Trafficking and consequential white suppression /slavery with sexual exploitation are recognised as multibillion dough business. The blocks like Kultali, Canning I &II, Baruipur, Gosaba, Falta, Magrahat, Diamond Hurbour I & II are recognized as extra migration and trafficking predisposed to areas.The West Bengal incidences
Case study -1:Illigal Affair of Husband, Dowry, Son Preference A woman from district Burdhwan was aggressive with demise because her parentages did not recompense assured quantity to her so entitled husband. She also knowledgeable that her husband has certain extra marital concern with a widow. She has two girl child. To be the mother of two girl she is not privileged sufficient; she has to bear colloquial speech from her in laws. She notifies to journalist that her two baby Childs are sorrow in mal nutrition for absenteeism of proper food, sustenance. Her husband uses to misuse her with a belt, iron rod, and he usages vernacular language in front of child. Her husband has edginess in the direction of alcohol; most of time, he revenues be drunk; deliberately and insentiently he neglect his wife. Her in laws are aggressive her for dowry, she was both physically and mentally, sexually, tortured by in laws family members. She is bitten by stick and leg in a daily basis. They use to put salt her body after bitten. Her mother in law threaten her that they can set fire on her body in day light She said to journalist that she got good conduct for solitary a few month from her in laws family afterward her marriage; rendering to the respondent on 23rd November 2006, her spouse pour kerosene in her body; but neighbours have stationary him and save her and her child . Defendants or fatalities have communicated about it with Gram Panchayat and Woman council member but she flops. Uprightness is distant from her life.[Ananda Bazar Patrika ,January ,2007 by Smita Paul]
Case study -2- THREATEN FOR TALAQ AND SON PRESEFENCE
December 13, 2015 her husband gave her medicine for fever and when she eat that she was starting vomiting; and when she hospitalised doctor said her that she was pregnant and three months has going on and at that time for those medicines she had lost her child. Then, respondents realize, her husband did it to evade girl child,; already they had two. Respondents said she had experienced various types of violence in her life cycle . When she was four years old her mother had died and her father did another marriage and she tolerated her step mothers irksome or in human behaviours ;her step mother forced her for marriage before the exact mature age; even for currency her step mothr had forced her prostitution .source ANANDABAZAR PATRIKA,5TH DECEMBER 15.
Case Study-3 Dowry Death, wife beating, bride burning
In West Bengal , dowry death , wife beating, bride burning , suicide due to frustration , mental and physical cruelty by husbands and in laws , forced abortion ,orz female foeticide , female infanticide etc, types of domestic violence are enormously spreading in the society . In this context it is also noted that today many women are tortured by their husband and in laws for insufficient dowry . In the one case , Shiuli das Bairgrya , hiose wife in District Bhirbhum fled from 48 years old father-in law s clutches when he tried to drag her to bed because she could not bring Rs 1 lakh for dowry . It is interesting to note that in this case Sainthira police station refused to accept the victim womens complaint.[Times of India, 5, January 2016]
Case Study -4 CITY OF JOY ? A baby dumped every 3 days .
In West Bengal particularly in Kolkata on every three days one baby abandoned on the roads of the city. Majority of them are not surviving The government have tried to rescue the girl children who are abandoned by their parents or relatives . On December 2005, as many as 115 children now born to six years . And they were rescued from city street and produced before the child welfare committee 92 of them were girls. December 24,2005, Times of India,Kolkata]
Case study- 5 West Bengal: Hubby exchange wifes private pictures, video for dowry.
KOLKATA: A lady with 20 years old, has suspected that her husband has clunked her unclothed snapshots and documented unpleasant videocassettes, and he has uploaded the all those on social media. The lady has anticipated that her spouse has beaten
, and has threatened by saying, she counterattacks, then, he can discharges those nude snapshots porn site. Cops have wedged an incident underneath IPC sections, relating to dowry persecution. In a fit of anger, he always forces me to go to my fathers house. But exactly how can I go? As because I have children. He has extra- marital affair and has reregistered the apartment to her name. And I am always in risk which I cant express publicly. Though Cops have registered case as I am the victim of dowry persecution but reality is differ and that vary dramatically which does not have any such medicines. Here, if we see then we can criticise that cops are not concerned about the physical, mental torture or trauma of the victim, that she is not safe with the person, quite similar that she is sleeping with her enemy; consciously the person means her husband unnecessary without her permission has taken nude photos. Post- traumatic disorders, anxiety, could be common for any relations but these kinds of vulgarism could be similar with blind murder.
Definitely, there are some lacunas in the legal system or indirectly it could be the signs of state sponsor suppressive violence.
Public and Private Spectrum of violence Discipline of the body and govern mentality
Focaudian treatise has been acknowledged by means of fluctuating degree of eagerness. He far along enthused beyond the exertion to power out a system of rule oversaw arrangements and informal repetition (which, in frequent respect originate nearby to structuralism) and devour transmissible technique which permitted him to thermalized between the connotation between fact, philosophy, and standards of the social institution and recurrence in which they arise. In his genealogical work (Discipline & Punish ; History of Sexuality vol-1)he has quarantined apparatuses of present day governmental technologies and sketched them posterior in time. He has focused on the relation of power acquaintance and the figure of contemporary society.
His ancestral studies have completed emphasis on micro physics of power. Focauldian discussion over govern mentality have been recycled by certain feminist scholar; they have prepared theoretic discussion on the effectiveness of govern mentality. There is an attentiveness of his arbitrator weeks on corrective skill and bio power. He even tries to make relation among technology and self. Besides highlighted, in his wok power and resistance and human self subjectivity. At this time, one thing usually initiates that is the idea of govern mentality and significance of bio power to comprehend public and private range violence.
The Duluth model, power and control wheel (salvage from www.duluth-model.org)
Aforementioned numerals I have recycled to expound the mind games, intimidations, and segregation engenders the edifice that chains the physical or sexual violence. Although physical battering maybe infrequent (it receipts one compacted clout to createher body feel fear incessantly); unremarkable cruelties are contemporaneous even thru honeymoon eras in amid incidents of violence. Domestic violence/ atrocities against women is conversed everyone mechanically contemplates of physical, sexual, or verbal abuse. But there are some kinds of mistreatment that isnt unprotected and that is inactive fierceness. At this point, the body is one of the situates of struggle and conversational conflict; instead of a top down form of power relations, whatever inspects about the procedures: exactly how state or institutions oppress people? Wherever the body is commented as one of the situates, wherever power is endorsed and repelled.
The lens of regular domination is a lens we deliberately employ to improve our emphasis just round the corners in which a few specified procedure of oppression (race, gender,class, language, sexual orientation, etc.) may be damagingly impacting folks ability to create evolution on the belongings they bear in mind and or thwarting individual or collective action in the direction of the attainment of particular goal.
The perseverance of consuming this slant is to take up more than a scarce ladders/ phases of domination from individual to structural equal; as well as it will determine the concentration of systematic subjugation from corner to corner the edifices and its interrelated underpinning over stretch. At Individual level ( an individuals confidences movements that work for to continue oppression), Institutional level ( strategies in addition practices by the association (or sector) equal that preserve oppression, organizational level( dig out these belongings interrelate and accrue sideways organizations and crossways history)(Bem,S. and 1993.The Lenses of Gender :Transforming the Debate on Sexual Inequality. New Haven,CT: Yale University Press). The UN Declaration on the Elimination of violence Against Women conditions, its an protest or antique
unable power dealings amongst men and women besides violence against womenfolk or menfolk is of critical communal instrument; United Nations Development Fund For Women, as a minimum single out of each three womenfolk everywhere the ecosphere has been compressed, forced into sex or extra battered in her generation. Certain procedures of ferocity are :rape, domestic violence, sexual annoyance, acid flinging, generative pressure, feminine infanticide, maternal sex assortment, obstetric ferocity , feminine genital disfigurement, nuptial by kidnapping, besides nearby are procedures of ferocity which may be overlooked by administration , for example :war, rape, sexual violence. Sexual bondage, involuntary purification, required abortion, transferring in womenfolk, compulsory prostitution. It is assessed that 35 per cent of womenfolk universal have skilled whichever corporeal and/or erotic cherished companion strength or sensual strength by a non-partner (not counting sensual pestering) at particular idea in their subsists. Nevertheless, certain nationwide educations demonstration that up to 70 per cent of womenfolk have practiced physical and/or sexual violence as of a sincere spouse in thei generation. Indication demonstrations that womenfolk who have skilled corporeal or sensual intimate spouse viciousness explosion higher charges of unhappiness, overwhelming an abortion besides obtaining HIV, associated to womenfolk who have not. 87,000 womenfolk who were deliberately slayed in 2017 universally, over half (50,000- 58 per cent) stayed slayed by their own family members, connotation that 137 women crossways the ecosphere are slayed by an associate of their own personal each day. Additional than a third (30,000) of the womenfolk deliberately slayed in 2017 stayed slew by their existing or previous intimate partner ; damagingly touch womens bodily, cerebral, sensual, besides generative wellbeing, besides may upsurge the jeopardy of obtaining HIV in some surroundings. Men are supplementary possible to commit strength if they obligate squat schooling, a antiquity of adolescent mistreatment, contact to local ferocity in contradiction of their mothers, damaging use of liquor, unsatisfactory masculinity standards counting arrogances tolerant of ferocity, besides an intelligence of right ended womenfolk. Womankind are additional probable to knowledge close spouse ferocity uncertainty they have squat edification, contact to mothers presence ill-treated by a companion, exploitation through juvenile, besides insolences compliant strength, masculine honour, besides womens secondary position.
POWER & RESISTENCE ( FOCAULT) , declared that in what way supremacy has arose inside the social organized relatives. Power besides governor is actual shared rudiments in each humanoid conduct. The social order inclines to contemplate household as a comparatively innocuous residence, a harmless anchorage residence of ingredient besides maintenance, its a residence wherever partners love each other besides their offspring, comparatively this interpretation of family is romanticized, distant besides habitually relations are the foundation of mistreatment besides strength; just how mutual child abuse, sibling abuse, abuse of parents, dating abuse, spouse abuse, elder abuse; for a variety of reason this question is difficult to answer.
Though, the government confers 7.8%of Indians populace. West Bengal is disaffected into 19 constituencies. Such as :Bankura , Bardhaman, Birbhum, Hoogly, Howrah,Jalpaiguri,Bardhaman, Kolkata, Malda, Murshidabad, Nadia , North 24 Parganas, North Dinajpur, Purulia, South 24 Pargana , South Dinajpur,West Medinipur Howrah,Jalpaiguri,Bardhaman, Kolkata, Malda, Murshidabad, Nadia , North 24 Parganas, North Dinajpur, Purulia, South 24 Pargana , South Dinajpur,West Medinipur. In the year 2006, translation to the existing statistics National Crime Record Bureau confirmed round the advert of west Bengal; from 2001 to 2006 the indigenous ferociousness number amplified to 80%. In 2001the measure of occurrences in west Bengal were 3859, which is by what means 6936(Ananda Bazar Patrika,2006) .Contemporary allowance is normally grounded on Focaudian information control and confrontation ; whatever might be the motives overdue these radical fluctuations. Why these alteration have transpired while data proclaims not around downward districts expansion but around upward. Now my disagreement is what do we comprehend by the dignity of women? Arent we annoying to outcaste womenfolk since the respite of society by involving the inquiry of self-worth through sexuality? Uncertainty is it so, besides formerly we would not conversation around womenfolks enablement as per we are decisive the position of a woman since her physicality, not as of her intelligent possessions. We cannot boundary or confine the sorrows of the domestic fierceness sufferers by convinced legal footings, as per strength, which is the consequence of an irregular knowledgeable public does not distinguish some border or streak of regulator. Consequently it is problematic to find a appropriate explanation of internal fierceness by means of I deliberate. In 2012, there stayed a suggestion since the administration to portion a convinced proportion of their revenue through their companions, (Times of India, 9thSeptember, 2012). The society trusts that employed women are authorized besides they are accomplished to agreement through their personal difficulties deprived of any kind of communal assistance. As of the epistemological position, a homemaker container likewise remain authorized subsequently she likewise decrease underneath the class of occupied woman by way of she is occupied by creation the homespun, while a employed female by way of in one who exertion outdoor the household, uncertainty she receives healthy likewise can be a dupe of home fierceness uncertainty she is not appropriate to grip the condition. Case study is founded on those females who stance intermediate of the accomplishment of authorization and the fight to attain it informally. There are numerous NGOs employed in contradiction of national ferocity in Kolkata besides between them. It consumes distribution facilities (conventional delivery also constellation activities), public awareness as well edification sequencers, ability improvement packages to brand women aware around this subject. The West Bengal Command for Women has manifold arrangements besides packages to assistance the fatalities of local asset. The Command likewise comportments Paribarik Mahila Lok Adalat, wherever the womenfolk can request on behalf of impartiality concerning nuptial besides additional household materials. The descents of this ferocity are suppressed bottomless into the communal construction which is reinforced by the male-controlled male-dominant philosophy the apparent coops aptitude of women is displayed by informally authorized fierceness in contradiction of them at all phases their lives -preliminary
through the foetal phase wherever they are susceptible passing over sex assortment; throughout juvenile as soon as they are repeatedly malnourished, untaught, normally abandoned, besides fraught through domestic tasks; throughout initial matrimonial lifespan as soon as they are defenceless to annoyance, wound, besides uniform to assassination in their conjugal homes nevertheless bargain no hiding their nurturing household; besides during their survives as soon as they are endangered to corporeal beating and attack in addition to expressive disgrace besides squalor.
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